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i 

(  THE 

FOUNEERS    OF   ANNE   ARUNDEL 

AND 

HOWARD  COUNTIES, 
MARYLAND. 


A   Genealogical   and   Biographical  Review  from 
wills,  deeds  and  church  records. 


•^ , 


BY 

J.  D.  WARFIELD,  A.  M. 

Formerly  Professor  of  English  Literature  in  the  Maryland  Agricultural 
College,  genealogist  and  author  of  "The  Warfields  of  Maryland." 


KOHN  &  POLLOCK, 

Publishers, 

Baltimore,  Md. 

1905. 


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1  wo  Cofles  RectiivfiO 

JUL  19  >906 

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COPYRIGHT 

1905. 


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FRONTISPIECE. 

"  At  the  beginning  of  this  new  century  we  are  going  to  the  garrets, 
bringing  out  the  portraits  of  our  forefathers,  brushing  off  the  dust,— putting 
them  into  new  frames  and  handing  them  down  to  our  children.  Search  the 
records  for  their  good  deeds." 


INTRODUCTION. 

.  have  searched  the  record  for  their  good  deeds  and  have  herein 
ied  them  down  to  our  children. 

To  master  Maryland  history  we  must  know  the  biography  of 

s  founders.     That  biography  has  never  before  been  written.     Boz- 

.ns„n,  McMahan,  McSherry,  Davis  and  Scharf,  content  to  accept  the 

bitised  opinions  of  contemporary  partisans,  have  been  lavish  in  their 

criiticisms  of  our  "Early  Settlers." 

/  At  this  distance  from  that  crucial  era,  under  our  broad  ideas  of 
t'bleration,  it  is  difficult  to  judge  the  men  and  measures  of  an  age  of 
l/Lmited  privileges. 

For  the  first  time  in  all  history  an  ideal  government  had  been 
organized  in  Maryland;  a  benevolent  lord  with  knightly  powers  was 
at  its  head. 

An  act  of  toleration  had  just  been  passed.  It  was  the  joint  pro- 
duct of  liberal  men  of  all  faiths,  but  it  was  at  a  time  when  the  mother 
country  was  involved  in  religious  controversies,  which,  of  necessity, 
were  just  as  bitter  here.  Hence  the  act  of  toleration  was  for  a  season 
obscured  in  Maryland;  but  its  influence,  once  felt,  continued  to  grow 
until  it  became  a  leaven  of  enlightenment,  ending  finally  in  complete 
revolution. 

Having  searched  the  record  of  our  "  Early  Settlers,"  the  histor- 
k  of  to-day  can  see  our  early  men  as  they  were. 
J      Judging  them  by  their  records,  herein  brought  to  light  for  the 
rst  time,  their  interested  descendants  will  endorse  the  sentiment  of 
1  young  historian  who  has  recently  recorded: 

"  In  no  other  place  upon  the  American  Continent  is  there  to  be 
bund  so  good  an  example  of  a  people,  who,  after  a  struggle  of  nearly 
^  century  and  a  half,  made  the  transition  from  a  monarchical  gov- 
ernment to  a  'government  of  the  people,  for  the  people,  by  the 
people,'  as  in  Maryland." 

(Mereness.) 

Another  Maryland  historian,  who  has  given  us  glances  at  some 
of  the  founders  herein  recorded,  in  the  face  of  the  harsh  criticisms 
of  his  contemporaries,  has  left  us  this  record: 

"Between  the  morals  of  the  past  and  those  of  the  present,  it 
would  be  impossible  to  draw  a  full  or  fair  contrast,  but  injustice  in 
this  particular  has  certainly  been. done  to  the  memory  of  our  ances- 
tors. Without  wishing  to  draw  a  veil  over  the  sins  of  the  past,  or 
excuse  in  the  least  its  rudeness  or  its  violence,  I  have  no  hesitation 
in  expressing  the  opinion  for  whatever  it  may  be  worth,  that  in  the- 
sincerity  of  their  friendships,  in  the  depth  of  their  religious  convic- 
tions, in  the  strength  of  their  domestic  affections,  and  a  general 
reverence  for  things  sacred,  our  forefathers  far  outshine  the  men  of 
this  generation  with  all  its  pomp  and  pride  of  civilization." 

(Davis.) 


Chapter  1. 

OUR  EARLY  SETTLERS. 

All  authorities  pretty  generally  agree  that  our  first  Anne  Arun- 
del settlers  came  up  from  Virginia. 

In  1620  Edward  Bennett,  a  rich  merchant  of  England,  inter- 
ested in  Virginia  trade,  had  organized  a  company  consisting  of  his 
nephews  Richard  Bennett,  Robert  Bennett,  Thomas  Ayres,  Richard 
and  Thomas  Wiseman,  to  send  two  hundred  settlers  to  Virginia. 

Many  of  those  sent  were  murdered  by  the  Indians  in  1622. 
Robert  Bennett  and  John  Howard  were  among  the  number. 

Richard  Bennett,  in  1642,  came  over  in  person  to  revive  the 
company's  efforts.  He  brought  with  him  members  of  an  Independ- 
ent Church  in  England,  who  sought  a  more  favorable  field  for  build- 
ing up  their  church. 

Upon  organizing  in  their  new  homes  surrounding  Edward  Ben- 
nett's plantation  upon  the  Elizabeth  river,  in  Nansemond  County, 
Philip  Bennett,  a  nephew,  was  sent  to  Boston  to  secure  ministers. 
He  carried  with  him  a  letter  written  by  John  Hill.  Rev.  William 
Thompson,  a  graduate  of  Oxford,  John  Knowles,  of  Immanuel  Col- 
lege, Cambridge,  and  Thomas  James  were  induced  to  come.  Upon 
their  arrival  in  Virginia,  they  were  coldly  received  by  Governor 
Berkeley  and  his  chaplain,  Rev.  Thomas  Harrison.  Through  the 
Governor's  influence,  an  act  was  passed  by  the  Virginia  legislature 
forbidding  any  minister,  who  did  not  use  the  "  Book  of  Common 
Prayer,"  to  officiate  in  the  churches  of  Virginia. 

The  ministers  from  Boston  soon  retired  from  this  unpromising 
field,  but  to  the  disgust  and  surprise  of  the  Governor,  his  own  chap- 
lain, Mr.  Harrison,  announced  his  determination  to  take  up  the  work 
just  laid  down. 

The  church  had  been  built  in  1638  upon  "Sewell's  Point,"  on 
the  Ehzabetii  river.  It  was  near  Richard  Bennett's  two  thousand 
acre  plantation.  It  has  recently  been  selected  as  the  site  of  our 
coming  JamestoVvU  exposition. 

HERE  ARE  SOME  OF  ITS  RECORDS. 

"At  a  meeting  of  the  inhabitants  of  Lower  Norfolk  County, 
May  25th,  1640,  Mr.  Henry  Sewell  and  Lieutenant  Francis  Mason, 
both  of  whom  had  been  appointed  by  Governor  Berkeley  to  hold 
monthly  courts,  to  induce  Mr.  Harrison  to  continue  service  at  Sewells 
Point,  agreed  to  pay  for  themselves  and  the  inhabitants  of  the  parish 
from  Captain  Willoughby's  plantation  to  Daniel  Tanner's  Creek,  the 
sum  of  ;^32,  Cornelius  Lloyd,  Henry  Catlin  and  John  Hill,  agreed 
to  pay  for  themselves  and  the  Western  Branch,  ^33.  And  Thomas 
Meeres,  John  Gatear  (Gaither)  and  John  Watkins,  agreed  to  pay  ;^36 


6  Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

for  themselves  and  the  inhabitants  of  Daniel  Tanners  Creek."  All 
the  members  signed  this  agreement.  From  the  Virginia  Rent  Rolls 
we  find  other  early  settlers,  who  later  came  to  Maryland. 

There  was  a  grant  to  John  Chew,  gentleman,  of  five  hundred 
acres,  in  the  County  of  Charles  River,  due  said  Chew  for  the  adven- 
ture of  himself  and  nine  persons  on  July  6th,  1636.  The  record 
shows  that  John  Chew  came  to  Virginia  in  1622,  and  again  in  1623. 

John  Gatear  (Gaither)  received  300  acres  in  Elizabeth  City 
County,  a  neck  of  land  on  the  eastern  branch  of  Elizabeth  River. 
Fifty  acres  of  which  were  due  him  on  his  own  personal  adventure, 
and  250  acres  for  the  transportation  of  his  wife  Jane  and  five  persons 
in  1636.  He  received  200  acres  more  on  the  south  of  Elizabeth 
River  for  the  transportation  of  four  persons,  the  names  not  given. 

Cornelius  Lloyd  received  800  acres  in  the  County  of  Elizabeth 
River,  due  him  for  the  transportation  of  sixteen  persons  in  1665. 
He  was  also  one  of  the  London  merchants  who  received  8,000  acres 
in  Berkeley  Hundred  in  1636. 

Richard  Preston  was  a  justice  of  Nansemond  County,  in  1636. 

William  Ayres  secured  a  plantation  on  Nansemond  River  for 
transporting  five  persons.  Ann  Ayres,  wife  of  Samuel  Chew,  was 
his  sole  heiress. 

Thomas  Meeres  held  300  acres  in  the  Upper  County  of  New 
Norfolk  in  1644-5-6-7;  he  was  a  justice  in  1645,  and  a  church- 
warden. There  is  a  record  which  states  "that  Edward  Lloyd  was 
acting  for  Thomas  Meeres,  of  Providence,  Maryland,  in  1645." 

Thomas  Davis  held  300  acres  in  the  LTpper  County  of  New 
Norfolk  on  the  south  side  of  Elizabeth  River,  five  or  six  miles  up, 
due  him  for  transporting  six  persons  on  May,  1637.  He  was  a  jus- 
tice of  Nansemond,  1654. 

In  1648,  the  vestry  of  Elizabeth  River  Church  were  Francis 
Mason,  John  Hill,  Cornelius  Lloyd,  Henry  Catlin.  The  following 
order  was  then  passed:  "And  the  sheriff  is  desired  to  give  notice 
and  summon  John  Norwood  to  appear  before  said  vestry  to  account 
for  the  profits  of  the  "Glebe  Land'  ever  since  Parson  Llarrison  hath 
deserted  his  ministerial  office  and  denied  to  administer  ye  sacre- 
ments  with  those  of  the  Church  of  England."  That  was  Captain 
John  Norwood,  the  first  sheriff  of  Anne  Arundel. 

Mr.  Thomas  Browne  became  a  member  of  the  vestry  in  1648, 
and  John  Hill  and  William  Crouch  were  elected  wardens. 

Wm.  Durand  having  been  banished  in  1648,  Thomas  Marsh  was 
ordered  to  pay  the  tax  upon  Durand's  property. 

The  vestry  in  1649  consisting  of  Thomas  Browne,  John  Hill, 
Cornelius  Lloyd,  Henry  Catlin,  em.ployed  Mr.  Sampson  Calvert  as 
minister.  Mr.  James  Warner  was  church  warden.  He  came  to 
Maryland. 

At  the  County  Court  of  1649,  (the  same  year  these  parties  left 
for  Maryland),  the  following  record  reads:  "Whereas,  Mr.  Edward 
Lloyd  and  Mr.  Thomas  Meeres,  commissioners,  with  Edward  Selby, 
Richard  Day,  Richard  Owens,  Thomas  Marsh,  George  Kemp  and 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.  7 

John  Norwood  were  presented  to  ye  board  by  the  sheriff,  for  sedi- 
tious sectuaries  for  not  repairing  to  their  church,  and  for  refusing 
to  hear  common  prayer — hberty  is  granted  till  October  next,  to  in- 
form their  judgements,  and  to  conform  themselves  to  the  established 
law." 

Before  that  probation  had  expired  all  of  the  above  were  in  Mary- 
land. Edward  Lloyd  was  both  burgess  and  justice  of  Lower  Nor- 
folk, There  is  a  deed  on  record  from  Francis  Watkins,  late  wife 
of  John  Watkins,  of  Virginia,  then  wife  of  Edward  Lloyd,  in  which 
she  surrendered  her  dower  to  Edward  Lloyd  in  consideration  for  his 
payment  of  a  certain  sum  to  her  son,  John  Watkins.  This  agree- 
ment was  carried  out  by  Edward  Lloyd  when  commander  of  the 
Severn.  He  surveyed  a  tract  for  his  "son-in-law,"  (stepson)  "John 
Watkins." 

Edward  and  Cornelius  Lloyd  were  near  neighbors  in  Virginia,   y' 
in  1635,  of  Matthew  Howard  and  Ann,  his  wife.     The  latter  named 
his  son  Cornelius  in  honor  of  Colonel  Cornelius  Lloyd. 

Two  more  prominent  Virginia  officials,  Colonel  Obedience  Robins 
and  his  brother,  Edward  Robins,  sent  representatives  to  Maryland. 
The  former  was  the  brother-in-law  of  Captain  George  Puddington. 
The  latter  was  the  father-in-law  of  Colonel  William  Burgess  and 
Richard  Beard,  all  settlers  of  South  River,  Maryland,  in  1650. 

Mr.  Harrison's  persistence  had  increased  the  independent  church 
in  Virginia  to  a  membership  of  one  hundred  and  eighteen,  and  when 
the  order  of  banishment  was  issued,  we  have  Mr.  Harrison's  state- 
ment that  he  and  Elder  William  Durand  left  Virginia  because  they 
were  ordered  to  go.  This  statement  was  supported  by  the  record 
that  "the  lands  of  William  Durand  in  Virginia  were  confiscated  be- 
cause of  his  banishment."  At  this  crisis  in  Virginia  a  protestant 
Virginian  had  just  been  appointed  Governor  of  Maryland.  Gover- 
nor Wm.  Stone  knew  many  of  the  independent  exiles,  and  having 
promised  Lord  Baltimore  to  bring  to  his  new  province  a  large  number 
of  settlers,  he  naturally  sought  an  interview  with  them. 

Calvert's  previous  attempts  to  induce  immigrants  from  Eng- 
land had  not  been  successful. 

He  had  even  wTitten  a  letter  to  Captain  Gibbons,  of  Boston, 
offering  land  to  any  people  of  Massachusetts,  who  would  transport 
themselves  to  his  province;  but  "the  Captain  had  no  mind  to  fur- 
ther his  desire,  nor  had  any  of  our  people  temptation  that  way." 

Governor  Stone  sought  out  William  Durand.  The  evidence  is 
the  following  records. 

"Captain  Wm.  Stone,  of  Hungers  Creek  on  eastern  shore  of 
Virginia,  was  born  in  Northamptonshire,  England  in  1603.  He  was 
the  nephew  of  Thomas  Stone,  a  haberdasher  of  London. 

"In  1648  he  conducted  the  negotiation  for  the  removal  of  a 
party  of  non-conformists  from  Virginia  to  Maryland;  and  in  August 
of  that  year  Lord  Baltimore  commissioned  him  governor  of  that 
colony. 


8  Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

'' William  Durand,  in  1648,  came  to  Maryland  with  his  wife, 
his  daughter  Elizabeth,  and  four  other  children,  two  freemen,  Pell 
and  Archer,  and  servants,  Thomas  Marsh,  Margaret  Marsh,  William 
Warren,  Wm.  Hogg  and  Ann  Coles."  This  is  what  our  "  Rent  Rolls" 
show  upon  his  coming:  "William  Durand  demanded  800  acres  of 
land  for  transporting  himself,  two  male  servants,  one  female  ser- 
vant, and  two  freemen  into  the  province  in  1648." 

The  grant  was  located  in  "Durands'  Place,"  on  the  north  side 
of  the  Severn. 

Richard  Bennett,  the  same  year,  took  another  grant  of  250 
acres,  to  be  divided  into  small  lots  for  a  number  of  settlers  who  wished 
to  be  close  together.  This  was  located  at  "Towne  Neck,"  a  point 
now  known  as  "Greenberry  Point." 

The}^  then  returned  to  Virginia,  with  the  terms  upon  which 
their  followers  could  obtain  homes  in  Maryland.  John  Hammond, 
the  historian,  thus  records  that  agreement. 

"Upon  the  express  assurance  that  there  would  be  a  modifica- 
tion of  the  oaths  of  the  office  and  fidelity,  an  enjoyment  of  liberty 
of  conscience,  and  the  privilege  of  choice  in  officers,  the  Virginia 
Non-Conformists  agreed  to  remove  to  the  banks  of  the  Severn." 

Hammond  was  a  strong  advocate  of  Governor  Stone's  admin- 
istration. Other  historians  differ  as  to  the  exact  promises  made  at 
that  interview,  but  our  "Rent  Rolls"  undoubtedly  show  that  Gov- 
ernor Stone  and  Lord  Baltimore  were  both  anxious  to  have  settlers 
upon  the  modified  terms  offered  in  the  "Condition  of  Plantation" 
of  1648. 

Hammond  declares,  "Maryland  was  considered  by  the  Puritans 
as  a  refuge.  The  lord  proprietor  and  his  governor  solicited,  and 
several  addresses  made  for  their  admittance  and  entertainment  into 
that  province,  under  the  conditions  that  they  should  have  conven- 
ient portions  of  land  assigned,  the  liberty  of  conscience  and  privilege 
to  choose  their  own  officers." 

"After  their  arrival,"  continues  Hammond,  "an  assembly  was 
called  throughout  the  whole  county,  consisting  as  well  of  themselves 
as  the  rest,  and  because  there  were  some  few  papists  that  first  in- 
habited, these  themselves,  and  others,  being  different  judgements, 
an  act  was  passed  that  all  professing  Jesus  Christ  should  have  equal 
justice."  And,  "At  the  request  of  the  Virginia  Puritans,"  the  oath 
of  fidelity  was  overhauled  and  this  clause  added  to  it :  "  Provided 
it  infringe  not  the  liberty  of  conscience." 

This  was  confirmed  in  1650. 

In  confirmation  of  Hammond's  statement,  our  "Rent  Rolls"- 
show  that  Edward  Lloyd,  in  1649,  was  granted  a  permit  to  lay  out 
one  thousand  acres  on  the  western  side  of  the  Chesapeake  Bay  to 
the  northward  of  the  Patuxent  River,  and  a  small  creek,  about  the 
middle  of  "The  Cliffs,'  adjoining  the  lands  of  Richard  Owens,  there 
and  to  the  northward  of  the  Patuxent,  not  formally  taken  up  yet." 

He  was  so  desirable  an  immigrant  that  he  easily  secured  another 
grant  of  570  acres  on  the  north  side  of  the  Severn,  just  opposite 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.  9 

Annapolis.  There  he  seated  himself  and  was  soon  surrounded  by 
many  neighbors.  Colonel  William  Burgess,  that  same  year,  brought 
up  his  colony  to  South  River. 

As  there  has  been  considerable  discussion  upon  the  exact  loca- 
tion of  the  first  settlement  of  the  Severn,  I  will  give  the  best  light 
that  comes  from  our  Record  Office.     Read  this  grant  of  1654. 

"  Cecilius,  Absolute  Lord  and  Proprietary  of  the  Province  of 
Maryland.  To  all  persons  to  whom  these  presents  come,  greeting: 
Whereas,  Wilham  Pell,  George  Saphir,  Robert  Rockhould,  William 
Penny,  Christopher  Oatley,  Oliver  Sprye,  John  Lordking,  and  Richard 
Bennett,  Esq.,  did  in  the  1649  and  1650,  transport  themselves  into  this 
province,  here  to  inhabit  and  for  their  mutual  security,  did  several 
small  parcels  of  land  then  take  upon  a  place  called  the  "  Towne  Neck," 
to  the  intent  they  might  seat  close  together,  and  whereas,  the  said 
several  parcels  are  since  by  law^ful  purchase  from  the  said  (persons 
named),  become  the  sole  right  of  the  said  Richard  Bennett,  and 
whereas,  the  said  Richard  Bennett  hath  since  alienated,  and  for  a 
valuable  consideration,  sould  the  said  several  parcels  unto  our  trusty 
and  well  beloved  counselor,  Nathaniel  Utie,  Esq.  Now  know  ye, 
that  we  hereby  grant  unto  said  Nathaniel  Utie  all  that  parcel  called 
Towne  Neck,  on  the  west  side  of  Chesapeak  Bay,  and  on  the  east 
side  of  Anne  Arundel  River,  now  again  surveyed  to  the  said  Nathan- 
iel Utie,  beginning  at  Towne  Creek,  and  running  for  breath  northeast 
140  perches,  to  a  creek  called  Ferry  Creeke,  bounding  on  the  east 
by  a  line  drawn  south,  for  length  by  the  said  creeke  and  bay  320 
perches;  on  the  south  by  a  line  drawn  west  from  the  end  of  the 
south  line  110  perches,  unto  Anne  Arundel  River;  on  the  west  by 
a  line  drawn  north  from  the  end  of  the  west  line  unto  the  marked 
line;  on  the  north  by  the  first  northeast  line — containing  250  acres," 
(There  is  no  evidence  from  our  "  Rent  Rolls"  that  any  of  these  people 
w'ere  ever  seated  at  "Towne  Neck.") 

Nathaniel  Utie  held  this  Towne  Neck  from  1654  to  1661,  w^hen 
he  sold  it  to  Wm.  Pennington,  who,  that  same  year,  sold  it  to  Ralph 
Williams,  of  Bristol,  England.  It  descended  to  his  daughters,  Mrs. 
Elizabeth  Moiling  and  Mrs.  Rebecca  Barber,  who  sold  the  same  to 
Edward  Perrin,  of  Bristol,  England.  It  was  then  transferred  to 
Edward  Deaver  and  finally  to  Colonel  Nicholas  Greenberry,  who  did 
not  come  over  until  1674.  It  was  not  secured  by  him  until  1685. 
It  then  became  known  as  "Greenberry  Point."  The  deeds  of  trans- 
fers cover  some  thirty  pages,  and  the  time  of  transfers  some  thirty 
years. 

Adjoining  "Towne  Neck,"  on  the  west,  extensive  tracts  were 
raken  up  and  held,  as  our  "Rent  Rolls"  show. 

Edward  Lloyd,  in  1650,  had  laid  out  570  acres  on  the  north 
side  of  the  Severn,  adjoining  "  Harrards'  Line,"  (this  may  have  been 
Howards),  running  with  the  river  for  a  length  of  fifty-five  perches. 

In  1659,  he  also  took  up  "Pendenny,"  upon  which  stands,  to- 
day, the  house  of  Captain  John  Worthington,  now^  held  by  the  late 
Mr.  R.  Tilghman  Price's  family,  just  opposite  the  Naval  Academy. 


10        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Hoavard  Counties. 

There  are  many  evidences  in  the  old  foundation  rehcs  at  "  Pen- 
denny  Heights,"  to  show  that  here  dwelt  Edward  Lloyd,  when  in 
1650,  Governor  Stone  and  his  secretary,  Nathaniel  Utie,  came  up 
to  the  Severn  and  organized  the  new  settlement. 

By  Governor  Stone's  appointment,  Edward  Lloyd  was  made 
commander  of  Providence,  a  title  kindred  to  that  of  deputy-gover- 
nor; with  power  to  name  his  own  Council,  who,  with  him,  were 
empowered  to  grant  certificates  of  surveys  of  lands,  organize  courts, 
and  direct  that  settlement. 

Edward  Lloyd's  commissioners  were  James  Homewood,  Thomas 
Meeres,  Thomas  Marsh,  George  Puddington,  Matthew  Hawkins, 
James  Merryman,  and  Henry  Catlyn. 

He  built  his  home  on  the  north  side  of  the  Severn,  in  the  neck,, 
just  opposite  the  city  of  Annapolis;  Henry  Catlyn  and  James  Merry- 
man  were  his  immediate  neighbors. 

These  two  settlers  did  not  long  remain.  Their  combined  es- 
tates were  later  embraced  in  the  Greenberry  and  Worthington  sur- 
veys, now  held  by  Messrs.  R.  Tilghman  Brice  and  Charles  E.  Remson. 

James  Homewood  and  Matthew  Hawkins  were  upon  the  Magothy 
River;  George  Puddington  was  upon  South  River;  Thomas  Marsh 
and  Thomas  Meeres  were  first  upon  Herring  Creek,  but  later  resided 
on  the  Severn. 

Edward  Lloyd's  house  was  the  Council  Chamber.  His  immedi- 
ate neighbors  were  William  Crouch,  on  the  Severn;  Richard  Young, 
on  the  Magothy;  Ralph  Hawkins,  of  the  Magothy;  Richard  Ewen, 
of  the  Magothy;  William  Hopkins,  Thomas  Browne,  John  Browne, 
Henry  Catlyn,  John  Clarke  were  all  near  the  Commander  upon 
North  Severn. 

George  Goldsmith  and  Nfiihaniel  Proctor  held  lands  adjoining 
Lloyd's  "  Swan  Neck,"  upon  the  bay. 

Captain  William  Fuller  located  on  "Fuller's  Survey,"  which  is 
now  known  as  "White  Hall."  Leonard  Strong,  the  first  historian 
of  the  Anne  Arundel  settlers,  and  his  daughter  Elizabeth,  held  800 
acres  adjoining  Captain  Fuller. 

Thomas  Meeres  adjoined  them,  holding  500  acres.  This  North 
Severn  settlement  was  "Broad  Neck,"  and  included  Colonel  Green- 
berry's  "Towne  Neck." 

Rev.  Ethan  Allen,  in  his  historical  notes  of  St.  Annes,  records: 
"There  was  a  meeting  house  at  Towne  Neck;  there  is  still  to  be 
seen  the  place  where  the  chapel  and  burying  ground  was.  Among 
the  ruins  is  a  massive  slab  with  this  inscription:  '  Here  lies  interred 
the  body  of  Mr.  Roger  Newman,  merchant,  born  at  London,  M^ho 
dwelt  at  Palip,  in  Talbot,  in  Maryland,  twenty-five  3^ears,  and  de- 
parted this  life  the  14th  of  May,  1704. 

"There  was  at  this  time  a  dissenting  minister,  a  Mr.  Davis,  in 
the  neighborhood." 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        11 

MIDDLE  NECK  HUNDRED. 

In  1650,  there  were  three  known  settlers  on  the  site  of  Annapolis, 
as  the  following  grant  to  Thomas  Todd,  the  shipwright,  shows. 
"  Laid  out  for  Thomas  Todd  100  acres,  commencing  at  Oj^ster  Shell 
Point,  running  up  the  river  northwest  160  perches  to  Deep  Cove, 
bounding  on  said  creek  140  perches  to  a  marked  hne;  on  the  west 
unto  the  bounds  of  Richard  Acton's  land  at  a  marked  oak;  on  the 
south  with  a  line  drawn  northwest  by  north  unto  the  bounds  of 
Thomas  Hall's  land,  being  a  marked  poplar;  and  with  the  same  for 
thirty-five  perches.  Then  from  the  end  of  a  former  line  unto  a  creek 
called  Todd's  Creek;  on  the  east  with  said  river;  containing  one 
hundred  acres." 

One  more  surveyor,  destined  to  be  better  known  in  history,  was 
Robert  Proctor,  who  took  up  "Proctor's  Chance,"  in  1679,  at  a 
beginning  tree  of  "Intact,"  on  the  west  side  of  the  Severn  River. 
This  tract  became  "Proctor's  Landing,"  and  was  his  residence  in 
1681,  when  he  then  designated  his  place  as  "town."  Major  Dorsey 
was  there  and  had  built  a  row  of  houses  on  "Bloombury  Square," 
near  the  present  new  post-office.,  He  also  held  houses  and  lots  on 
High  Street,  which  his  widow,  Margaret  Israel,  sold  to  William 
Bladen,  in  1706. 

Another  survey  of  Todd's  tract  seems  to  locate  a  town  there 
in  1651.  It  reads:  "bounding  on  Thomas  Hall's  land  and  on 
Todd's  Creek,  beginning  at  ye  northeast  point  of  "Town"  and  ex- 
tending along  the  river  to  3'e  first  creek  to  ye  west  and  then  with 
back  lines  to  ye  beginning."  "Todd's  Range"  extended  along  the 
south  side  of  the  Severn,  west  to  the  head  of  Dorsey's  Creek. 

The  south-side  settlers  followed  the  Severn  back  to  Round  Bay. 
They  were  James  Horner,  who  held  "Locust  Neck";  Peter  Porter 
at  "Bustions  Point,"  adjoining  James  Warner. 

Captain  John  Norwood  held  200  acres  of  "Norwood's  Fancy," 
adjoining  Thos.  Meeres. 

Nicholas  Wyatt  surveyed  "Wyatt's  Harbor"  and  "Wyatts' 
Hills,"  upon  which  "  Belvoir"  now  stands,  just  south  of,  and  in  sight 
of  Round  Bay.  Adjoining  it  was  Thomas  Gates,  upon  "Dorsey's 
Creek,"  near  "Dorsey,"  taken  up  by  the  first  Edward  Dorsey,  in 
partnership  with  Captain  John  Norwood. 

James  Warner  and  John  Freeman  were  both  near  by;  William 
Galloway  and  Thomas  Browne  were  further  west,  but  touching  upon 
Round  Bay. 

Lawrence  Richardson  and  the  first  Matthew  Howard  surveyed 
also  near  Round  Bay. 

John  Collier  was  on  "Todd's  Creek,"  near  the  present  site  of 
Annapolis. 

The  Middle  Neck  settlers  along  the  bay,  north  of  South  River, 
were  Philip  Thomas,  of  "Thomas  Point;  "  Captain  William  Fuller, 
Leonard  Strong,  Thomas  Meeres,  Thomas  Tollej'  and  WilHam  James. 


13        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Upon  their  surveys  stand,  to-day,  Bay  Ridge  and  Arundel-on- 
the-Bay. 

At  the  head  of  South  River  on  the  north  side,,  were  John  Bald- 
win, James  Warner  and  Henry  Ridgely. 

SOUTH  RIVER  HUNDRED. 

In  1650,  Colonel  William  Burgess,  the  merchant  whose  vessels 
brought  150  settlers,  was  the  central  figure  around  whom  settled  a 
band  of  large  land-holders. 

Joseph  Morely  held  "Morely's  Grove." 

John  Freeman,  son-in-law  and  heir  of  Joseph  Morely,  took  up 
at  the  head  of  South  River,  "  Freeman's  Fancy,"  "  Freeman's  Stone," 
"  Freeman's  Landing."  Adjoining  him  were  John  Gaither  and  Robert 
Proctor,  both  heirs  of  Joseph  Morely.  They  were  surveyors  of  "  Ab- 
bington,"  and  final  heirs  of  Freeman's  and  Morely's  lands. 

Mareen  Duval,  the  Huguenot  immigrant  from  Nantes,  France, 
held  a  large  estate  around  South  River,  viz:  "Middle  Plantation" 
and  "Great  Marsh."     He  came  with  Colonel  William  Burgess. 

Captain  George  Puddington  surveyed  "Puddington  Harbor," 
and  "West  Puddington."  Richard  Beard,  brother-in-law  of  Colonel 
William  Burgess,  held  "Beard's  Habitation"  on  "Beard's  Creek," 
near  the  site  of  Londontown.  Neal  Clarke,  related  to  both  Pud- 
dington and  Beard,  was  an  adjoining  neighbor  near  the  head  of 
South  River. 

Thos.  Besson,  the  younger,  adjoined  Colonel  William  Burgess 
on  the  south  side  of  South  River.  Ellis  Brown  was  on  the  south 
side,  near  Edward  Selbys.  Captain  John  Welsh  held  lands  first 
upon  South  River  and  afterwards  on  the  Severn. 

RHODE  RIVER  HUNDRED. 

Robert  Harwood  took  up  "Harwood,"  in  1657,  which  later  des- 
cended to  Abel  Browne.  Walter  Mansfield  adjoined  him.  Captain 
Thomas  Besson  settled  on  the  west  side.  His  neighbors  were  Thomas 
Sparrow,  George  Nettlefield,  John  Brewer,  Edward  Townhill  and 
Colonel  Nicholas  Gassaway,  son-in-law  of  Captain  Thomas  Besson, 
Sr.  Captain  Thomas  Francis  "The  Ranger,"  was  another  large 
land-holder  of  Rhode  River. 

THE  WEST  RIVER  HUNDRED. 

Roger  Grosse,  the  popular  representative,  whose  widow  married 
Major  John  Welsh,  held  a  large  estate  upon  West  River.     His  neigh- 
bors were  Thomas  Miles,  John  Watkins,  Hugh  and  Emanuel  Drew, 
Richard  Talbott,  John  Browne  and  John  Clarke.     Still  later  th 
West  River  meeting-house  of  Quakers  attracted  a  large  settlemen 
of  leading  Quakers,  among  whom  were  the  Galloways. 


FOUXDEES  OF  AXNE  ArUXDEL  AND  HOWARD   COUNTIES.  13 

HERRING  CREEK  HUNDRED. 

Samuel  Chew  laid  out  Herrington. 

Thomas  Marsh  took  up  lands  on  the  west  side  of  Herring  Creek, 
beginning  at  Parker's  Branch,  and  running  to  Selby's  Cove;  he  also 
held  a  thousand  acres  adjoining  Richard  Bennett,  running  up  the 
bay.  He  held  a  tract  adjoining  John  Norwood,  running  down  the 
bay,  600  acres  more.  He  gave  the  name  to  Marshe's  Creek,  so  dif- 
ficult to  locate  in  the  division  of  the  two  counties.  Edward  Selby  held 
lands  on  Selby's  Cove,  adjoining  Thomas  Marsh.  He  also  ad- 
joined Thomas  Meeres  on  the  west  side  of  South  River,  next  to 
John  Watkins;  in  all  some  1000  acres.  William  Parker  adjoined 
Thomas  Marsh  on  Herring  Creek,  and  also,  Richard  Bennett,  Samp- 
son Warring,  and  Thomas  Davis  on  the  bay,  holding  1200  acres. 
William  Durand  adjoined  Edward  Selby,  running  down  the  bay; 
John  Covell  adjoined  William  Durand;  Thomas  Emerson  adjoined 
William  Parker;  Captain  Edward  Carter,  near  Herring  Creek,  ad- 
joined William  Ayers,  whose  lands  were  assigned  him  by  Thomas 
Marsh.  Richard  Ewen  adjoined  Richard  Bennett  and  Richard  Tal- 
bott,  on  Herring  Creek.  Richard  Wells,  Chirurgeon,  was  on  the 
west  side  of  Herring  Bay,  adjoining  Stockett's  Creek,  holding  600 
arces.  The  three  Stockett  brothers  were  on  Stockett's  Run;  they 
did  not  come  from  Virginia.  Back  on  the  Patuxent,  Colonel  Rich- 
ard Preston  held  500  acres,  and  built  a  house  which  still  stands;  it 
is  the  oldest  house  in  Maryland.  He  was  an  important  man,  in 
both  Maryland  and  Virginia.  Commander  Robert  Brooke,  with  his 
body  guard  of  forty,  was  still  below  on  the  Patuxent,  holding  at 
first  a  whole  county.  Richard  Bennett  held  thousands  of  acres  at 
Herring  Creek,  and  later  as  many  more  upon  the  Eastern  Shore. 

From  these  surveys,  running  form  100  to  1000  acres,  we  get  a 
list  of  the  most  prominent  settlers  in  1649-50.  The  leaders  took  up 
land  in  several  sections.  The  largest  land-holders  were  in  the  south- 
ern section,  where  the  soil  was  remarkably  rich. 

As  soon  as  these  settlers  were  well-seated,  Governor  Stone  by 
proclamation,  called  a  legislature  in  which  he  used  these  words: 
"and  for  the  Puri —  to  give  them  particular  notice."  This  referred 
to  the  settlers  just  enumerated;  the  term  "Puritan"  was  then  a 
reproach,  and  from  policy  perhaps,  Governor  Stone  left  the  word 
incomplete.  About  the  time  for  assemblying  the  legislature,  Gover- 
.nor  Stone  paid  a  visit  to  these  settlers;  he  succeeded  in  getting  a 
representation.  Upon  his  return  he  made  this  report:  "By  the 
Lieutenant  of  Maryland,  The  Freemen  of  that  part  of  this  province 
now  called  Providence,  being  by  my  appointment  duly  summoned 
to  this  present  assembly,  did  imanimously  make  choice  of  Mr.  George 
Puddington  and  Mr.  James  Cox  for  their  burgesses,  I  being  there 
in  person  at  that  time."  Upon  the  organization  of  the  assembly, 
a  high  compliment  was  paid  to  that  settlement,  in  the  election  of 
Mr.  James  Cox  speaker  of  the  house.  There  were  fourteen  mem- 
bers, eight  of  whom  were  Protestants  who  threw  their  influence  to 


14        Founders  op  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Mr.  Cox  for  speaker.  The  assembly  passed  an  order  that  the  gover- 
nor issue  writs  to  summon  three  or  four  inhabitants  of  Anne  Arundel, 
to  meet  him  and  the  council,  to  consider  what  is  necessary  to  be 
added  to  the  levies  of  this  year,  besides  those  already  brought  in 
by  the  committee.  An  act  was  passed  for  fixing  surveyors'  charges 
at  one  pound  of  tobacco  per  acre;  if  above  100  are  surveyed,  then 
one-half  pound  per  acre  be  charged.  The  expenses  for  the  assembly 
to  be  levied  from  Anne  Arundel  County,  in  1650,  were: 

To  Mr.  Puddington  and  Mr.  James  Cox, for 

37  days,  apiece  at  50  pounds  per  day  .  .  .3,700  pounds 

Boate,  hand  and  wages 600  pounds 

4,300  pounds 

An  order  was  passed  providing  for  a  march  upon  the  Indians 
for  murdering  an  English  inhabitant  in  Anne  Arundel — to  press 
men  to  make  war.  The  charge  of  such  war  to  be  laid  by  an  equal 
assessment  on  the  person  and  estate  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  prov- 
ince. An  order  was  passed  for  a  levy  of  half  a  bushel  of  corn  per 
poll  upon  every  freeman  in  Anne  Arundel,  to  be  disposed  of  by  the 
governor  as  he  shall  see  fit.  During  that  session,  was  passed  an 
act  for  erecting  Providence  into  a  county  by  the  name  of  Anne 
Arundel.  This  was  the  first  and  almost  only  legislative  provision 
for  erecting  any  county  in  the  province.  It's  name  was  in  honor 
of  Lady  Anne  Arundel,  daughter  of  Lord  Arundel,  of  Wardour, 
wife  of  Cecilius  Lord  Baltimore.  Induced  by  the  murder  of  some 
English  in  that  section,  an  act  was  passed  prohibiting  Indians  from 
coming  into  the  new  county  of  Anne  Arundel.  The  last  important 
act  of  the  session  of  1650,  was  the  oath  of  fidelity  to  Lord  Baltimore. 

The  Protestants  were  in  the  majority  in  the  assembly,  yet  they 
joined  Governor  Stone  in  his  declaration  setting  forth  that  they 
enjoyed  fitting  freedom  of  conscience  in  Lord  Baltimore's  province. 
This  act  was  signed  by  speaker  Cox,  George  Puddington  and  even 
by  William  Durand,  the  Virginia  elder  who  attested  Leonard  Strong's 
pamphlet.  This  Protestant  assembly  enacted  that  an  oath  of  fidel- 
ity should  be  taken.  John  Langford  recorded  the  following:  "No 
one  was  banished  under  that  law  for  refusing  to  take  it."  Up  to 
this  period  it  was  evident  that  a  judicial  administration  of  gov- 
ermental  affairs  had,  to  a  certain  extent,  conciliated  the  cautious 
non-conformist  element,  which  had  looked  with  suspicion  upon  the 
oath  of  fidelity 

Let  us  now  look  at  the  government  to  which  these  people  had 
just  come.  Cecilius  Calvert,  the  second  Lord  Baltimore,  held  by 
charter  rights,  a  territory  with  almost  unrestricted  privileges.  All 
office,  title,  honor  were  in  his  hands;  head  of  the  church,  of  the  mili- 
tary, executive  and  judicial  powers,  he  could  control  all  legislative 
acts.  Yet  the  charter  granted  him  secured  to  the  people  of  Mary- 
land "all  the  privileges,  franchises  and  liberties"  which  other  Eng- 
lish subjects  enjoyed. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        15 

Granted  by  a  king  who  held  to  "the  divine  right";  modeled 
after  the  established  institutions  of  an  absolute  monarch,  William, 
the  Norman,  the  charter  of  Maryland,  though  giving  a  long  list  of 
sovereign  rights  which  made  the  lord  proprietor  absolute  in  his  do- 
main, contained  three  words  above  quoted,  which,  viewed  under  the 
light  of  the  Magna  Charta  and  the  English  Bill  of  Rights,  were  des- 
tined to  put  the  people  in  control  of  the  province  even  upon  the 
Charta  basis. 

The  ruling  motive  of  the  more  influential  settlers  in  Maryland, 
was    a  desire  for  greater  political  and  religious  liberty. 

Others  of  the  more  restless  nature  were  attracted  by  the  easy 
and  favorable  terms  on  which  land  was  offered. 

Both  classes  were  opposed  to  the  extensive  sovereign  rights 
granted  the  lord  proprietary,  and  were  only  brought  into  subjection 
by  concessions  to  prevent  uprisings.  Back  of  these  storm  signals 
serious  trouble  had  already  threatened  the  proprietary  of  Maryland. 
William  Clayborne,  of  a  distinguished  English  family,  a  man  of 
marked  ability,  had  made  a  prior  claim  to  the  very  territory  over 
which  Cecilius  Calvert  was  now  lord.  Further  than  this,  a  war  was 
at  hand  in  the  mother  country  between  the  king  and  parliament. 

There  were,  in  Maryland,  influential  settlers  ready  then  to  take 
the  side  of  parliament;  and  when,  at  last,  the  parliamentary  forces 
were  victorious,  and  King  Charles  had  been  sacrificed  in  the  triumph 
of  popular  rights  over  "divine  right,"  the  contest  was  to  be  fought 
out  in  the  province  of  Maryland. 

Parliament  had  declared  it  to  be  treason  for  any  one  to  acknowl- 
edge Charles,  the  son,  king,  yet  in  the  face  of  that  declaration, 
Governor  Green,  acting  for  Governor  Stone,  had  already  acknow- 
ledged Charles,  the  Second,  "the  rightful  heir  of  all  his  father's 
dominions."  This  unfortunate  proclamation,  not  intended  by  the 
Lord  Proprietary,  gave  much  trouble  in  Maryland,  ending  finally  in 
its  reduction. 

LEGISLATURE  OF  1651. 

Governor  Stone  called  an  assembly  in  1651;  to  this  the  people 
of  Anne  Arundel  sent  no  delegates.  News  had  reached  them  that 
Parliament  had,  in  1650,  passed  an  ordinance  for  the  reduction  of 
Lord  Baltimore's  province.  Instead  of  sending  delegates  to  the 
assembly  of  1651,  Commander  Lloyd  sent  a  message  explaining  the 
reason  for  not  answering  the  call.  That  message,  when  forwarded 
to  Lord  Baltimore  in  England,  gave  offence. 

Though  not  a  matter  of  record,  its  tenor  may  be  seen  in  the 
following  proclamation  of  Lord  Baltimore. 

"To  Governor  Wm.  Stone,  and  the  Upper  and  Lower  kouses, 
and  all  the  other  officers  and  inhabitants  of  the  Province: 

Greeting: — We  can  but  much  wonder  at  a  message  which  we 
understand  has  lately  been  sent  by  one  Mr.  Lloyd  from  some  lately 
seated  at  Anne  Arundel,  to  our  general  assembly  at  St.  Maries,  in 


16        Founders  of  i^NNE  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties, 

March  last;  but  are  unwilling  to  impute  either  to  the  sender  or 
deliverer  thereof,  so  malign  a  sense  of  ingratitude  as  it  may  seem 
to  bear,  conceiving  rather  that  it  proceeded  from  some  apprehen- 
sion in  them  at  that  time  grounded  upon  some  reports  of  a  dissolu- 
tion or  resignation  of  our  patent  and  right  to  that  province,  which 
might,  perhaps,  for  the  present,  make  them  doubtful  what  to  do 
till  they  had  more  certain  intelligence  thereof."  Thus  in  a  very 
temperate,  conciliatory  spirit,  he  continued  to  review  the  necessity 
for  all  settlers  to  conform  to  the  rules  and  usages  already  estab- 
lished, urging  that  a  government,  divided  in  itself,  must  needs 
bring  confusion  and  misery  upon  all.  "If  such  divisions  continue, 
which  God  forbid,  then  we  must  use  our  authority  to  compel  all 
factious  spirits  to  a  better  compliance  with  the  lawful  government; 
requiring  you,  our  said  lieutenant,  to  proceed  against  such  disturbers, 
and,  if  continued  after  admunition,  then  to  be  declared  enemies  to 
the  public  peace. 

"And,  whereas,  we  understand  that  in  the  late  rebellion  of  1644, 
most  of  the  records  of  that  province  being  then  lost,  or  embezzled, 
no  enrollment  remains  now  of  divers  patents  of  land  formerly  granted 
by  us,  we  therefore  require  you  to  issue  a  proclamation  requiring 
all  persons  within  a  certain  time  therein  fixed,  to  produce  to  our 
surveyor-general,  or  his  deputy,  all  such  patents  by  which  they 
claim  land  in  our  province;  and  to  require  our  secretary  to  give 
you  a  list  of  all  such  patents  now  on  record,  and  to  require  all  such 
persons  as  claim  land  to  cause  them  to  be  enrolled  in  our  secretary's 
office  within  some  convenient  time,  to  be  limited  by  you.  And, 
whereas,  by  the  third  article  of  our  last  "Conditions  of  Plantation," 
dated  1649,  there  is  allowed  one  hundred  acres  to  every  adventurer, 
or  planter,  for  every  person  of  British  or  Irish  descent,  transported 
thither,  we  understand  that  it  may  be  prejudicial  to  the  general 
good  of  the  colony,  in  case  so  great  allowance  shall  be  long  continued, 
causing  the  people  to  be  too  remote  from  each  other;  inasmuch  as 
a  few  persons  may  take  up  large  tracts,  leaving  but  little  opportu- 
nity for  others  to  come,  therefore,  we  proclaim  that,  after  the  20th 
day  of  June,  1652,  only  fifty  acres  shall  be  assigned,  instead  of  one 
hundred  acres. 

"The  proportionate  rents  and  oath  of  fidehty  to  stand  as 
already  expressed,  in  1650."     Dated  1651. 

Following  that  proclamation.  Governor  Stone  issued  his  call  for 
all  settlers  to  come  forward  and  demand  grants.  As  the  returns 
from  Commander  Lloyd,  of  Anne  Arundel,  and  Robert  Vaughan, 
of  Kent  Island,  were  both  unsatisfactory,  their  commissions  to  issue 
land  grants  were  revoked. 

The  year  1651  ended  without  much  change  in  the  condition  of 
the  settlers.  Parliament,  however,  had  determined  to  take  in  hand 
the  struggling  provinces  of  Virginia  and  Maryland.  Commissioners 
were  appointed  to  take  control.  Virginia  readily  acquiesced  and 
soon  after,  in  1652,  the  Virginia  commissioners  came  to  Maryland 
to  subdue  it. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        17 

Mr.  John  Langford  states,  "that  Richard  Bennett,  who  was 
active  in  procuring  preachers  from  Boston  for  the  Puritans  of  Vir- 
ginia, was  one  of  those,  who,  when  driven  out  of  Virginia,  came 
and  settled  in  Providence."  Bennett,  however,  still  retained  his 
residence  in  Virginia  when  appointed  one  of  the  commissioners  for 
the  reduction  of  Maryland.  In  his  proclamation  he  proposed,  "that 
the  settlers  should  all  remain  in  their  places,  but  only  conform  to 
the  laws  of  the  commonwealth  of  England,  and  not  infringe  the 
Lord  Baltimore's  just  rights.  That  all  the  inhabitants,  including 
the  governor  and  council,  should  subscribe  the  test  called  'the 
engagement.'  " 

Governor  Stone  and  the  rest  of  the  officers  readily  assented  to 
a  portion  of  the  requirements,  but  having  refused  to  accept  the 
proposition  "that  all  writs  should  be  issued  in  the  name  of  'The 
Keepers  of  the  Liberty  of  England,'  "commissioners  Bennett  and 
Claiborne  demanded  Stone's  commission  from  Lord  Baltimore. 
This  they  detained,  and  dismissing  him,  appointed  other  officers. 
Issuing  their  proclamation  that  all  writs,  warrants  and  other  pro- 
cesses be  made  in  the  name  of  the  Keepers  of  the  Liberty  of  Eng- 
land, by  authority  of  parliament,  they  named  the  following  commis- 
sioners, one  or  more  of  whom  should  sign  them,  viz:  Robert  Brooke,  / 
Colonel  Francis  Yardley,  Mr.  Job.  Chandler,  Captain  Edmund  Winder,  | 
Colonel  Richard  Preston  and  Lieutenant  Richard  Banks.  These 
were  authorized  to  take  in  hand  the  government  of  the  province. 
The  acts  of  Governor  Stone  and  his  council  were  declared  null  and 
void. 

All  the  records  were  then  ordered  to  be  placed  into  the  hands 
of  the  above  council,  at  Richard  Preston's,  where  the  proceedings 
were  to  be  held. 

Lord  Baltimore's  power  was  thus  quietly  obliterated.  The 
commissioners  returned  to  Virginia,  where  Bennett  became  gover- 
nor, and  Claiborne,  secretary  of  state. 

Robert  Brooke  was  now  head  of  the  province.     He  was  not  "■ 
one  of  the  Virginia  settlers,  but  came  with  his  household  of  forty 
persons  direct  from  England,  bearing  in  his  pocket  the  following 
grant  from  the  proprietor,  then  in  London. 

"We  appoint  him,  the  said  Robert  Brooke,  to  be  commander 
under  us,  and  our  lieutenant  of  our  whole  county,  to  be  newly  set 
forth  next  adjoining  the  place  he  shall  so  settle  and  plant  in,  giving 
him  all  the  perquisites  of  a  coimty  commander,  with  power  to  ap- 
point six  or  more  inhabitants  to  advise  with  him." 

The  county  thus  set  off  was  the  present  county  of  Calvert,  but 
then  named  Charles  County. 

The  location  of  Robert  Brooke,  was  first  at  "Dela  Brooke," 
but  still  later  at  "  Brooke  Place,"  upon  Battle  Creek,  about  forty 
miles  from  the  mouth  of  the  Patuxent.  Two  years  from  his  land- 
ing he,  too,  was  acting  with  opposing  settlers.  Governor  Bennett 
and  Secretary  Claiborne,  of  Virginia,  soon  returned  to  Maryland  to 
watch  the  progress  of  their  revolution.     Knowing  that  Governor 


18        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties, 

Stone  was  popular  with  the  people,  they  sought  him  and  offered 
the  office  of  governor,  which  Stone  accepted  under  certain  conditions. 

Thomas  Hatton,  his  late  secretary,  was  also  accepted,  who, 
with  Robert  Brooke,  Captain  John  Price,  Job.  Chandler,  Colonel 
Francis  Yardley,  Colonel  Richard  Preston,  were  declared  the  gover- 
nor's council.  Colonel  Claiborne  renewed  his  claim  to  Kent  Island. 
Governor  Stone  next  issued  a  commission  to  Captain  William  Fuller, 
purporting  to  be  in  the  name  of  "The  Keepers  of  the  Liberty  of 
England,"  as  commander-in-chief  under  him  of  all  forces  for  a  speedy 
march  against  the  Eastern  Shore  Indians,  giving  him  full  power  to 
levy  forces  in  Anne  Arundel  County.  The  people  of  Anne  Arundel 
were  not  in  favor  of  going  against  the  Eastern  Shore  Indians.  Their 
reasons  were  given  in  Commander  Fuller's  letter  to  Governor  Stone. 
"  Sir,  I  find  the  inhabitants  of  these  parts  wholly  disaffected,  not  to 
the  thing,  but  the  time  of  year,  on  account  of  a  want  of  vessels  and 
the  frozen  waters." 

In  1652,  Governor  Stone  issued  his  proclamation  that  inform- 
ation from  Captain  William  Fuller  of  the  want  of  soldiers,  apparel 
and  the  unseasonable  time  induced  him  to  relinquish  the  move- 
ment and  discharge  the  forces  raised."  In  the  meantime,  an  im- 
portant treaty  was  that  year  made  "at  the  River  of  Severn"  with 
the  Susquehannock  Indians,  by  which  Richard  Bennett,  Edward 
Lloyd,  Thomas  Marsh,  William  Fuller  and  Leonard  Strong,  com- 
missioners upon  the  part  of  the  English  settlers,  had  secured  all 
the  land  lying  on  the  west  side  of  the  Chesapeak  Bay,  from  the 
Patuxent  River  unto  Palmer's  Island,  which  island  was  recorded  as 
belonging  to  William  Claiborne,  along  with  the  Isle  of  Kent.  That 
treaty  was  pointedly  indicative  that  the  two  chief  owners  of  the 
land  of  the  Province,  were  by  those  commissioners,  considered  to 
be  the  Susquehannock  Indians,  and  Captain  William  Claiborne,  of 
Virginia.  This  treaty  was  made  under  the  big  popular  on  College 
Green.  These  men  preferred  to  secure  their  rights  and  protection 
by  means  of  a  treaty  rather  than  through  the  hazards  of  war. 

This  act  showed  wisdom  in  an  age  when  might  generally  secured 
right.  That  treaty  also  shows  the  cause  of  their  delay  in  taking 
up  grants  from  the  proprietary.  They  were  already  seated  upon 
lands  which  their  Commander  Edward  Lloyd,  had  been  authorized 
to  have  surveyed  for  them.  The  claim  to  the  province  was  known 
to  be  in  dispute.  Parliament  was  in  control  in  England,  and  they 
were  more  in  sympathy  with  the  parliamentary  leaders  than  with 
the  faith  and  requirements  of  the  proprietary.  They  saw  the  coming 
conflict  and  awaited  its  results,  believing  that  the  final  issues  would 
be  more  favorable  to  them. 

These  are  the  unwritten  reasons  that  actuated  the  settlers  of 
Anne  Arundel.  Whether  they  were  right  or  wrong,  the  history  of 
succeeding  events  showed  that  their  judgment  was  well  founded, 
for  even  though  the  proprietary  held  his  patent  under  Cromwell,  his 
son  and  successor  was  destined  to  lose  it,  by  rebellions  still  more 
active. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        19 

We  come  now  to  a  clash  of  arms  for  the  mastery  of  contending 
claims.  Leonard  Strong,  the  settler's  historian,  and  John  Langford, 
the  historian  of  Lord  Baltimore,  in  their  respective  publications, 
give  us  some  contemporary  records  of  that  contest.  Strong's  pam- 
phlet was  "Babylon's  Fall",  and  Langford's  was  "  A  Refutation  of 
Babylon's  Fall." 

Strong  declared  that  John  Langford,  and  not  Governor  Stone, 
had  invited  them  to  come.  "They  were  received  and  protected, 
but  an  oath  to  Lord  Baltimore  was  urged  upon  them  soon  after 
their  coming  up  from  Virginia,  which,  if  they  did  not  take,  they 
must  have  no  land  or  abiding  place  in  the  Province."  This  was  the 
oath  of  fidelity  attached  to  the  "Conditions  of  Plantation,"  issued 
by  the  proprietary  in  1648.  Strong  further  adds,  "That  they  must 
swear  to  uphold  that  government  and  those  officers  who  were  sworn 
to  countenance  and  uphold  the  Roman  Catholic  Church." 

John  Langford  in  answer  wrote,  in  1655:  "That  there  was 
nothing  promised  by  m}^  lord  or  Captain  Stone  to  them,  but  what 
was  performed.  Thej'^  were  first  acquainted  by  Captain  Stone  be- 
fore they  came  there,  with  that  oath  of  fidelity,  which  was  to  be 
taken  by  those  who  would  have  any  land  there  from  his  lordship. 
That  the  terms  were  well  known,  and  they  were  not  forced  to  come 
or  stay.  He  denied  that  the  oath  "was  to  uphold  the  Roman 
Catholic  Church,"  but  urged  that  the  officers  were  Protestants,  and 
that  the  oath  of  fidelity  bound  no  man  to  maintain  any  other  juris- 
diction of  my  lord's  than  what  is  granted  in  the  patent.  He  boldly 
charged  Mr.  Strong's  people  with  a  desire  "  to  exercise  more  absolute 
dominion  than  mj^  Lord  Baltimore  ever  did.  Not  content  to  enjoy, 
as  they  did,  freedom  of  conscience  for  themselves,  they  were  anxious 
for  the  liberty  to  debar  others  from  like  freedom." 

The  next  witnesses  are  the  settlers  themselves,  under  their  own 
names,  in  1653,  in  formal  and  dignified  appeal,  as  follows: 

PETITIONS  TO  THE  COMMISSIONERS  OF  THE 

COMMONWEALTH   1653. 

To  Hon.  Richard  Bennett  and  Colonel  Wm.  Claiborne,  Esqs., 
Commissioners  of  the  Commonwealth  of  England,  from  Virginia 
and  Maryland."  It  was  styled,  "The  Humble  Petition  of  the 
Commissioners  and  Inhabitants  of  Severne,  alias  Anne  Arundel 
County,  Showwith,"  and  reads:  "That,  whereas,  we  were  invited 
and  encouraged  by  Captain  Stone,  the  Lord  Baltimore's  Governor 
of  Maryland,  to  remove  ourselves  and  estates  into  the  province, 
with  promise  of  enjoying  the  liberty  of  conscience  in  matter  of 
religion,  and  all  other  privileges  of  English  subjects.  And  your 
petitioners  did,  upon  this  ground,  with  great  cost,  labor  and  danger, 
remove  ourselves,  and  have  been  at  great  charges  in  building  and 
clearing.  Now  the  Lord  Baltimore  imposeth  an  oath  upon  us  by 
proclamation,  which,  if  we  do  not  take  in  three  months,  all  of  our 
lands  are  to  be  seized,  for  his  lordship's  use.     This  oath,  we  con- 


20        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties, 

ceive  not  agreeable  to  the  terms  on  which  we  came  hither.  We 
have  complained  of  this  grievance  to  the  late  Hon.  Council  of  State, 
which  never  received  an  answer,  such  as  might  clear  the  lawlessness 
of  such,  but  an  aspersion  cast  upon  us  of  being  factious  fellows. 
In  consideration  whereof,  we  humbly  tend  to  our  condition  intreating 
your  honors  to  relieve  us  according  to  the  power,  wherewith  you  are 
intrusted  by  the  Commonwealth  of  England.  Severn  River,  Jan- 
uary 3rd,  1663." 

This  petition  was  signed  by  Edward  Lloyd,  and  seventy-seven 
others  of  the  house-keepers,  freemen,  and  inhabitants  of  the  Severn. 

The  people  of  North  Patuxent  sent  a  similar  petition,  dated 
March  the  1st,  1653,  signed  by  Richard  Preston  and  sixty  others. 

On  March  the  12th,  1653,  Bennett  and  Claiborne  returned  an 
answer,  encouraging  the  petitioners  of  the  Severn  and  Patuxent, 
"to  continue  in  your  due  obedience  to  the  Commonwealth  of  Eng- 
land and  not  to  be  drawn  aside  by  any  pretense  of  power  from 
Lord  Baltimore's  agents,  or  any  other,  whatsoever  to  the  contrary." 

PROCLAHATION  OF  1653. 

Governor  Stone,  in  1653,  issued  his  final  call  for  taking  up  lands 
under  the  conditions  of  plantations,  as  then  existing. 

In  that  proclamation,  in  the  face  of  his  promise  to  the  Parlia- 
mentary Commissioners,  he  declared  that  the  oath  of  fidelity  and 
writs  "must  be  in  the  proprietor's  name."  During  that  year  the 
Little  Parliament  had  surrendered  its  powers  to  Cromwell,  the  Pro- 
tector. Governor  Stone  issued  his  proclamation  in  compliance  with 
the  change.  The  next  strike  at  the  settlers  of  Anne  Arundel  was 
in  1654,  when  Robert  Brooke,  the  commander  of  Charles  County, 
because  of  his  support  of  them,  was  deprived  of  his  command  by 
the  erection  of  Calvert  County  out  of  the  territory  of  Charles  County. 
This  change  was  intended  to  cripple  the  power  of  Robert  Brooke, 
the  commander.  Governor  Stone  next  charged  the  settlers  of  Anne 
Arundel  with  drawing  away  the  people,  and  leading  them  into 
faction,  rebellion,  and  sedition  against  Lord  Baltimore. 

This  charge  caused  Bennett  and  Claiborne  to  return  to  Mary- 
land, to  look  after  Governor  Stone.  They  claimed  to  come  under 
authority  of  the  Lord  Protector.  But  Leonard  Strong,  even,  did 
not  state  that  they  bore  an  order  from  Cromwell,  and  Mr.  Langford 
denied  that  they  had  any  authority  from  the  Protector.  They, 
however,  went  before  Governor  Stone  and  his  Council,  who  return- 
ing uncivil  answers,  called  together  his  men,  to  surprise  said  Com- 
missioners. The  latter  "  in  a  quiet  and  peaceable  manner,  with  some 
people  of  Patuxent  and  Severn,  went  over  on  the  Calvert  side  of 
the  Patuxent,  and  then  proceeded  into  St.  Mary's,  meeting  no  op- 
position. There  Captain  Stone  sent  a  message  that  he  would  treat 
with  them  in  the  woods;  fearful  of  the  coming  of  a  party  from  Vir- 
ginia, Stone  condescended  to  lay  down  his  power,  and  submit  again 
to  such  a  government  as  the  commissioners  should  appoint  under 


Founders  or  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        21 

the  authority  of  the  protector."  On  July  22nd,  1654,  the  commis- 
sioners, then  at  Patuxent,  issued  this  order:  " For  the  public  admin- 
istration of  justice.  Captain  William  P'uller,  Mr.  Richard  Preston, 
Mr.  William  Durand,  Mr.  Edward  Lloyd,  Captain  John  Smith,  Mr. 
Leonard  Strong,  Mr.  John  Lawson,  Mr.  John  Hatch,  Mr.  Richard 
Wells  and  Mr.  Richard  Ewen — with  the  first  three  of  the  Quorum. 
They  were  empowered  to  call  an  assembly  at  the  Patuxent,  the 
home  of  Colonel  Preston,  but  all  who  bore  arms,  against  parliament, 
or  were  of  the  Roman  Catholic  faith,  were  to  be  deprived  of  vote. 
William  Durand  was  made  Secretary  of  State,  and  Mr.  Thomas 
Hatton  was  ordered  to  deliver  to  him  the  papers  of  his  office. 

The  assembly  met  at  Patuxent,  October  20th,  1654,  and  sat 
as  one  house.  Colonel  Richard  Preston  was  made  speaker;  Thomas 
Hatten  and  Job.  Chandler,  delegates  from  St.  Mary's,  refused  to  sit 
because  they  had  taken  an  oath  to  Lord  Baltimore.  They  were 
taxed  with  the  necessary  expense  to  elect  their  successors.  It  was 
then  declared  that  "henceforth  all  power  in  this  province  is  held 
by  the  protector  and  parliament."  Further,  "that  no  Catholic  can 
be  protected  in  his  faith,  but  be  restrained  from  the  exercise 
thereof." 

This  assembly  further  enacted  that  "all  those  that  transport 
themselves  or  others  into  this  province,  have  a  right  to  land  by 
virtue  of  their  transportation.  That  all  may  enter  their  rights  of 
land  in  their  respective  courts,  and  also,  may  enter  caveat  for  such 
a  particular  tract  of  land  as  they  shall  take  up." 

This  revolt  culminated  in  an  act  making  "null  and  void"  the 
proclamation  of  Lord  Baltimore  which  read,  "that  all  who  would 
not  submit  to  his  authority  should  be  declared  rebels." 

This  act  meant  war,  and  war  was  now  at  hand. 


Chapter  IL 

THE  BATTLE  OF  THE  SEVERN. 

An  important  letter  now  arrived.  It  was  written  by  Lord 
J  Baltimore,  and  was  addressed  to  Governor  Stone.  It  was  in  care 
j  of  Wm.  Eltonhead,  a  messenger,  who  came  in  Captain  Tilghman's 
«     "Golden  Fortune." 

That  letter  censured  Governor  Stone  for  yielding  up  his  author- 
ity without  a  struggle,  and  renewed  his  instructions  for  action. 
J  Eltonhead  further  announced  that  Lord  Baltimore  still  held  his 

I    patent,  and  that  his  Highness,  the  Protector,  had  neither  taken  the 
'    patent  nor  land. 

This  letter  and  the  assured  support  of  Eltonhead  gave  Gover- 
nor Stone  new  life.  He  at  once  organized  a  military  company. 
Sending  Hammond,  the  historian,  and  others  to  the  house  of  Colonel 
Richard  Preston,  the  provencial  records  were  seized  and  brought 
back. 

John  Hammond  thus  describes  his  venture:  "Governor  Stone 
sent  me  to  fetch  the  records.  I  went  unarmed  amongst  these  sons 
of  Thunder,  only  three  or  four  to  row  me,  and  despite  all  their  braves 
of  raising  the  country,  calling  in  his  servants  to  apprehend  me, 
threatened  me  with  the  severity  of  their  new  made  law,  myself 
alone  seized  and  carried  away  the  records  in  defiance." 

Governor  Stone  now  started  for  the  Severn.  He  had  gathered 
two  hundred  men  and  eleven  vessels.  They  marched  along  the  bay 
coast,  using  the  vessels  to  ferry  them  across  the  rivers. 

Before  arriving  at  Herring  Creek,  they  were  met  by  two  sets 
of  messengers,  sent  in  boats  by  the  people  of  Providence.  The  first 
messenger  was  to  demand  his  power  and  the  ground  of  such  pro- 
ceedings. The  Governor's  reply  was  not  satisfactory,  as  shown  by 
the  following  letter  from  Secretary  William  Durand. 

"For  Captain  Wm.  Stone,  Esq.  Sir, — The  people  of  these  parts 
have  met  together  and  considered  the  present  transactions  on  your 
part,  and  have  not  a  little  marvelled  that  no  other  answer  of  the 
last  message  hath  been  made  than  what  tended  rather  to  make  men 
desperate  than  conformable.  Yet,  being  desirous  of  peace,  do  once 
again  present  to  your  serious  consideration  these  ensuing  proposals 
as  the  mind  of  the  people.  1st.  If  you  will  govern  us  so  as  we 
will  enjoy  the  liberty  of  English  subjects.  2nd.  And  that  we  be  and 
remain  indemnified  in  respect  of  our  engagement,  and  all  former  acts 
relating  to  the  reducement  and  government.  3rd.  That  those  who 
are  minded  to  depart  the  province  may  freely  do  it  without  any 
prejudice  to  themselves  or  their  estates.  We  are  content  to  own 
yourself  as  governor,  and  submit  to  your  government.     If  not,  we 


Founders  op  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        23 

are  resolved  to  submit  ourselves  into  the  hands  of  God,  and  rather 
die  like  men  than  be  made  slaves. — William  Durand,  Secretary." 

Roger  Heamans  records:  "But  no  answer  to  this  was  returned, 
but  the  same  paper  in  scorn,  sent  back  again." 

Governor  Stone  not  only  made  no  answer,  but  detained  the 
messengers  in  order  to  surprise  the  settlers. 

Leonard  Strong  records:  "Governor  Stone,  on  his  arrival  at 
Herring  Creek,  captured  one  of  Captain  Fuller's  commissioners  and 
forced  another  man  of  quality  to  fly  for  his  life,  having  threatened 
to  hang  him  up  to  his  door,  and  not  finding  the  man,  frightened 
his  wife  and  plundered  the  house  of  amunition  and  provision, 
threatening  still  what  they  would  do  to  the  people  of  Providence 
and  that  they  would  force  the  factious  Roundheads  to  submit,  and 
then  they  would  show  their  power." 

Governor  Stone  later  sent  Dr.  Luke  Barber  and  Mr.  Coursey  to 
go  on  before  to  Providence,  bearing  a  proclamation  to  the  people 
of  Anne  Arundel,  in  which  he  declared,  "  in  the  presence  of  Almighty 
God,  that  he  came  not  in  the  hostile  way  to  do  them  any  hurt,  but 
sought  all  means  possible  to  reclaim  them  by  faire  meanes." 

Dr.  Barber  adds:  "He  gave  strict  command  that  if  they  met 
any  Anne  Arundel  men,  they  should  not  fire  the  first  gun,  nor  upon 
pain  of  death,  plunder  any  upon  the  march." 

Strong  records:  "The  messengers  having  no  other  treaty  to 
offer,  they  were  quietly  dismissed  to  their  own  company,  to  whom 
they  might  have  gone  if  they  would."  They  did  not,  however,  re- 
turn. After  sending  another  messenger  and  none  returning,  on  the 
evening  of  the  same  day,  the  Governor  with  his  fleet,  made  his  ap- 
pearance in  the  Severn. 

Captain  Fuller  in  command  of  the  Anne  Arundel  forces,  called  a 
council  together  and  dispatched  Secretary  Durand  to  the  merchant- 
ship.  Golden  Lyon,  Roger  Heamans  master,  then  lying  in  the  harbor. 
Durand,  by  proclamation  in  the  name  of  the  Lord  Protector  and 
Commonwealth  of  England,  summoned  Heamans  to  aid  in  this  ser- 
vice of  maintaining  the  lives,  liberties  and  estates  of  the  free  subjects 
thereof. 

Heamans,  in  his  defense,  confirmed  Strong's  mission,  and  adds: 
"After  seeing  the  equity  of  the  cause  and  the  groundless  proceed- 
ings of  the  enemy,  I  offered  myself,  ship  and  men  for  that  service, 
to  be  directed  by  said  councilors." 

Hammond  declares  that  there  is  not  a  syllable  of  truth  in  Hea- 
man's  pamphlet,  and  charges  that  he  was  "hired."  Heamans  was, 
without  doubt,  a  sympathizing  friend,  and  he  gives,  from  his  com- 
manding position,  the  following  intelligent  review  of  the  contest: 

"In  the  very  shutting  up  of  the  dayhght,  the  ship's  company 
descried  off,  a  company  of  sloops  and  boats,  making  toward  the 
ship.  Whereupon  the  Council  on  board,  and  the  ship's  company 
would  have  made  shot  at  them,  but  this  relator  commanded  them 
to  forbear,  and  went  himself  upon  the  poop  in  the  stern  of  the  ship, 


24        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

and  hailed  them  several  times,  and  no  answer  was  made;  he  then 
ordered  them  not  to  come  nearer  the  ship.  His  mates  and  company, 
having  had  information  of  their  threatenings,  as  well  against  the 
ship  as  the  poor  distressed  people,  resolved  to  fire  upon  them  with- 
out their  commander's  consent,  rather  than  hazard  all  by  the 
enemy's  nearer  approach;  whereupon,  he  ordered  them  to  fire  a 
gun  at  random,  to  divert  their  course  from  the  ship,  but  the  enemy 
kept  still  its  course  right  with  the  ship,  and  took  no  notice  of  any 
warning  given.  He  then  commanded  his  gunner  to  fire  at  them, 
/  but  one  of  his  mates^Mr.  Robert  MorriSj)who  knew  the  country 
'  very  well,  the  malice  oi  the  adversary  against  the  people,  who  were 
then  near  worn  out  with  fears  and  watchings,  made  a  shot  at  them, 
which  came  fairly  with  them.  Whereupon  they  suddenly  altered 
their  course  from  the  ship,  and  rowed  into  the  creek,  calling  the 
ship's  company,  rogues,  roundhead  rogues,  and  dogs,  and  with 
many  execrations  and  railings,  threatened  to  fire  them  on  the 
morning." 

"Governor  Stone,"  says  Bozman,  "did  not  think  it  proper  to 
pay  any  attention  to  this  signal  of  war,  as  it  appeared;  but  having 
arrived  within  the  mouth  of  the  creek,  which  forms  the  southern 
boundary  of  the  peninsula  on  which  the  city  of  Annapolis  now 
stands,  proceeded  to  land  his  men  on  a  peninsular  which  lies  on  the 
southern  side  of  both  the  River  Severn,  and  the  before  mentioned 
creek,  nearly  opposite  to,  and  in  an  eastern  direction  from  what  is 
called  the  dock,  or  inner  harbor  of  Annapolis;  and  on  which  point 
a  small  fortress  called  'Fort  Horn,'  was  afterwards  built  during  the 
Revolutionary  War.  During  the  landing  of  the  governor's  men,  the 
Golden  Lyon  repeated  its  fire.  Whereupon,  Governor  Stone  sent 
a  messenger  on  board  to  inform  the  captain  that  he  (Governor  Stone) 
thought  'the  captain  of  the  ship  had  been  satisfied.'  To  which 
Heamans  replied,  'Satisfied  with  what?  I  never  saw  any  power 
Captain  Stone  had,  to  do  as  he  hath  done,  but  the  superscription  of 
a  letter;   I  must  and  will  appear  for  these  in  a  good  cause.'  " 

Heamans  continues :  "  The  same  night  came  further  intelligence 
from  the  enemy  in  the  harbor,  that  they  were  making  fire-works 
against  the  ship.  Whereupon,  the  governor  (Fuller,  whose  prudence 
and  valor  in  this  business  deserves  very  much  honor),  commanded 
a  small  ship  of  Captain  Cuts,  of  New  England,  to  lye  in  the  mouth 
of  the  creek,  to  prevent  the  enemy's  coming  forth  in  the  night,  to 
work  any  mischief  against  the  ship. 

The  next  morning,  by  break  of  day,  being  the  Lord's  day,  the 

25th  of  March  last,  the  Relator,  himself,  and  company  discovered 

Captain  Stone,  with  his  whole  body  drawn  out  and  coming  toward 

V    the  water's  side;    marching  with  drums  beating,  colors  flying — the 

-    colors  were  black  and  yellow,  appointed  by  the  Lord  Proprietary. 

"There  was  not  the  least  token  of  any  subjugation  in  Stone 
and  his  company,  or  acknowledgement  of  the  Lord  Protector  of 
England,  but  God  bless  the  Lord  Proprietary;  and  their  rayling 
against  his  ship's  company  was  rogues,  and  roundheaded  rogues,  etc." 


FOUK-DERS  OF  AnXE  ArUXDEL  AND  HoWARD   COUNTIES.  25 

When  Stone  had  reached  the  shore,  the  Golden  Lyon  and  Cap- 
tain Cut's  vessel  opened  fire  upon  them,  killing  one  man  and  com- 
pelling Stone  to  retire  up  the  neck.  Dr.  Barber  and  Mrs.  Stone,  / 
both  confirmed  this  statement.  Mrs.  Stone  added:  "the  gunner's/ 
mate  of  Heamans,  since  coming  down  from  Anne  Arundel  to  Patux- 
ent,  hath  boasted  that  he  shot  the  first  man  that  was  shot  of  our 
party." 

In  the  meantime  Captain  Fuller  with  170  men,  embarked  in 
boats;  going  "over  the  river  some  six  miles  from  the  enemy,"  he 
landed  and  made  a  circuit  round  the  creek  in  order  to  get  in  the 
rear  of  Stone's  forces.  Upon  Fuller's  approach,  a  sentry  of  Stone's 
army  fired  a  gun,  which  brought  on  an  engagement,  thus  described 
by  Leonard  Strong. 

"Captain  Fuller  still  expecting  that,  then  at  last,  possibly 
Governor  Stone  might  give  a  reason  of  his  coming,  commanded  his 
men,  upon  pain  of  death,  not  to  shoot  a  gun,  or  give  the  first  onset. 
Setting  up  the  Standard  of  the  Commonwealth  of  England,  against 
which  the  enemy  shot  five  or  six  guns,  they  killed  one  man  in  the 
front  before  a  shot  was  made  by  the  other."  (That  man  was  WiUiam 
Ayers,  the  standard  bearer.)  "Then  the  word  was  given,  'In  the 
name  of  God  fall  on ' ;  '  God  is  our  strength ' — that  was  the  word  of 
Providence.     The  Maryland  word  was,  'Hey!   for  St.  Maries.' 

"The  charge  was  fierce  and  sharp  for  a  time;  but  through  the 
glorious  presence  of  the  Lord  of  Hosts  the  enemy  could  not  endure, 
but  gave  back  and  were  so  effectually  charged  home,  that  they  were 
all  routed,  turned  their  backs,  threw  down  their  arms,  and  begged 
for  mercy.  After  the  first  shot  a  small  company  of  the  enemy  from 
behind  a  great  tree  fallen,  galled  us,  and  wounded  divers  of  our  men, 
but  were  soon  beaten  off.  Of  the  whole  company  of  Marylanders 
there  escaped  only  four  or  five,  who  ran  away  out  of  the  army  to 
carry  the  news  to  their  confederates.  Captain  Stone,  Colonel  Peirce, 
Captain  Gerrard,  Captain  Lewis,  Captain  Fendall,  Captain  Guyther 
Major  Chandler  and  all  the  rest  of  the  councillors,  officers  and  sol- 
diers of  the  Lord  Baltimore,  among  whom  were  a  great  number  of 
Papists,  were  taken;  and  so  were  all  their  vessels,  arms,  ammunition, 
provisions.  About  fifty  men  were  slain  and  wounded.  (Mr.  Thomas 
Hatton,  late  secretary  of  the  province,  was  one  of  the  slain).  We 
lost  only  two  in  the  field,  but  two  died  since  of  their  wounds.  God 
did  appear  wonderful  in  the  field  and  in  the  hearts  of  the  people; 
all  confessing  him  to  be  the  worker  of  this  victory  and  deliverance." 

Heamans  adds :  "  All  the  arms,  bag  and  baggage  was  taken, 
together  with  the  boats  that  brought  them;  wherein  was  the  pre- 
parations and  fuses  for  the  firing  of  the  ship  'Golden  Lyon.'  And 
amongst  the  rest  of  their  losses,  all  their  consecrated  ware  was 
taken,  viz :  their  pictures,  crucifixes,  and  rows  of  beads,  with  a  great 
store  of  reliques  and  trash  they  trusted  in." 

Dr.  Barber  records:  "After  the  skirmish,  the  governor,  upon 
quarter  given  him  and  all  his  company  in  the  field,  yielded  to  be 
prisoners;   but  two  or  three  days  after,  the  victors  condemned  ten 


26        FouxDEES  OF  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

to  death,  and  executed  four,  and  had  executed  all  had  not  the  in- 
cessant petitioning  and  begging  of  some  good  women  saved  them, 
and  the  soldiers,  others.  The  governor  himself  being  condemned  by 
them,  and  since  begged  by  the  soldiers;  some  being  saved  just  as 
they  were  leading  out  to  execution." 

The  four  who  were  shot  were  William  Eltonhead,  of  Governor 
Stones'  council.  Captain  William  Lewis,  John  Legatt  and  John  Pedro. 
Governor  Stone  was  wounded.  His  wife,  Virlinda  Stone,,  wrote  a 
confirmatory  letter  of  the  above  contest  to  Lord  Baltimore,  in  which 
she  called  Heamans  of  the  "Golden  Lyon,"  "&  very  knave,  for  he 
hath  abused  my  husband  most  grossly." 

The  deposition  of  Henry  Coursey,  one  of  Governor  Stone's  mes- 
sengers, sheds  this  further  light  on  the  contest:  "Governor  Stone 
and  most  of  his  party,  (after  their  surrender),  were  transported  over 
the  river  to  a  fort  at  Anne  Arundel,  where  they  were  all  kept  prisoners, 
and  about  three  days  after,  the  said  Captain  Fuller,  William  Burgess, 
Richard  Ewen,  Leonard  Strong,  William  Durand,  Roger  Heamans, 
John  Browne,  John  Cuts,  Richard  Smith,  one  Thomas,  and  one  Bes- 
son,  Samson  Warren,  Thomas  Mears,  and  one  Crouch,  sat  in  a  council 
of  war,  and  there  condemned  the  said  Governor,  Captain  Stone, 
Colonel  John  Price,  Mr.  Job.  Chandler,  Mr.  William  Eltonhead,  Mr. 
Robert  Clark,  Nicholas  Geyther,  Captain  Wilham  Evans,  Captain 
Wm.  Lewis,  Mr.  John  Legat  and  John  Pedro  to  die,  and  not  long 
afterward  they  sequestered  all  the  estates  of  those  of  Lord  Balti- 
more's council  and  other  officers  there." 

Mr.  Coursey  further  adds,  in  opposition  to  Strong's  statement: 
"When  Mr.  Barber  and  said  deponent  went  up  to  the  Severn  with 
Governor  Stone's  proclamation,  the  said  Captain  Fuller  would  not 
suffer  them  to  read  it.  They  found  the  people  all  in  arms,  and  refus- 
ing to  give  any  obedience  thereto  they  were  dismissed;  but  suddenly, 
before  they  could  get  away,  were  taken  prisoners,  whereby  Governor 
Stone  was  prevented  of  any  answer." 

The  Severn  men  being  thus  masters  of  the  province,  the  dominion 
of  the  proprietary  seemed  now  at  an  end.  The  pretensions  of  Vir- 
ginia were  renewed.  Documents  in  opposition  of  the  restoration 
poured  in  upon  the  Protector,  but  the  committee  on  trade  and  plan- 
tations, to  which  Cromwell  had  referred  Lord  Baltimore's  claim, 
reported  in  his  favor  in  1656.  A  strong  party  in  Maryland  were 
still  loyal  to  him.  Among  these  advocates  was  Josias  Fendall,  who 
received,  in  1656,  a  commission  from  Lord  Baltimore  as  Governor 
of  Maryland,  to  be  aided  by  the  following  councilors:  Captain  Wm, 
Stone,  Mr.  Thomas  Gerald,  Colonel  John  Price,  Mr.  Job.  Chandler 
and  Mr.  Luke  Barber.  Before  Fendall  could  organize  his  govern- 
ment, the  Severn's  Provincial  Council,  composed  of  Captain  William 
Fuller,  Edward  Lloyd,  Richard  Wells,  Captain  Richard  Ewen, 
Thomas  Marsh,  and  Thomas  Meeres,  in  August,  1656,  caused  Fen- 
dall's  arrest  on  the  charge  "of  dangerousness  to  the  public  peace." 
He  denied  the  power  of  the  court  to  try  him.  The  verdict  of  the 
court  was:     "Whereas  Josias  Fendall,  gent,  hath  been  charged, 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        27 

contrary  to  his  oath,  with  disturbance  of  public  peace,  for  assuming 
a  pretended  power  from  Captain  William  Stone,  he  the  said  Josias 
Fendall,  shall  go  to  the  place  from  whence  he  came  a  prisoner,  and 
there  abide  in  safe  custody  until  the  matters  of  goA'^ernment  in  the 
Province  of  Maryland  be  further  settled  by  his  Highness  Lord  Pro- 
tector." Fendall,  tired  of  imprisonment,  took  an  oath  that  he 
would  abide  by  the  present  government  until  there  be  a  full  deter- 
mination of  the  matter." 

Each  party  was  now  anxious  to  defend  itself  before  the  Pro- 
tector. Dr.  Luke  Barber,  who  stood  well  with  both  Lord  Baltimore 
and  the  Protector,  though  detained  by  the  Puritans,  wrote  a  letter 
to  the  Protector,  but  when  released,  carried  it  with  him  and  delivered 
it  in  person.  It,  no  doubt,  had  its  effect  in  the  subsequent  fair 
treatment  of  Lord  Baltimore's  claim  by  the  Protector.  Bennett 
went  to  England  to  settle  matters  with  Cromwell  and  labored  hard 
by  a  recital  of  all  the  provocations,  to  defend  the  action  of  his  asso- 
ciates in  their  abuse  of  the  law  of  nations.  He  gave  an  extended 
review,  in  which  he  assigned  many  reasons  why  the  Proprietary's 
claim  should  be  abrogated,  but  the  favorable  report  of  the  Board  of 
Trade  a  had  marked  effect  in  strengthening  the  claim  of  Lord  Balti- 
more. Bennett  was  a  diplomatist  of  no  mean  order,  and  he  saw  the 
time  had  come  for  compromise.  He,  therefore,  met  Lord  Baltimore 
in  a  conciliatory  spirit  and  finally  secured  about  all  for  which  he  had 
contended.  Whilst  this  compromise  was  being  accomplished  in 
England,  a  commission  was  issued  October  25th,  1656,  to  Josias 
Fendall,  as  Governor  of  Maryland,  wdth  instructions  to  carry  out 
the  proclamation  guaranteeing  religious  liberty  to  all.  He  granted 
"his  faithful  friends,  Fendall  2,000  acres,  Luke  Barber  1,000  acres, 
Thomas  Trueman  1,000,  George  Thompson  1,000,  John  Sandford 
1,000,  and  Henry  Coursey  1,000  acres.  He  further  ordered  that 
especial  care  be  taken  of  the  widows  of  Thomas  Hatton,  William 
Eltonhead  and  Captain  Lewis. 

Philip  Calvert,  his  brother,  was  sent  over  as  Secretary  of  the 
Province  and  one  of  the  Governor's  Council.  Mr.  Barber  was  depu- 
tised acting-governor  during  the  absence  of  Governor  Fendall. 
At  that  time  the  settlers  upon  the  Patuxent  and  Seyern  numbered 
about  one-half  of  the  population  of  the  Province. 

In  1657,  Captain  Fuller  called  an  Assembly  to  meet  at  the  home 
of  Colonel  Richard  Preston,  on  the  Patuxent.  The  lower  house  con- 
sisted of  ten  members,  with  Colonel  Richard  Ewen  speaker.  There 
were  present,  besides  the  speaker.  Captain  Robert  Sley,  Captain 
Joseph  Weeks,  Mr.  Robert  Taylor,  Captain  Thomas  Besson,  Mr. 
Peter  Sharp,  Captain  Phil  Morgan,  Mr.  Richard  Brooks  and  Mr. 
James  Johnson.  They  confirmed  the  "Act  of  Recognition."  On 
the  30th  of  November,  1657,  Lord  Baltimore  and  Richard  Bennett 
completed  their  compromise.  In  substance  it  was  an  agreement  by 
Lord  Baltimore  to  overlook  the  disturbance  of  the  Severn;  to  grant 
patents  of  land  to  all  the  Puritan  settlers  who  could  claim  them, 
by  taking  an  altered  oath  of  fidelity, — whilst  the  law  granting  free- 


28        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

dom  of  religion  should  stand  as  proclaimed  in  1649.     Bennett  and 
Matthews  signed  the  agreement  with  Lord  Baltimore.     Governor  ) 
Fendall,  who  had  been  called  to  England  for  further  instructions,  | 
returned  to  the  province  in  1658.     He  called  his  council  together/ 
at  St.  Mary's,  and  sent  letters  to  Wm.  Fuller,  Richard  Preston  and 
others  composing  the  government  at  Providence,  desiring  them  to 
give  him  and  his  secretary.  Captain  Thomas  Cornwalhs,  a  meeting 
at  Leonard's  Creek,  in  Patuxent  River,  upon  March  18th,  following, 
in  order  to  carry  out  the  agreement,  already  signed  by  Lord  Balti- 
more and  Richard  Bennett,  a  copy  of  which  was  sent  them. 

On  account  of  the  stormy  season,  the  delegates  of  Anne  Arundel 
did  not  arrive  until  the  20th.  They  were  Captain  Wm.  Fuller,  Mr. 
Richard  Preston,  Mr.  Edward  Lloyd,  Mr.  Thomas  Meeres,  Mr. 
Philip  Thomas,  and  Mr.  Samuel  Withers.  The  day  being  well  spent 
all  business  was  postponed  until  Monday  22nd.  Upon  reading  the 
article  of  agreement.  Captain  Fuller  and  his  council  objected  to 
several  articles,  and  urged  that  "indemnity  on  both  sides"  should 
be  added;  this  was  agreed  to.  The  oath  of  fidelity  was  amended 
by  the  Anne  Arundel  men  to  waive  it  for  all  persons  then  resident 
in  the  porvince,  but  to  stand  in  force  to  all  others.  The  Anne 
Arundel  men  further  urged  and  secured  confirmation  of  all  past 
proceedings  done  by  them  in  their  assemblies  and  courts  since  1652; 
and,  lastly,  insisted  that  none  of  them  should  be  disarmed,  to  be 
left  to  the  mercy  of  the  Indians.  Having  thus  secured  still  greater 
compromises  than  their  leader  in  England  had  asked,  the  final  agree- 
ment, as  amended,  was  then  signed  by  all  present. 

After  which  the  Anne  Arimdel  commissioners  proceeded  to  give 
up  the  records. 

After  the  lapse  of  six  years,  his  Lordship's  dominion  was  again 
restored,  yet  the  settlers  were  still  independent.  Governor  Fendall 
and  his  secretary  had,  in  1657,  at  a  meeting  on  the  Severn,  taken  / 
up  the  settlement  of  Anne  Arundel  and  ordered,  "  That  Wm.  Bur-  ' 
gess,  Thomas  Meeres,  Robert  Burle,  Thomas  Todde,  Roger  Grosse, 
Thomas  Howell,  Richard  Wells,  Richard  Ewen,  John  Brewer,  An- 
thony Salway  and  Richard  Woolman,  gentlemen,  should  be  com- 
missioners for  said  county,  to  appear  by  summons  of  the  sheriff,  at 
the  house  of  Edward  Lloyd,  to  take  oath  of  Commissioners  and 
Justices  of  the  Peace,  and  that  the  23rd  instant  should  be  the  first 
court  day. — (By  order  of  the  Governor  and  Secretary,  Mr.  Nathaniel 
Utie,  at  Anne  Arundel,  July  12th,  1657)." 

The  warrant  was  issued  by  Captain  John  Norwood,  Sheriff. 
Wm.  Burgess,  Thomas  Meeres  and  Richard  Ewen  refused  to  take 
the  oath  of  Commissioners  of  Justice,  alleging,  as  an  excuse,  that 
it  was  not  lawful  to  swear. 

Their  pleas  were  refused  and  Captain  Thomas  Besson,  Captain 
Howell  and  Thomas  Taylor  were  appointed  in  their  stead. 

Then  was  taken  up  the  establishment  of  militia  force.  It  was 
resolved  that  the  forces  be  divided  into  two  regiments.  One  for 
the  Potomac  and  Patuxent  Rivers,  commanded  by  the  governor 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        29 

himself;   the  other,  from  the  coves  up  to  the  Severn,  and  including 
the  Isle  of  Kent,  to  be  commanded  by  Nathaniel  Utie,  assisted  by 
^  Captain  John  Cumber,  Major  Richard  Ewen  and  Captain  Thomas 
'    Howell,  oiTSouth'River,  up  to  the  head  of  it. 

These  orders  were  made  whilst  Maryland  was  still  under  the 
divided  government.     Fuller  and  his  council  were  in  control  of  the  ;i 
northern  section,  and  Governor  Barber,  representing  Fendall,  ruled  j 
St.  Maries.  ' 

A  writ  was  issued  in  1657,  to  Captain  John  Norwood,  to  choose 
burgesses  for  an  assembly  to  be  held  at  St.  Leonard's,  in  the  County 
of  Calvert.  The  assembly  met  at  St.  Leonard's  in  1658.  It  was 
there  enacted,  "That  the  oath  of  fidelity  shall  not  be  pressed  upon 
the  people  of  the  province,  but  instead,  a  promise  to  submit  to  the 
anthority  of  the  Right  Honorable  Cecilius  Lord  Baltimore,  and  his 
heirs  within  the  province,  and  that  none  should  be  disarmed." 
'  This  was  agreed  to  by  Captain  Josias  Fendall  and  Philip  Cal- 

vert, principal  secretary.     It  was  also  assented  to  by  the  Upper  and 
Lower  House  of  Burgesses. 

At  the  session  of  1659,  the  House  of  Delegates  demanded  that 
the  governor  and  his  council  should  no  longer  sit  as  an  Upper  House. 
/  Fendall  at  first  resisted  this,  but  finally  yielded  and  took  his 

I    seat  in  the  Lower  House.     The  Upper  House  was  then  declared 
'     dissolved.     Finally,  Fendall  resigned  his  commission  from  Lord  Pro- 
prietary, into  the  hands  of  the  Assembly,  and  accepted  a  new  one 
from  that  body  in  their  own  name,  and  by  their  own  authority. 

This  bold  desertion  was  soon  met  by  the  appointing  of  Philip 
/   Calvert  governor,  of  the  province.     Fendall  was  arrested,  tried  but  ; 
I    respited.     Thirty  years  of  prosperity  and  quiet  submission  now  sue-  , 
ceeded  the  stormy  revolutions  just  recorded.     Cromwell  had  passed  ' 
away,  and  Charles  II.  had  been  proclaimed  king. 

When  Philip  Calvert  assumed  the  government  in  1660,  the  num- 
ber of  inhabitants  was  twelve  thousand.  During  the  succeeding 
decade  it  had  increased  to  twenty  thousand. 

Immigrants,  direct  from  England,  began  to  settle  upon  the 
Severn  and  South  Rivers,  and  in  some  cases,  to  buy  up  the  claims 
of  the  earlier  settlers.  Governor  Calvert  was  authorized  to  use  ex- 
treme measures  against  the  leaders  of  the  late  rebellion,  but  he 
contented  himself  in  issuing  a  proclamation  for  the  arrest  of  Captain 
Fuller  for  sedition.  Even  this  was  not  carried  out,  and  many  re-' 
mained  in  the  province. 

The  impetus  of  immigration,  after  1660,  was  distinctly  shown 
upon  the  Rent  Rolls  of  the  county.  Upon  Broad  Neck  Hundred 
additional  surveys  reached  up  to  the  Magothy.  Thomas  Homewood, 
William  Hopkins,  and  Richard  Young,  were  near  the  Magothy. 

Matthew  Howard  resurveyed  "Howard's  Inheritance,"  adjoin- 
ing WilHam  Hopkins.  Thomas  Underwood  located  upon  Ferry 
Creek.  Thomas  Turner  settled  as  a  neighbor  of  Edward  Lloyd  and 
Richard  Young.  These  surveys  extended  north  to  the  Patapsco,  and 
later  to  the  Susquehanna,  Bush  and  Deer  Creek,  of  Harford  County. 


30        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

MIDDLE   NECK  HUNDRED  AFTER  1660. 

South-side  Severn  settlements  were  increased  in  1662.  Matthew 
Howard,  who  had  come  up  from  Lower  Norfolk,  Virginia,  in  1650, 
with  his  neighbor  and  relative,  Edward  Lloyd,  had  died  before  1659, 
but  his  five  sons  now  came.  They  were  Captain  Cornelius  Howard, 
of  "  Howard's  Heirship  and  Chance" ;  Samuel  Howard,  of  "  Howard's 
Hope";  John  Howard,  of  "Howard's  Interest";  all  adjoining  near 
Round  Bay.  Philip  and  Matthew  were  on  North  Severn.  In  1664, 
the  three  sons  of  Edward  Dorsey,  the  immigrant  of  1650 — relatives 
of  the  Howards — took  up  and  patented  their  father's  survey  of 
"  Hockley-in-the-Hole."  They  were  Colonel  Edward  Dorsey,  Joshua 
and  Hon.  John  Dorsey,  prominent  leaders  in  political  movements, 
and  representatives  in  legislative  measures. 

Adjoining  these,  Nicholas  Wyatt  extended  his  surveys  of  "Way- 
field,"  which  was  bought  by  Richard  Warfield.  Henry  Sewell  sur- 
veyed "  Hope"  and  "  Increase."  General  John  Hammond  held  a  large 
estate  east  of  the  Howards.  James  Warner  adjoined  them  in  "  War- 
ner's Neck."  John  Mackubin  surveyed  "Timber  Neck,"  on  Broad 
Creek.  Henry  Pierpoint's  "Diamond"  adjoined  Nicholas  Wyatt, 
Richard  Warfield  and  Thomas  Browne.  These  surveys  were  nine 
miles  west  of  Annapolis. 

SOUTH  RIVER  HUNDRED  AFTER  1660. 

Patents  were  issued  upon  beautiful  South  River,  in  1660,  for 
"Burgess  Right,"  for  Captain  Edward  Burgess;  "Burgh"  and 
"Burgess  Choice,"  for  Colonel  William  Burgess;  "Pole  Cat  Hill" 
and  "Round  About  Hills,"  for  John  Gaither;  "Edward's  Neck," 
for  John  Edwards;  "Chaney's  Neck,"  for  Richard  Chaney;  "Bald- 
win's Addition,"  for  John  Baldwin;  "Watkins  Hope,"  for  John 
Watkins;  "The  Landing,"  for  Robert  Proctor;  "  Larkins'  Hills," 
for  John  Larkin;  "Poplar  Ridge,"  for  Colonel  Nicholas  Gassaway; 
"  Herrington,"  for  Samuel  Chew;  "  Todd's  Range,"  for  Thomas  Todd. 


Chapter   III. 

THE  QUAKERS. 

In  1658,  when  the  "Non-Conformists"  had  settled  down  to 
accept  "the  engagement"  instead  of  the  "oath  of  fidelity,"  and 
Edward  Lloyd  had  been  elevated  to  the  governor's  council,  new 
rebels  appeared  in  the  province.  "The  Governor  (Fendall)  took  j; 
into  consideration  the  insolent  behavior  of  some  people  called  jf 
Quakers,  who,  at  court,  would  stand  covered  and  refuse  to  sign  "  the 
engagement.'  He  therefore  ordered,  'That  they  must  do  so,  or 
depart  from  the  province.'  " 

The  coming  of  these  Quakers  had  a  marked  effect  upon  the  stern 
Virginia  settlers  who  had  preceeded  them.  At  first  their  refusal 
to  abide  b}^  the  orders  to  which  the)'-  were  opposed,  created  much 
discontent,  but  their  gentle  manners  soon  brought  friends. 

Elizabeth  Harris,  wife  of  a  prosperous  London  merchant,  was 
among  the  first  to  brave  the  wilds  to  speak  of  the  love  of  Jesus. 

After  her  return  to  England,  a  convert  named  Robert  Clarkson, 
wrote  as  follows:  "Dear  Heart:  I  salute  thee  in  tender  love  of 
the  Father,  which  moved  thee  towards  us,  and  do  own  thee  to  have 
been  outward  testimony  to  the  inward  truth,  on  me  and  others,  even 
as  many  as  the  Lord,  in  tender  love  and  mercy,  did  give  an  ear  to 
hear.  And  likewise,  John  Baldwin  and  Henry  Carline,  Thomas  Cole 
and  William  Cole,  have  made  open  confession  of  the  truth,  (the 
latter  became  a  Quaker  preacher  in  1662,  and  was  imprisoned  at 
Jamestown  for  violating  the  statutes).  William  Fuller  abides  un- 
moved, (this  was  the  Captain  of  the  Severn).  I  know  not  but  that 
Wm.  Durand  doth  the  like.  He  frequents  our  meetings  but  seldom. 
We  have  disposed  of  our  books,  which  were  sent,  so  that  all  parts 
are  furnished,  and  every  one  that  desires  it  may  have  the  benefit 
by  them.  At  Herrring  Creek,  Roads  River,  South  River,  all  about 
Severn,  the  Broadneck  and  there  about,  the  Severn  Mountains,  and 
Kent. 

"  With  my  dear  love,  I  salute  thy  husband,  and  rest  with  thee 
and  the  gathered  ones  in  the  eternal  word,  which  abideth  forever." 

Thus,  in  1657,  before  the  arrival  of  Cole  and  Thurston,  the 
planting  of  Quakerism  had  commenced  and  Preston,  Berry  and  the 
more  sober-minded  citizens,  listened  gladly  to  the  tenets  of  the 
society.  The  Non-Conformists  who  came  from  Virginia,  not  able  in 
their  scattered  residences,  to  support  a  pastor,  willingly  listened  to 
preaching  of  the  Gospel  by  the  new  sect,  developed  by  the  agitators 
of  the  Cromwellian  era. 

Feeling  that  his  stay  must  be  brief,  the  feet  of  Fox  had  scarcely 
touched  the  sands  of  the  Fautuxent  before  he  began  to  preach. 


32        Founders  of  Axxe  Aruxdel  and  Hoavard  Counties. 

He  spoke  at  the  Severn,  where  the  members  were  so  great  that 
no  building  was  large  enough  to  hold  the  congregation.  The  next 
day  he  was  at  Abraham  Birkheads,  six  or  seven  miles  distant,  and 
there  the  Speaker  of  the  Assembly  was  convinced.  Then,  mount- 
ing his  horse,  he  rode  to  Dr.  Peter  Sharpe's  at  the  Cliffs  of  Calvert. 
Here  was  a  "heavenly  meeting."  Many  of  the  upper  sort  of  people 
present,  and  the  wife  of  one  of  the  governor's  councilors,  was  con- 
vinced. From  thence  he  rode  eighteen  miles  to  James  Preston's^ 
on  the  Patuxent,  where  an  Indian  chief  and  some  of  his  tribe  came 
to  see  the  strange  man,  who  was  lifting  up  his  voice  like  John  the 
Baptist,  in  the  wilderness.  His  labors  were  incessant;  neither 
wintry  sleet  nor  the  burning  sun  detained.  He  forded  the  streams, 
slept  in  woods  and  barns,  with  as  much  serenity  as  in  the  comfort- 
able houses  of  his  friends,  and  was  truly  a  wonder  to  many. 

Before  he  returned  to  England,  he  went  up  to  Annapolis,  at- 
tended a  meeting  of  the  Provincial  Assembty,  and  early  in  1673^ 
sailed  for  his  native  land. 

Mr.  Edmondson,  the  Quaker  preacher,  when  in  Virginia,  made 
this  report:  "Richard  Bennett  stopped  to  hear  me  preach.  He 
was  then  known  as  Major  General  Bennett;  he  said  he  was  a  man 
of  great  estate,  and  as  many  of  our  friends  were  poor  men,  he  desired 
to  contribute  with  them.  He  asked  me  to  his  house.  He  was  a 
solid,  wise  man,  receiving  the  truth  and  died  in  the  same,  leaving 
two  Friends  his  executors." 

Another  view  of  the  early  church  in  Anne  Arundel,  is  here  given. 
Rev.  John  Yoe,  of  the  Church  of  England,  appeared  in  Maryland, 
in  1675.  He  was  disturbed  by  the  movements  of  the  Quakers, 
Baptists,  and  Roman  Catholics,  and  other  Non-Conformists.  From 
the  Patuxent,  in  1676,  he  wrote  to  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury, 
the  following  letter: 

"Most  Reverend  Father, — Be  pleased  to  pardon  this  presump- 
tion of  mine,  in  presenting  to  your  serious  notice  these  rude  lines,  to 
acquaint  your  grace  with  ye  deplorable  estate  and  condition  of  the 
Province  of  Maryland,  for  want  of  an  established  ministry. 

"  Here  are,  in  this  province,  ten  to  twelve  thousand  souls,  and 
but  three  Protestant  ministers  to  us,  yet  are  conformable  to  ye  doc- 
trine and  discipline  of  ye  Church  of  England.  Society  here  is  in 
great  necessity  of  able  and  learned  men,  to  confront  the  gainsa3^ers,' 
especially  having  so  many  professed  enemies.  Yet  one  thing  can- 
not be  obtained  here,  viz:  consecration  of  churches  and  church- 
yards to  ye  end  ye  Christians  might  be  decently  buried  together. 
Whereas,  now,  they  bury  in  the  several  plantations  where  thev 
lived." 

This  letter  was  referred  to  the  Bishop  of  London,  who  returned 
it  to  Lord  Baltimore,  who  replied:  "That  the  act  of  1649,  confirmed 
in  1676,  tolerated  and  protected  every  sect."  And,  he  continued, 
"  Four  ministers  of  the  Church  of  England  are  in  possession  of  planta- 
tions which  offered  them  a  decent  substance."     The  four  referred  to 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        33 

were  probably  Rev.  Mr.  Yeo,  Coode,  the  political  agitator,  Matthew 
Hill,  and  a  minister  sent  by  Charles  the  Second. 

Six  clergymen  came  during  Governor  Nicholson's  administra- 
tion. Rev.  Ethan  Allen  names.  Rev.  Duell  Pead,  Mr.  Crawford, 
Mr.  Moore,  Mr.  Lillingstone  and  Mr.  Vanderbush. 

Rev.  Thomas  Bray,  who  in  1696,  had  been  appointed  Commis- 
sary for  the  clergy,  in  company  with  Sir  Thomas  Lawrence,  Secretary 
of  Maryland,  waited  on  Anne,  Princess  of  Denmark,  to  request  her 
acceptance  of  the  respect  shown  her  by  naming  the  capital  of  Mary- 
land, Annapolis. 

Rev.  Mr.  Bray,  having  received  a  donation  for  libraries  from 
the  Princess,  presented  books  to  the  amount  of  ^400  to  the  capital. 
On  their  covers  is  stamped,  "De  Bibliothica  Annapolitana."  Arriv- 
ing in  March,  1700,  Rev.  Mr.  Bray  preached  before  the  Assembly 
at  Annapolis,  when  the  Church  of  England  was  re-established. 

(Neil.) 

The  Quakers,  as  seen  by  the  above  quotations,  had  meeting 
houses  in  every  section  of  Anne  Arundel.  At  their  meeting-house 
at  West  River,  there  is  still  a  well-preserved  graveyard.  To  their 
meetings  came  the  Galloways,  Murrays,  Richardsons,  Chestons,  Jones, 
Chews,  Hookers,  Lawrences,  Birkheads,  and  many  others  of  the  in- 
fluential families,  who  later  joined  the  Episcopal  Church.  It  was 
in  their  meeting  houses  that  George  Fox  was  gladly  received,  when 
during  that  remarkable  visit,  he  won  over  the  staunch  Puritans 
unto  zealous  Quakers.  Governor  Fendall,  who  had  ordered  them 
to  be  banished,  had  "  to  depart  the  province"  himself,  but  the  gentle 
Quakers  w-on  friends,  and,  like  the  Non-Conformists,  did  pretty  much 
as  they  pleased,  yet  still  held  their  faith  and  kept  their  hats  on.  In 
fact,  the  province  was  the  resort  for  all  kinds  of  rebels. 

Governor  Fendall  was  banished  to  Virginia,  but  returned  and 
defended  himself  with  such  ability,  he  was  acquitted.  As  will  be 
seen  later,  he  left  descendants,  who  became  leaders  in  the  families 
of  Maryland. 

In  1662,  Philip  Calvert  was  superseded  by  Hon.  Charles  Calvert, 
son  of  the  Lord  Proprietary,  who  continued  as  governor  until  the 
death  of  his  father  in  1675,  by  which  he  became  proprietor. 

In  1680  he  assumed  the  government  in  person  for  four  years. 
During  that  time,  Ex-Governor  Fendall  and  Captain  John  Coode 
attempted  to  excite  another  rebellion.  This  was  under  the  pretense 
of  religion,  but  failing  in  it,  they  were  arrested,  tried  and  convicted, 
but  escaped. 

This  attempt  was  but  the  precursor  of  the  coming  revolution 
in  England,  which  later,  was  severely  felt  in  Maryland. 

From  the  victory  of  the  Severn,  in  1655,  to  the  year  1683,  when 
Annapolis  was  made  a  port  of  entry,  there  in  not  a  single  event 
recorded  as  a  history  of  Anne  Arundel.  To  fill  this  gap,  I  will  now 
give  the  outhnes  of  the  county,  some  of  its  officers,  and  the  biography 
of  many  who  made  history  in  that  quarter  of  the  century. 


Chapter  IV. 

BOUNDARIES  OF  THE  COUNTIES. 

The  original  and  indefinite  act  of  1650,  setting  off  Anne  Arundel 
County,  "embraced  all  that  part  of  the  province,  on  the  west  side 
of  the  Chesapeake  Bay,  over  against  the  Isle  of  Kent,  called  Pro- 
vidence by  the  people  thereof." 

The  land  grants  show  that  the  people  of  Providence  extended 
from  Herring  Creek  on  the  south,  to  the  Patapsco  River  on  the 
north,  with  the  Severn  as  a  central  meeting  place. 

During  1650,  an  order  was  passed  erecting  Charles  County  out 
of  the  territory  on  the  south  side  of  the  Patuxent.  This  order  was 
a  county  grant  to  Hon.  Robert  Brooke,  a  special  friend  of  Lord  Balti- 
more, who  with  his  family  of  forty  persons,  including  his  servants, 
had  seated  himself  about  twenty  miles  north  of  the  mouth  of  the 
Patuxent.  When  Robert  Brooke  later  became  a  leader  in  the  in- 
dependent movement  of  the  Virginia  settlers,  he  was  deprived  of 
his  command  by  changing  the  name  of  Charles  County  to  Calvert 
County,  which  had  its  northern  limit  at  "a  creek  on  the  west  side 
of  the  Chesapeake  Bay,  called  Herring  Bay." 

After  the  Commissioners  of  Parliament  had,  in  the  ensuing 
October,  1654,  displaced  Governor  Stone,  an  ordinance  was  passed 
declaring  that  "all  the  lands  extending  from  Marshe's  Creek  down 
the  bay,  including  all  the  lands  on  the  south  side  of  the  bay  and 
cliffs,  with  the  north  and  south  sides  of  the  Patuxent  River,  shall 
constitute  a  county,  to  be  called,  as  it  is,  "Patuxent  County." 

Upon  the  restoration  of  the  proprietary  grovernment,  in  1658, 
all  of  the  previous  acts  were  annulled,  and  the  boundaries  and  the 
names  made  by  the  Council  of  July  3rd,  1654,  were  restored.  The 
question  so  rested  until  1674,  when  the  proprietary  declared  by  pro- 
clamation, "That  the  north  side  of  the  Patuxent  River,  beginning 
at  the  north  side  of  Lyon's  Creek,  shall  be  added  to  Anne  Arundel 
County." 

One  hundred  years  later,  1777,  in  order  to  determine  the  eligi- 
bility of  Mr.  Mackall,  the  House  of  Delegates  declared,  "that  the 
creek,  at  present  called  Fishing  Creek,  was  the  reputed  and  long 
received  boundary  between  the  two  counties." 

Nearly  a  half  century  later,  1832,  an  act  was  passed,  appoint- 
ing commissioners  to  ascertain  and  establish  the  divisional  lines. 

In  1823,  the  commissioners  reported  a  compromise  line  beginning 
at  the  mouth  of  Muddy,  or  Red  Lion's  Creek.  Anne  Arundel  Coimty 
did  not  claim  that  its  limits  extended  to  Herring  Creek,  the  boundary 
assigned  by  the  order  of  1652,  but  that  Marsh's  Creek,  being  the 
conceded  boundary,  the  dispute  was  as  to  the  true  location  of  that 
creek.  Calvert  County  claimed  that  Marsh's  Creek,  named  for 
Thomas  Marsh,  the  first  Anne  Arundel  commissioner,  was  a  creek 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        35 

falling  into  Herring  Creek,  near  its  mouth,  and  extending  westward- 
ly  with  that  creek  to  one  of  the  heads  of  Lyon's  Creek,  and  thence 
with  Lyon's  Creek  to  the  Patuxent.  Anne  Arundel  County  claimed 
that  Marsh's  Creek  was  what  is  now  known  as  Fishing  Creek,  By 
the  act  of  1824,  Fishing  Creek  was  made  the  division  line  on  the  bay 
and  the  south,  or  middle  creek,  on  the  Patuxent.  "  In  duration  and 
the  difficulty  of  arriving  at  a  satisfactory  result,  the  contest  between 
Anne  Arundel  and  Calvert  was  not  unlike  that  between  Lord  Balti- 
more and  the  Penns. 

"But  the  identity  of  Marsh's  Creek,  (the  admitted  boundary), 
with  Fishing  Creek,  is  clearly  proved  by  the  records  in  the  land  office. 
The  history  of  the  title  to  "Majors  Choice,"  taken  up  by  the  Honor- 
able Thomas  Marsh,  near  the  Cliffs  of  Calvert,  will  readily  develop 
all  the  evidence  upon  this  knotty  question." — (Davis.) 

The  creation  of  Charles  County  in  1658,  had  no  northern  limit 
except  "as  far  as  the  settlements  extended." 

In  1695,  Prince  George  County  was  formed  out  of  its  northern 
territory,  extending  south  as  far  as  Mattawoman  Creek,  and  a  straight 
line  drawn  thence  to  the  head  of  the  Swanson's  Creek,  and  with 
that  creek  to  the  Patuxent.  The  present  divisional  line  of  Charles 
and  Prince  George  slightly  varies  to  the  west  by  an  artificial  line 
running  from  the  Mattawoman  to  a  given  point  on  the  Potomac, 
nearly  opposite  Mount  Vernon. — (Act  of  1748,  Chapter  14.) 

On  the  north  and  east,  Prince  George  has  always  been  separated 
from  Anne  Arundel  and  Charles  by  the  Patuxent  River. 

Extending  from  the  Patuxent  to  the  Potomac,  Prince  George 
received  its  definite  western  limits,  in  1748,  by  the  creation  of  Fred- 
erick County,  from  which  it  was  separated  by  a  straight  line,  begin- 
ning at  the  lower  side  of  the  mouth  of  Rock  Creek,  and  running 
thence  north  with  Hyatt's  plantation  to  the  Patuxent  River,  at 
Crow's  mill,  west  of  Laurel. 

This  line,  in  1776,  upon  the  erection  of  Montgomery  County 
out  of  the  lower  portion  of  Frederick,  became  the  divisional  line 
between  Prince  George  and  Montgomery  Counties.  The  eastern 
boundary  line  of  Frederick  County,  when  erected,  in  1748,  touched 
the  western  boundaries  of  Prince  George,  Anne  Arundel  and  Balti- 
more Counties. 

Baltimore  County  was  partly  formed  out  of  the  northern  por- 
tion of  Anne  Arundel,  in  1659.  In  the  proclamation  of  1674,  the 
southern  bounds  of  Baltimore  County  shall  be  "the  south  side  of 
Patapsco  River,  and  from  the  highest  plantations  on  that  side  of 
the  river,  due  south  two  miles  in  the  woods."  In  1698,  an  act  was 
passed  defining  the  line  "  beginning  at  three  marked  trees,  standing 
about  a  mile  and  a  quarter  to  the  southward  of  Bodkin  Creek,  on 
the  west  side  of  Chesapeake  Bay,  and  near  a  marsh  and  a  pond: 
thence  west  until  they  cross  the  mountains  of  the  mouth  of  the 
Magothy  River,  to  Richard  Beard's  mill:  thence  continuing  west- 
ward with  said  road  to  William  Hawkin's  path,  to  two  marked 
trees:    thence  along  said  road  to  two  marked  trees:    thence  leav- 


36        FouNDEES  OF  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

ing  said  road  by  a  line  drawn  west  to  William  Slade's  path  to 
two  marked  trees:  thence  continuing  west  between  the  draughts  of 
the  Magothy  and  Patapsco  Rivers,  until  they  come  to  a  mountain 
of  white  stone  rock:  still  continuing  west  to  a  road  going  to  Patapsco, 
to  Peter  Bond's,  to  two  marked  trees:  thence  continuing  west  to 
the  main  road,  to  Patapsco  Ferry,  to  two  marked  pines  standing 
near  the  Ready  Branch,  written  at  large  on  the  north  side  of  said 
trees,  Baltimore  County;  and  on  the  south  side  Anne  Arundel  County. 
Then  with  a  line  drawn  west  northwest  to  Elkridge  road,  to  two 
marked  trees;  thence  continuing  the  same  course  of  west  northwest 
to  Patuxent  River,  and  so  on  up  the  said  river  to  the  extent  thereof, 
for  the  bounds  of  Baltimore  County. — 

In  1725,  an  act  was  passed,  limiting  the  southern  border  of 
Baltimore  County  to  the  Patapsco  River,  from  its  mouth  to  its  head, 
but  its  western  limits  were  still  vague. 

The  head  of  the  Patapsco  was  the  western  limit,  as  well  as  that 
of  Anne  Arundel,  by  the  act  of  1725,  until  the  formation  of  Fred- 
erick County,  in  1748,  which  enacted,  "that  its  lines  after  reach- 
ing the  river,  should  run  with  it  to  the  hues  of  Baltimore  County, 
and  with  that  county  to  the  extent  of  the  province." 

In  1750,  a  definite  line  was  established  between  Frederick  and 
Baltimore  Counties:  "Beginning  at  a  spring  called  Parr's  Spring, 
and  running  thence  N.  35  E.,  to  a  bounded  white  oak,  standing 
on  the  west  side  of  a  wagon  road,  called  John  Digges'  road,  about 
a  mile  above  the  place  called  Burnt  House  Woods:  and  running 
thence  up  said  road  to  a  bounded  white  oak,  standing  on  the  east 
side  thereof,  at  the  head  of  a  draught  of  Sam's  Creek:  thence  N. 
55  E.  to  a  Spanish  oak,  standing  on  a  ridge  near  William  Robert's, 
and  opposite  to  the  head  of  a  branch  called  the  Beaver  Dam:  thence 
N.  20  E.  to  the  temporary  line  between  the  Provinces  of  Maryland 
and  Pennsylvania,  being  near  the  head  of  a  draught  called  Conawajo, 
at  a  rocky  hill  called  Rattle  Snake  Hill."  The  western  limit  of 
Anne  Anclurel  County  was  also  the  eastern  limit  of  Frederick  and 
Montgomery  line,  which  was  a  straight  line  from  the  mouth  of  the 
Monocacy  to  Parr's  Spring,  where  the  Frederick  and  Baltimore 
Coimty  lines  met.  A  branch  from  that  spring  to  the  Patapsco, 
limited  Anne  Arundel  on  the  west.  By  a  more  recent  act,  1836, 
creating  Carroll  County  out  of  the  portions  of  Frederick  and  Balti- 
more Coimties,  the  western  limits  of  Baltimore  are  near  Woodstock, 
B.  &  O.  R.  R. 

In  1838,  Howard  District,  extending  on  the  east  from  Laurel 
to  Elk  Ridge  Landing,  via  the  B.  &  0.  R.  R.,  was  set  off  from  Anne 
Arundel,  and  in  1851,  became  a  county,  though  its  actual  settle- 
ment was  begun  before  1700. 

Western  Maryland  was,  from  1658  to  1776,  successively  included 
in  the  geographical  limits  of  Charles,  Prince  George  and  Frederick 
Counties,  erected  in  1658,  1695  and  1748  respectfully.  On  July  26th, 
1776,  the  Provincial  Convention  of  Maryland  divided  Frederick 
County  into  three  districts,  upper,  middle  and  lower. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 


37 


The  first  embraced  Washington,  Alleghany  and  Garrett:  second 
took  Frederick  and  a  part  of  Carroll:  third  embraced  Montgomery 
County.  Each  by  ordinance  was  made  a  separate  county  on  Sept. 
6th,  1776. 


OFFICERS  OF  ANNE  ARUNDEL  COUNTY,  FROM  ITS  ORGAN- 
IZATION UNTIL  IT  CHANGED  TO  A  ROYAL  PROVINCE. 


JUSTICES. 
James  Homewood, 
Thomas  Meeres, 
Thomas  Marsh, 
George  Puddington, 
Matthew  Hawkins, 
James  Menyman, 
Henry  Cathn. 


Robert  Brooke, 
Col.  Francis  Yardly, 
Mr.  Job  Chandler, 
Capt.  Edmund  Winder, 
Col.  Richard  Preston, 
Lieut.  Richard  Banks, 


1650. 
DELEGATES 
Jas.  Cox, 
George  Puddington. 


1651.     No  delegation  sent. 


COMMANDER. 
Edward  Lloyd. 


1652. 
PARLIAMENTARY  COMMISSIONERS. 


Administered  the  government. 


OFFICERS  OF  ANNE  ARUNDEL  COUNTY. 


JUSTICES. 

(Richard  Bennett, 
and 
Wm.  Clayborne. 


JUSTICES. 
Capt.  Wm.  Fuller, 
Rich.  Preston, 
Wm.  Durand, 
Edward  Lloyd. 


Capt.  John  Smith, 
Leonard  Strong, 
John  Ijawson, 
John  Hatch, 
Rich.  WeUs, 
Richard  Ewen, 


1653. 
DELEGATES. 
Governor  Stone  re- 
appointed 
Thomas  Hatton, 
Secretary. 

1654. 
DELEGATE. 


Quorum. 


COUNCILLORS. 
Robert  Brooke, 
Capt.  John  Price, 
Job.  Chandler, 
Col.  Francis  Yardly, 
Col.  Richard  Preston. 


Wm.  Durand, 

Secty.  of  State. 


Richard  Preston, 

Speaker,  Keeper  of  Records. 


I  Justices. 


38        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 


OFFICERS  OF  ANNE  ARUNDEL  COUNTY. 

1655. 

Capt.  Wm.  Fuller's  Council,  as  in  1654. 

Council  of  War,  after  the  Battle  of  the  Severn,  1655. 


JUSTICES. 
Capt.  William  Fuller, 
Wm.  Burgess, 
Richard  Ewen, 


DELEGATES. 
Leonard  Strong, 
Wm.  Durand, 
Roger  Heamans, 

1656. 


COUNCILLORS. 
Mr.  Besson, 
Samson  Warren, 
Wm.  Crouch. 


Upon  Governor  Josias  Fendall  assuming  the  government,  the  following 
had  him  arrested: 


Capt.  Wm.  FuUer, 
Edward  Lloyd, 


Richard  Wells, 
Col.  Rich.  Ewen, 

1657. 


Thomas  Marsh, 
Thomas  Meeres. 


Governor  Fendall.  Philip  Calvert,  Secty. 

Capt.  Fuller's  Assembly  of  ten  members,  Richard  Ewen,  Speaker. 


JUSTICES. 
Wm.  Burgess, 
Robt.  Burle, 
Roger  Grosse, 
Rich.  Wells. 
John  Brewer, 
Thos.  Meeres, 
Thos.  Todde, 
Thos.  Howell, 
Richard  Ewen, 
Anthony  Salway, 
Rich.  Woolman. 


DELEGATES. 
Capt.  Robt.  Sley, 
Capt.  Jas.  Weeks, 
Mr.  Robt.  Taylor, 
Capt.  Thos.  Besson, 
Mr.  Peter  Sharp, 
Capt.  Phil.  Morgan, 
Mr.  Richard  Brooks, 
Mr.  Jas.  Johnson. 


1658. 


COUNCILLORS. 
Edward  Lloyd, 
Capt.  Wm.  Fuller. 


Compromise  of  Lord  Baltimore  and  Bennett, 
Commissioners : 
Gov.  Fendall, 
Secty.  Comwallis, 


Capt.  Wm.  Fuller, 
Rich.  Preston, 
Edward  Lloyd, 
Thomas  Meeres, 
Philip  Thomas, 
Saml.  Withers. 


JUSTICES. 
Rich.  WeUs, 
Saml.  Withers, 
Thos.  Todd, 
John  Brewer, 
Robert  Burle, 
Roger  Grosse, 
Thomas  Besson, 
Edmund  Townhill. 
Anthony  Galway, 
Francis  Holland. 


Agreed  to  restore  records  to  Fendall;  to  issue  grants  for 
lands;    to  guarantee  indemnity  for  passed  acts. 


1660. 
DELEGATES. 
John  Brewer 

and 
Saml.  Chew. 


COUNCILLORS. 
Edward  Lloyd. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 


39 


JUSTICES. 
Saml.  Chew.,  Sheriff, 
Capt.  Wm.  Burgess, 
Richard  Ewen, 
George  Puddington 
Ralph  Williams, 
Thos.  Taylor, 
Capt.  John  Norwood. 

JUSTICES. 

Capt.  Wm.  Burgess  appoint- 
Sheriff,  but  called  to  field, 
succeeded  by  Rich.  Ewen, 
1664-5. 


1662. 
DELEGATES. 
Robert  Burle. 


COUNCILLORS. 
Edward  Lloyd. 


Rich.  Ewen,  Sheriff. 


1666. 
Thos.  Stockett,  Sheriff. 

Thos.  Marsh, 
John  Ewen, 
Robert  Francklyn, 
John  Welsh,  *>., — * 
Sarnl.  Chew. 
George  Puddington, 
Robert  Burle. 

Thos.  Stockett,  Sheriff. 


Wm.  Burgess, 
Saml.  Lane, 
Robert  Brooke, 
John  Homewood,    J 
Richard  Ewen. 
Robt.  Francklyn, 
Thos.  Hedge, 
Richard  Burton,  Clerk 


1663-1664. 

DELEGATES. 
Thos.  Meeres, 
Richard  Beard, 
John  Homeswood, 
George  Puddington. 

1665. 
Robt.  Burle, 
Capt.  Thos.  Besson, 
Richard  Beard. 
Thos.  Taylor, 
Edward  Selby. 

1667. 
The  Seal  of  A.  A.  Co.  was 
taken  from  Thos.  Tay- 
lor in  1667,  and  given 
to  Saml.  Chew. 


1668-1669. 
Wm.  Burgess, 
Saml.  Withers, 

1671. 
Wm.  Burgess, 
Thos.  Taylor, 
Cornelius  Howard, 
Robert  Francklyn. 

1674. 


COUNCILLORS. 
Edward  Lloyd. 


Edward  Lloyd. 


Edward  Lloyd. 


Saml.  Chew. 


Saml.  Chew. 


Sami.  Chew. 


Quorum. 


Col.  Wm. 
Col.  Saml.  Lane, 
Major  John  Welsh, 
Robert  Francklyn, 
Capt.  Richard  Hill, 
John  Homewood, 
Henry  Stockett, 
Thos.  Francis, 
Wm.  Jones, 
Henry  Lewis. 


1676. 
Dedimus  protestatimus  to  Col. 
Wm.  Burgess  and  Saml.  Lane. 
Quorum. 


Saml.  Chew. 


40 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 


\ 


John  Welsh,  Sheriff, 

Col.  Thos.  Tailler, 
Col.  Wm.  Burgess, 
Capt.  John  Welsh, 
Capt.  Rich.  Hill, 
Thos.  Francis, 


Capt.  Nich.  Gassaway, 
Edward  Burgess, 
Cornelius  Howard, 
John  SoUers. 


1678-1679. 

Col.  Wm.  Burgess, 
Jas.  Rigby, 
John  Homewood, 
Wm.  Richardson. 
Quorum. 


1680-1682. 

Henry  Ridgely. 
Edward  Dorsey, 
Richard  Beard,  Jr. 


Henry  Hanslap,  Sheriff, 
Capt,  Rich.  Hill,  of  Severn, 
Edward  Burgess,  of  Londontown, 
Thomas  Knighton,  of  Herring  Creek. 


Quorum. 


Capt.  Rich.  Hill, 
Major  Nich.  Gassaway 
Capt.  Edward  Burgess, 
Major  Edward  Dorsey, 

JUSTICES. 
Mr.  Henry  Ridgely, 
Mr.  Rich.  Beard, 
John  SoUers, 
Thos.  Tench, 
Thos.  Knighton, 
John  Hammond, 
Nich.  Greenberry, 
James  Ellis. 


Major  Nich.  Gassaway, 

Major  Edward  Dorsey,  "1 

Capt.  Nich.  Greenberry,  I  /-»„«,,.„, 

Mr  John  Hammond  Quorum. 

Mr.  Thos.  Tench,  J 

Mr.  Edward  Burgess, 

Mr.  Henry  Ridgley, 

Mr.  Henry  Constable, 

Rich.  Beard, 

Thos.  Knighton, 

Mr.  James  Ellis, 

Mr.  John  Bennett. 


1683. 


1685. 


1687. 


Col.  Wm.  Burgess. 


Col.  Wm.  Burgess. 


Col.  Wm.  Burgess. 


1689. 


Mr.  Thos.  Tench,    \  p^,^„„^ 
Mr.  John  Bennett,  /  Coroners. 
Mr.  Henry  Hanslap,  Sheriff, 
Mr.  Henry  Bonner,  Clerk. 


1692. 


\ 


Quorum. 


Capt.  John  Hammond, 

Mr.  Wm.  Holland, 

Mr.  Saml.  Young, 

Major  Henry  Ridgely, 

Henry  Constable, 

Capt.  Nich.  Gassaway, 

Mr.  John  Worthington, 

Mr.  Abel  Browne, 

Mr.  Edward  Batson.  Surveyor. 


Mr.  John  Hammond, 
Mr.  Henry  Ridgely, 
Mr.  James  Saunders, 
Mr.  John  Dorsey. 


Col.  Nich.  Greenberry. 
Thos.  Tench. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        41 

ORDINARIES, 

In  1675,  there  were  only  three  authorized  ordinaries  for  the 
accommodation  of  the  public.  One  was  at  the  Court  House;  one 
at  Richard  Hills;   and  one  at  the  Red  Lyon. 

The  expenses  for  meat,  drink  and  lodging,  during  the  Assembly 
.  of  Burgesses,  to  be  paid  to  the  in  holder  of  St.  Maries,  in  1666,  were 
4,586  pounds  of  tobacco;  also  necessary  expenses  to  each  member 
for  hands  and  boat  hire,  until  they  arrive  at  their  homes.  In  1675, 
the  taxable  rate  of  816,  taxable  at  165  pounds  of  tobacco,  per  poll, 
was  134,640  pounds. 

BIOGRAPHIES  OF  THE  FOUNDERS  OF  ANNE  ARUNDEL  CO. 
RICHARD  BENNETT. 

Richard  Bennett  was  the  Moses  from  the  Nansemond  to  the 
Severn.     He  may  be  termed  a  settler  of  two  States. 

His  uncle,  Edward  Bennett  was  a  wealthy  London  merchant, 
once  Deputy-Governor  of  the  English  Merchants  of  Holland. 

He  was  largely  interested  in  the  Virginia  trade,  and  organized 
the  Virginia  Company,  already  noted.  As  his  representative  in 
Virginia,  Richard  Bennett,  immediately  rose  to  importance.  In 
1629  and  1631,  he  was  in  the  House  of  Burgesses.  In  1642-1649  he 
was  a  Commissioner  and  member  of  the  Council. 

In  the  latter  year  he  secured,  from  the  Governor  of  Maryland, 
a  grant  of  "Towne  Neck,"  on  the  Severn,  for  fifteen  of  his  followers, 
who  wished  to  be  close  together.  Our  land  records  show  that  he 
soon  after  disposed  of  this  grant  to  his  wife's  kinsman.  Colonel 
Nathaniel  Utie,  secretary  to  the  governor.  As  Governor  of  Virginia, 
still  later,  his  administration  appears  to  have  been  acceptable, 
even  to  the  loyalists. 

He  remained  a  member  of  the  Virginia  Council  until  his  death. 

(Hening.) 

In  1666,  he  was  made  Major-General  of  Militia.  He  was  a  friend 
to  the  Quakers,  and  made  provision  for  many  needy  families.  His 
will  was  probated  in  1675.  The  bulk  of  his  estate  descended  to 
his  grandson,  Richard  Bennett,  3rd,  son  of  Richard  Bennett,  2nd, 
by  Henrietta  Marie  Neale,  daughter  of  Captain  James  Neale,  at- 
torney for  Lord  Baltimore,  at  Amsterdam,  and  former  representa- 
tive in  Spain.  Captain  Neale  came  to  America  in  1666,  and  repre- 
sented Charles  County  in  the  House  of  Burgesses.  His  wife,  Anna 
Gill,  was  the  daughter  of  Benjamin  Gill.  Their  daughter  Henrietta 
Marie,  was  named  for  her  godmother,  the  queen.  By  her  marriage 
to  Richard  Bennett,  Jr.,  they  had  two  children,  Richard  Bennett 
and  Susanna  (Bennett)  Lowe,  ancestress  of  Governor  Lowe  and 
Charles  Carroll,  of  CarroUton. 

Richard  Bennett,  Jr.,  lived  for  a  time  upon  the  Severn.  He 
was  in  the  Assembly  of  1666,  and  was  a  Commissioner  of  Kent 
County,  in  which  he  had  an  immense  estate.     In  his  early  manhood 


42        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

he  was  drowned.  His  only  son,  Richard,  succeeded  to  an  estate 
which  made  him  "the  richest  man  of  his  majesty's  dominion."  He 
died  a  bachelor,  leaving  his  property  to  his  sister,  Susannah  Lowe, 
and  to  his  step-father.  Colonel  Philemon  Lloyd.  His  tombstone 
still  stands  at  "Bennetts  Point." 

Ann  Bennett,  of  Major-General  Bennett,  became  Mrs.  Theo- 
dorick  Bland,  of  "Westover,"  Virginia.  She  died  at  Wharton's 
Creek,  Maryland,  as  the  wife  of  Colonel  St.  Legar  Codd,  of  Virginia 
and  of  Maryland. 

General  Bennett  and  Commander  Edward  Lloyd  were  the  staunch 
leaders  in  opposition  to  a  Catholic  proprietary,  yet  their  sons  both 
yielded  to  the  eloquence  of  the  good  Catholic  lady,  Henrietta  Marie 
Neale;  whilst  a  descendant  of  Commander  Robert  Brooke,  another  .• 
rebelious  subject,  took  for  his  wife,  Dorothy  Neale,  sister  of  Hen-  ( 
rietta  Marie  Neale.  She  was  the  progenitress  of  Chief  Justice  Roger 
Brooke  Taney.  These  two  Catholic  mothers  not  only  united  dis- 
cordant religions,  but  the  former  gave  to  Maryland  the  following 
distinguished  sons:  Governor  Edward  Lloyd,  of  1709,  and  Hon. 
Edward  Lloyd,  his  son;  Revolutionary  Edward  Lloyd,  and  his  son, 
Governor  Edward  Lloyd,  of  1809,  United  States  Senator  and  grand- 
father of  Governor  Henry  Lloyd. 

She  was  the  grandmother  of  Dorothy  Blake,  mother  of  Charles 
Carroll,  the  "Barrister";  grandmother  of  Hon.  Matthew  Tilghman 
and  of  Richard  Tilghman,  of  "The  Hermitage." 

She  was  the  grandmother  of  Governor  William  Paca's  wife; 
of  Edward  Dorsey's  wife,  and  of  Thomas  Beale  Bordley's  wife.  As 
Maid  of  Honor  to  Queen  Henrietta  Marie,  she  received  a  ring,  which 
is  now  in  possession  of  Mrs.  Clara  Tilghman  Goldsborough  Earle, 
granddaughter  of  Colonel  Tench  Tilghman,  great-grandson  of  Anna 
Gill. 

The  descendants  of  this  prolific  mother  are  "Legion."  They 
have  added  many  brilliant  pages  to  the  history  of  Maryland. 

THOMAS  MARSH. 

This  first  Commissioner  of  Anne  Arundel,  coming  up  from  Vir- 
ginia with  William  Durand,  he  surveyed  lands,  first  upon  Herring 
Creek,  but  later  became  a  merchant  of  the  Severn. 

He  was  an  active  member  in  every  movement  of  the  early 
settlers.  Having  become  prominent  in  the  Severn  contest,  the  pro- 
prietary government,  in  1658,  refused  to  recognize  his  right  to  lands. 
His  tract  known  as  "Majors  Choice,"  became  historic  as  a  long 
disputed  line  dividing  the  Counties  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Calvert, 
He  assigned  a  hundred  acres  upon  the  Chesapeake  to  Edward  Dorsey 
and  Thomas  jyianning.  The  latter  in  his  petition  for  a  title  to  the 
land,  recorded  that  it  was  taken  up  by  Thomas  Marsh,  who,  on  ac- 
count of  his  rebellion,  was  unable  to  secure  title  to  the  same. 

Thomas  Marsh  assigned,  also,  to  William  Ayres,  a  tract  upon 
Herring  Creek. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        43 

Removing  to  Kent  Island  he  was  made  captain  of  Militia. 

In  his  will  of  1679,  he  named  his  wife  Jane,  daughter  of  John 
Clements;   his  son  Thomas,  and  daughters  Sarah  and  Mary. 

Ralph  Williams,  of  Bristol,  England,  residing,  in  1672,  upo« 
"Towne  Neck,"  made  Thomas  Marsh,  senior,  his  residuary  legatee. 
He  was,  also,  that  same  year,  a  witness  to  the  will  of  Robert  Burle, 
an  associate  justice  and  legislator  from  the  Severn. 

The  Foremans,  of  "Clover  Fields"  and  "Rose  Hill,"  and  other 
representative  families  of  Eastern  Maryland,  descend  from  this  first 
Commissioner. 

HAWKINS. 

Closely  allied  to  Bennett,  Lloyd,  Meeres,  and  others  of  the 
Nansemond  settlers,  several  families  of  Hawkins  were  early  set- 
tlers in  the  province.  John  Hawkins,  through  his  attorney,  Nicholas 
Wyatt,  assigned  unto  Giles  Blake  one  hundred  acres,  due  him  for 
transporting  himself  into  the  province.  Henry  Hawkins  named 
"his  brother  Philemon  Lloyd,"  and  left  his  property  to  Edward 
Lloyd,  Susanna  Bennett  and  Maria  Bennett. 

Ralph  Hawkins  was  on  the  Magothy  River  in  1657.  He  had 
sons,  Ralph  and  William,  to  whom  he  left  "goods  out  of  England." 

His  wife  was  Margaret  Hawkins.  William  Hawkins  wife,  Eliz- 
abeth, received  from  Thomas  Meeres  "a  riding  horse." 

Thomas  Hawkins,  of  Poplar  Island,  named  "Margaret  Hall, 
daughter  of  Edward."     His  wife  was  Elizabeth. 

Matthew  Hawkins,  of  the  Severn,  was  one  of  Edward  Lloyd's 
first  commissioners,  in  1650.  From  his  daughter  Elizabeth,  came 
State  Senator  George  Hawkins  Williams,  and  Mr.  Elihu  Riley,  the 
historian  of  Annapolis. 

From  John  Hawkins,  who  married  Elizabeth,  daughter  of 
Nicholas  Dorsey,  descended  Mr.  James  McEvoy,  Dr.  Frank  Martin, 
Augustus  W.  Martin,  Mrs.  Dr.  Mills,  and  Miss  Fannie  Martin,  des- 
cendants of  Dr.  Samuel  B.  Martin,  the  "  old  defender,"  and  his  wife 
Ruth  Dorsey  Hawkins. 

The  Hawkins,  of  Queenstown,  sent  down  a  judge  of  the  provincial 
court  in  1700,  and  a  surveyor-general  of  customs.  T||irough  the 
Fosters  and  Lowes,  they  were  connected  with  Lord  \Charles)  Balti- 
more, the  Lloyds,  De  Courseys,  Marshes,  Tilghmans  and  Chambers. 

"Very  interesting  memorial  remains,"  says  Davis,  "are  now  in 
possession  of  the  vestry  of  Centreville,  showing  a  massive  piece  of 
silver  plate  in  excellent  preservation." 

HENRY  HAWKINS. 

An  interesting  case  in  Chancery  gives  us  a  view  of  some  of  our 

y    early  fathers.     The  case  is  an  inquiry  to  ascertain  the  owner  of 

f\    "Nathaniel  Point,"  in  Talbot  County,  on  Wye  River.     Colonel  Ed- 

'    ■  ward  Lloyd  called  a  commisison  of  Mr.  William  Coursey  to  take 

depositions,  and  Captain  John  Davis  gave  this  record: 


44        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

"Mr.  John  Scott  told  me  that  a  certain  bachelor's  tree,  up  on 
the  road  passing  through  '  Nathaniel  Point '  got  its  name  from  the 
sale  of  said  point  by  Mr.  Nathaniel  Cleeve  to  Mr.  Henry  Hawkins 
for  a  case  of  spirits.  Upon  the  delivery  of  the  goods,  Mr.  Henry 
Hawkins,  Mr.  Nathaniel  Cleeve,  Wm.  Jones,  Henry  Catlin  and  four 
others,  all  bachelors,  under  that  tree  consumed  the  whole  case  of 
spirits  and  at  the  conclusion  of  the  feast,  Mr.  Cleeve  before  all,  pub- 
licly expressed  his  entire  satisfaction  with  the  bargain. 

Mr.  Henry  Hawkins  held  the  tract,  and  delivered  it  over  to  his 
kinsman.  Colonel  Philemon  Lloyd,  whose  son  was  the  party  to  the 
Inquisition.  This  transfer  was  confirmed  by  three  of  the  bachelor 
party. 

HENRY  CATLIN. 

This  Commissioner  and  neighbor  of  Edward  Lloyd,  was  a  Justice 
and  Burgess  of  Virginia.  He  was  also  an  active  supporter  of  the 
Independent  Church  in  Virginia.  He  came  up  in  1649,  bringing 
"  his  wife  Jane  and  his  son,"  (stepson),  presumably  Richard  Horner. 
He  did  not  remain  long,  but,  in  1661,  assigned  his  estate  to  Matthew 
Howard,  who  resurveyed  it  as  "  Howards  Inheritance." 

JAMES  MERRYHAN. 

A  neighbor  of  Henry  Catlin,  and  a  member  of  Lloyd's  first  com- 
missioners, James  Merryman,  in  1662,  assigned  his  certificate  for 
five  hundred  acres  to  John  Browne,  of  New  England.  He  left  no 
will,  or  other  records.  The  Merrymans,  of  Hayfield,  may  thus  des- 
cend. 

John  Browne  held  this  grant  and  assigned  it  to  James  Rigbie, 
who  sold  to  Colonel  Nicholas  Greenberry. 

THOMAS  MEERES. 

Thomas  Meeres  was  an  important  member  of  the  Virginia  As- 
sembly before  coming  up  to  be  one  of  Lloyd's  council.  He  was 
high  in  the  church.  He  was  an  active  participant  in  the  Severn 
contest  and  was  upon  the  committee  which  arrested  Governor  Fen- 
dall.  He  was  a  Justice  of  Anne  Arundel,  in  1657,  and  a  delegate  to 
restore  the  records  in  1658. 

His  will  of  1674,  shows  him  a  man  of  means.  His  daughter, 
Sarah  Homewood,  son  John,  and  wife  EHzabeth  shared  each  one- 
third  of  his  estate.  To  the  latter  was  given  his  "jewels,  plate,  bills, 
and  bonds." 

John  married  Sarah,  daughter  of  Philip  Thomas.  One  daughter, 
Sarah,  was  their  only  heir.  She  became  Mrs.  John  Talbott.  They 
sold  "Pendenny"  to  Captain  John  Worthington.  This^iract  was 
Captain  Worthington's  homestead,  just  opposite  the  Naval  Academy. 
It  was  also  the  homestead  of  Commander  Edward  Lloyd,  who  as- 
signed it  to  Thomas  Meeres,  who  made  the  Quaker  Society  the  final 
court  of  resort,  in  case  of  any  dispute  of  his  will. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        45 

The  will  of  John  Meeres  left  "lands  bequeathed  by  my  father, 
Thomas  Meeres,  adjoining  brother-in-law  John  Homewood,"  to 
daughter  Sarah  Talbott.  «,■    .^.v^    'wj 

He  left  legacies  to  the  children  of  his  sister-in-law,  Elizabeth 
Coale,  and  referred  to  his  brother-in-law,  Samuel  Thomas. 

HOMEWOOD. 

James,  John  and  Thomas  Homewood  were  all  upon  the  Magothy. 
James  was  Commissioner  under  Edward  Lloyd,  in  1650. 

John  Homewood  was  a  later  Commissioner  of  Anne  Arundel, 
His  wife,  Sarah  Homewood,  was  a  daughter  of  Thomas  Meeres. 
She  again  became  the  wife  of  John  Bennett,  a  Commissioner  to  lay 
out  Annapolis  in  1694.  She  was  the  legatee  of  Henry  Howard,  in 
1683,  who  gave  her  "a  seal  ring  with  a  coat  of  arms,  and  a  hooked 
ring  with  the  initials  F.  C." 

John  Homewood  and  Henry  Howard  were  intimate  friends. 

Both  were  legatees  of  John  Pawson,  of  the  city  of  York,  Eng- 
land, who,  in  1677,  also  named  his  friend,  Dr.  Stockett,  in  his  list 
of  legatees.  The  Worthingtons  and  Homewoods  were  united  in 
marriage  still  later. 

CAPTAIN  GEORGE  PUDDINGTON. 

Honored  as  one  of  the  first  Commissioners  under  Edward  Lloyd 
and  unanimously  named  as  one  of  the  first  legislators  of  1650,  Captain 
George  Puddington  took  at  once  a  foremost  place  in  the  new  county. 

Of  his  wife,  the  following  record  from  the  Virginia  Magazine  of 
History,  is  of  interest:  "Colonel  Obedience  Robins,  of  "Cherry- 
stone," born  1601,  was  a  member,  in  1632,  of  the  first  County  Court 
of  Accomac,  and  was  a  brother  of  Edward,  merchant  of  Accomac. 
His  name  and  associations  seem  to  indicate  that  he  was  of  Puritan 
affinities.  His  wife  was  the  widow  of  Edward  Waters,  of  Bermuda. 
When  a  girl  of  sixteen,  Grace  O'Neil  arrived  at  the  Bermudas  in 
the  ship  "  Diana."  Becoming  Mrs  Waters,  they  removed  to  Eliza- 
beth City,  now  Hampton,  where  their  first  son,  William,  was  born. 
He  became  an  active  citizen  of  Northampton.  Upon  the  death  of 
Edward  Waters,  the  widow  became  the  wife  of  Colonel  Obedience 
Robins.  Jane,  the  wife  of  George  Puddington,  a  member  of  the 
Maryland  Assembly,  from  Anne  Arundel  County  in  1650,  was  a 
sister-in-law  of  Colonel  Obedience  Robins." 

Captain  Puddington  took  up  "  Puddington  Harbor,"  "  Pudding- 
ton Gift,"  and  "West  Puddington." 

In  1667,  he  was  an  associate  justice  of  Anne  Arundel.  He  left 
no  son.     His  will  was  probated  by  Colonel  William  Burgess,  in  1674. 

Captain  Edward  Burgess,  named  for  his  grandfather.  Colonel 
Edward  Robins,  was  Captain  Puddington's  residuary  legatee.  The 
sons-in-law  of  Captain  Puddington  were  Ex-SherifT  Robert  Franck- 
lyn;   Hon.  Richard  Beard,  the  surveyor;  and  grandson  Neal  Clarke. 


46        FouNDEES  OF  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

All  named  in  his  will  as  follows:  "son-in-law  Robert  Francklyn;  to 
each  of  my  son  Richard  Beard's  children;  to  each  of  my  grandson 
Neal  Clark's  children;  to  George  Burgess,  William  Burgess  and  Sus- 
anna, children  of  Captain  William  Burgess,  legacies.  My  loving 
wife  Jane,  and  Edward  Burgess  the  rest  of  my  estate." 

PHILIP  THOMAS. 

With  his  wife  Sarah  Harrison  and  three  children,  Philip,  Sarah 
and  Elizabeth,  Philip  Thomas  came  from  Bristol,  England,  in  1651. 
He  was  granted  five  hundred  acres,  "  Beckley,"  on  the  west  of  the 
Chesapeake. 

To  this  he  added  "Thomas  Towne,"  "The  Plains"  and  "Phihp's 
Addition."  On  this  he  erected  his  homestead,  "Lebanon,"  a  view 
of  which  is  still  preserved.  On  his  lands  stands  Thomas  Point  Light- 
house. 

His  neighbor  was  Captain  Wm.  Fuller,  the  provincial  leader. 
With  him,  Edward  Lloyd,  Richard  Preston,  Samuel  Withers  went 
to  St.  Leonards,  and  delivered  up  the  captured  records.  With  this 
act  he  gave  up  political  adventures  and  joined  the  Society  of  Friends, 
under  George  Fox.  The  Quaker  Society  was  made  the  final  court 
to  settle  his  estate. 

This  estate  was  claimed  by  his  son,  Samuel  Thomas,  through  a 
verbal  will  which  Edward  Talbott,  his  brother-in-law  resisted.  The 
question  was  finally  decided  by  the  Society  in  favor  of  all  the  heirs. 

Sarah  Thomas,  the  English  born  daughter,  married  John  Meeres; 
Elizabeth  became  the  third  wife  of  William  Coale,  and  still  later 
the  wife  of  Edward  Talbott;   Martha  became  Mrs.  Richard  Arnold. 

Samuel  Thomas — Mary  Hutchins,  of  Calvert,  whose  mother  was 
Elizabeth  Burrage.  Their  daughter  Sarah — Joseph  Richardson; 
Elizabeth — Richard  Snowden,  son  of  Richard  and  Mary  (Linthicum) 
Snowden;  John  Thomas — Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Richard  and  Eliza- 
beth (Coale)  Snowden;  Samuel  Thomas — Mary,  daughter  of  Richard 
and  Elizabeth  (Coale)  Snowden;  Ann  Thomas — Edward  Fell,  of 
England. 

Philip  Thomas,  eldest  son  of  Samuel  and  Mary  Thomas — first 
Francis  Holland,  leaving  a  son  William  Thomas;  second,  Ann, 
daughter  of  Samuel  Chew  and  Mary  his  wife.  Their  issue  were 
Samuel,  Philip,  Mary,  Elizabeth — Samuel  Snowden,  Richard — 
Deborah  Hughes;  John  Thomas  resided  at  West  River,  wrote  poetry 
and  was  President  of  the  Maryland"  Senate.  He  married  Sarah, 
third  davighter  of  Dr.  Wm.  Murray — Anne:  Philip,  John  and  Sarah. 
Samuel,  eldest  son  of  Philip  and  Ann  Chew  Thomas,  removed  to 
Perry  Point  in  the  Susquehannah,  and  married  his  cousin  Mary, 
daughter  of  Samuel  and  Mary  Snowden  Thomas;  issue,  Ann,  Philip, 
Saml.  Richard  Snowden,  John  Chew  and  Evan  William.  Samuel 
was  a  minister  of  Friends,  and  married  Anna,  daughter  of  Dr.  Chas. 
Alexander  Warfield:  Evan  William — Martha  Gray:  John  Chew,  4th, 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        47 

son  of  Samuel,  and  Mary  Thomas  resided  at  Fairland,  Anne  Arundel: 
was  member  of  Congress,  in  1799,  and  took  part  in  the  election  of 
President,  in  which  three  days  and  thirty-five  ballots  were  required 
to  select  Thomas  Jefferson.  He  married  Mary,  daughter  of  Richard 
and  Eliza  (Rutland)  Snowden,  of  Fairland. 

Having  married  an  heiress  and  becoming  a  large  slave  holder, 
he  lost  his  membership  in  the  Quaker  church,  which  he  only  regained 
by  manumitting  one  hundred  slaves.  He  sold  his  homestead  for 
$50,000. 

The  Thomas  family,  of  Maryland,  has  already  been  fully  traced 
in  the  Thomas  Book.  Some  descendants  will  be  found  more  fully 
in  this  work,  in  the  biographical  sketches  of  three  governors  of  Mary- 
land representing  different  branches  of  Philip  Thomas'  descendants. 

FAMILIES  CONNECTED  WITH  GOVERNOR  FENDALL. 

Governor  Fendall's  official  life  has  already  been  noted.  He 
closed  his  life  as  a  Marylander  and  left  a  distinguished  line.  His 
son  Colonel  John  Fendall,  of  "Clifton  Hall,"  born  1672,  married 
Elizabeth  Hanson,  widow  of  William  Marshall. 

Benjamin  Fendall,  "of  Potomack,"  born  1708,  married  Eleanor 
Lee,  daughter  of  Philip  Lee  and  Sarah  (Brooke).  After  her  death, 
he  married  Priscilla  Hawkins,  widow  of  John  and  daughter  of  Alex- 
ander Magruder.  His  daughter,  Sarah  Fendall,  was  the  beautiful 
wife  of  Colonel  Thomas  Contee,  of  "Brookefield."  This  estate  was 
originally  the  homestead  of  Major  Thomas  Brooke,  who  received 
many  thousand  acres  on  the  west  side  of  the  Patuxent.  His  initials, 
T.  B.,  cut  on  a  boundary  stone,  gave  the  name  to  the  village  "T.  B." 

The  village  of  Nottingham  stands  on  a  portion  of  his  grant. 

In  1660,  Major  Thomas  Brooke  was  commissioned  major  of  the 
Colonial  forces.  His  vessel  brought  over  many  settlers.  In  1673, 
he  became  a  member  of  the  General  Assembly.  He  married,  in 
1659,  Eleanor  Hatton,  daughter  of  Hon.  Richard  Hatton,  of  London, 
whose  children  came  with  their  uncle,  Hon.  Thomas  Hatton,  of  the 
Council.  He  fell  in  the  battle  of  the  Severn  in  1655.  "Brooke- 
field"  descended  to  his  son,  Thomas,  whose  mother  married  Henry 
Darnell,  of  "The  Woodyard,"  land  commissioner  under  Lord  Balti- 
more, his  brother-in-law. 

Mary  Darnall,  at  fifteen,  became  the  wife  of  Charles  Carroll, 
attorney-general  for  Lord  Baltimore.  Their  son,  Charles  Carroll,  Jr., 
was  the  father  of  Charles  Carroll,  of  Carrollton.  Major  Thomas 
-^Brooke  and  wife  were  Catholics.  Clement  Brooke,  the  son,  married 
Jane  Sewall,  daughter  of  Major  Nicholas  Sewall,  and  Susanna, 
daughter  of  Colonel  William  Burgess.  Elizabeth  Brooke,  of  Clement, 
became  the  mother  of  Charles  Carroll,  of  Carrollton. 

Colonel  Thomas  Brooke,  of  "Brookefield,"  was  repeatedly 
elected  to  the  General  Assembly,  and  a  member  of  his  lordship's 


48        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Council,  becoming,  in  1720,  president  of  that  body.  He  belonged 
to  the  Church  of  England.  His  second  wife  was  Barbara  Dent, 
daughter  of  Colonel  Thomas  Dent  and  Rebecca  Wilkinson,  his  wife, 

Sarah  Brooke  married  Phihp  Lee,  of  "Blenheim" — Issue:  Richard 
Lee,  of  "  Blenheim,"  and  Thomas  Lee,  father  of  Governor  Thomas 
Sim  Lee,  whose  son,  John  Lee,  gave  the  name  to  another,  and  later 
governor  of  Maryland,  John  Lee  Carroll,  of  "Doughoregan  Manor." 
Governor  Fendall's  descendants  are  traced  in  "The  Bowies  and 
Their  Kindred." 

CAPTAIN  THOMAS  TODD. 


V^ 


Thomas  Todd  passed  his  youth  in  England.  He  patented  land 
in  Ehzabeth  City,  Virginia,  in  1647.  The  "Rent  Rolls"  of  Anne 
Arundel  show,  that  Thomas  Todd,  shipwright,  surveyed  a  lot  "on 
ye  south  side  of  ye  Severn  River."  It  was  a  portion  of  the  present 
city  of  Annapolis.  There  was  a  contest  in  Chancery  over  the  title 
to  this  survey.  It  was  decided  against  him,  yet  Lancelot  Todd,  of 
Baltimore  County,  in  1718,  sold  it  to  Bordley  and  Bladen.  Thomas 
Todd  resided  there,  in  1657;  he  was  appointed,  by  Governor  Fen- 
dall,  one  of  the  justices  of  Anne  Arundel. 

The  mansion  of  Charles  Carroll,  of  Annapolis,  was  built  upon 
his  survey. 

Thomas  Todd  took  up  lands  on  Fells  Point,  Baltimore  County, 
and  later  patented  land,  including  some  seven  hundred  acres  on  the 
Eastern  Shore.  He  is  supposed  to  have  been  the  son  of  Robert 
Todd,  of  York  County,  Virginia,  in  1642. 

-'"  In  1664,  Thomas  Todd  located  at  North  Point.  He  also  held 
an  estate,  "Toddsbur}'^,"  in  Gloucester  County.  Virginia,  still  held 
by  his  descendants.  In  1674-5,  he  was  a  Burgess  in  the  Assembly 
of  Maryland,  from  Baltimore  County.  He  married  Ann  Gorsuch, 
daughter  of  Rev.  John  Gorsuch,  rector  of  Walkham,  Herfordshire, 
whose  wife  was  Ann,  daughter  of  Sir  William  Lovelace.  Her  brother 
Charles  Gorsuch  married  Ann  Hawkins,  as  shown  by  the  West  River 
Quaker  records. 

Thomas  Todd,  before  sailing  for  England,  with  eighty-seven 
hogsheads  of  tobacco  from  his  plantation,  wrote  a  letter  to  his  son, 
Thomas,  of  "Toddsbury,"  Virginia,  saying:  "All  my  desire  is  to 
see  you  before  I  go,  for  I  fear  I  shall  never  see  you,  as  I  am  very 
weak  and  sick.  I  want  some  good  cider  to  keep  me  alive,  which  I 
suppose  you  have  enough  of.  We  intend  to  set  sail  to-morrow,  if 
it  be  a  fair  wind."  He  died  at  sea.  His  will  was  probated  in  Balti- 
more, Annapolis  and  Virginia.  His  widow,  Ann  married  David 
Jones.  Her  son,  James  Todd,  married  a  daughter  of  Mountenay, 
and  upon  their  estate  was  started  the  City  of  Baltimore. 

Thomas  Todd,  3rd,  who  styled  himself  "The  Younger,"  was 
the  inheritor  of  "  "  North  Point,"  and  the  father  of  Thomas  Todd; 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties,        49 

4th,  and  Robert  Todd,  to  whom  he  left  his  large  estate.  The  old 
homestead,  that  has  always  been  owned  by  Thomas  Todd,  de- 
scended to  Thomas  Todd,  4th.  He  married  Eleanor  Dorsey,  of 
"  Hockley,"  They  left  a  son  Thomas,  and  four  daughters,  Eleanor, 
Elizabeth,  Francis  and  Mary.  The  first  three  inherited  "Shawan 
Hunting  Ground,"  a  beautiful  estate  adjoining  Worthington  Valley. 
Mary  Todd  inherited  "Todds  Industry,"  and  other  tracts  upon  the 
Patapsco.  She  married  John  Worthington;  Elizabeth  Todd — John 
Cromwell;  Eleanor — John  Ensor;  Francis — George  Risteau;  Mrs. 
Eleanor  Todd — 2nd  WiHiam  Lynch.  Their  daughter,  Deborah — 
Samuel  Owings,  Jr.,  of  Owings  Mills. 

Thomas  Todd,  5th,  left  sons,  WilHam,  Dr.  Christopher,  Bernard> 
George  and  Thomas. 

Mr.  Thomas  Bernard  Todd,  the  present  owner  of  "  North  Point," 
president  of  the  school  board  of  Baltimore  County,  descends  from 
Bernard  Todd. 

Lancelot  Todd,  neighbor  of  Cornelius  Howard,  in  his  will  of 
1690,  named  "his  kinsman  Lancelot  Todd." 

The  latter  married  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Mary  Rockhold. 
Their  two  danghters  were  Ruth  Dorsey,  wife  of  Michael,  and  Sarah 
Dorsey,  wife  of  Edward. 

As  Lancelot,  Jr.,  sold  the  surveys  taken  by  Captain  Thomas 
Todd  at  Annapolis,  he  must  have  been  the  heir  of  James  Todd,  an 
important  man  in  the  early  days  of  Baltimore.  See  case  in  Chancery, 
wherein  Daniel  Dulany,  attorney-general  for  the  Proprietary,  enters 
suit  against  Edmund  Jennings,  who  married  the  widow  of  Thos. 
Bordley,  for  the  restoration  of  grant  bought  by  Bordley  and  Larkins, 
from  Lancelot  Todd,  representative  of  Thomas  Todd,  the  surveyor. 
It  is  a  very  interesting  review  of  the  title  to  the  site  of  Annapolis. 

COLONEL  WILLIAM  BURGESS. 

Two  of  the  South  River  settlers  from  Virginia,  were  brothers- 
in-law  and  neighbors. 

They  were  Colonel  William  Burgess  and  Richard  Beard.  Their 
wives  were  thus  recorded  in  the  Virginia  Magazine  of  History :  "  Ed- 
ward Robins,  born  in  England  1602,  came  to  Virginia  in  the  bark 
Thomas,  in  1615.  He  was  of  Northampton,  now  Accomac  County, 
and  built  "Newport  House,"  now  Eyreville.  His  daughter  Eliza- 
beth married  William  Burgess,  of  Maryland.  His  daughter  Rachel 
married  Richard  Beard." — (Standard,  Vol.  8.) 

After  William  Stone,  of  Northampton,  became  the  first  Protes- 
tant governor.  Beard  and  Burgess  removed  to  Maryland.  The  next 
record  from  the  same  source  mistakes  the  son  for  the  father,  when 
it  states:  "Beard  made  the  first  map  of  Annapolis."  It  was  Richard 
Beard,  Jr.,  surveyor  of  Anne  Arundel,  who  made  the  map.  His 
father  died  in  1675,  before  Annapolis  had  been  named.  William 
Burgess  began,  at  once,  his  commanding  career.     In  1655,  he  was 


50        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

one  of  the  Council  of  War  to  condemn  Governor  Stone, — the  very 
man  he  had  followed  to  Maryland, 

In  1657,  he  was  named,  first  by  Governor  Josias  Fendall,  a 
commissioner  and  associate  justice  of  the  new  County  of  Anne  Arun- 
del. Declining  to  take  the  necessary  oath,  on  the  groimd  it  was  not 
lawful  to  swear,  his  plea  was  rejected  and  another  name  was  sub- 
stituted. In  1660,  when  Governor  Fendall  had  been  banished,  and 
Philip  Calvert  had  succeeded  him,  William  Burgess  sent  in  a  peti- 
tion reviewing  his  former  refusal  to  take  the  oath,  and  ascribing  it 
to  the  influence  of  ill-advised  friends.  He  announced  his  deter- 
mination, henceforth,  to  devote  his  remaining  days  to  the  service 
of  the  proprietary.  His  petition  was  favorably  received  and  he  was 
set  free  without  fine  or  trial. 

In  1661,  he  was  placed  in  command  of  the  South  River  Rangers, 
and  was  ordered  to  send  all  Indian  prisoners  to  St.  Mary's  for  trial. 
In  1663,  he  was  placed  at  the  head  of  the  Anne  Arundel  Commission- 
ers. 

In  1664,  he  was  high  sheriff  of  Anne  Arundel.  Upon  receiving 
orders  to  go  against  the  Indians,  he  named  his  successor.  Major  Rich- 
ard Ewen,  from  whose  family  he  had  taken  his  second  wife. 

In  1665,  Charles  Calvert,  son  of  Lord  Baltimore,  having  suc- 
ceeded his  uncle  Philip,  honored  William  Burgess  in  the  following 
commission : 

Captain  William  Burgess, 

Greeting, — Whereas,  Diverse  Forraing  Indians  have  of  late 
committed  divers  murthers  upon  our  people,  I  have  thought  fitt  to 
raise  a  sufficient  number  of  men.  Now  know  ye  that  I  reposing 
especial  confidence  in  your  fidelity,  courage  and  experience  in 
martial  affaires,  have  constituted,  ordained  and  appointed  you 
Commander-in-Chief  of  all  forces  raised  in  St.  Maries,  Kent,  Charles, 
Calvert  and  Anne  Arundel  Counties. 

Given  under  my  hand,  34th  year  of  his  Lordship's  Dom.,  1665. 

Charles  Calvert. 

Then  follow  instructions  for  the  campaign. 

Major  Thomas  Brooke  was  ordered  "to  raise  forty  men  and 
march  to  Captain  William  Burgess,  in  Anne  Arundel,  there  to  receive 
orders  from  him  as  Commander-in-Chief.  Ordered  that  Captain 
William  Burgess  raise  by  presse,  or  otherwise,  thirty  men  with  arms 
and  ammunition  to  proceed  according  to  former  orders." 

Charles  Calvert. 

Some  Seneca  Indians  had  killed  several  English  settlers  in  Anne 
Arundel.  The  following  reward  was  offered:  "One  hundred  arms 
length  of  Roan  Oake,  for  bringing  in  a  cenego  prisoner,  or  both  of 
his  ears,  if  he  be  slain."  In  1675,  Colonel  William  Burgess  and 
Colonel  Samuel  Chew  were  ordered  to  go  against  the  Indians  on  the 
Severn. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        51 

In  1679,  it  was  ordered,  "That  Colonel  Burgess  supply  Balti- 
more County  with  twenty  men  from  Anne  Arundel,  for  the  defense 
of  that  county." 

In  1681,  Robert  Proctor,  from  his  town  on  the  Severn,  Thomas 
Francis,  from  South  River  and  Colonel  Samuel  Lane,  from  the  same 
section,  all  wrote  urgent  letters  stating  that  the  Indians  had  killed 
and  wounded  both  negroes  and  English  men  "at  a  plantation  of 
Major  Welsh's,"  and  "had  attempted  to  enter  the  houses  of  Mr. 
Mareen  Duvall  and  Richard  Snowden." 

Major  Francis  wrote,  and  Colonel  Nicholas  Gassaway  added: 
"  I  have  but  nineteen  men  of  all  the  Coll  Troope,  and  cann  gett  noe 
more — men  are  sick,  and  of  them  half  have  noe  ammunition,  nor 
know  where  to  gett  it.  There  is  such  a  parcell  of  Coll.  Burges  foote 
Company  in  the  like  condition  for  ammunition.  The  head  of  the 
River  will  be  deserted,  if  we  leave  them,  and  they  have  no  other 
reliefe.  Wee  marched  in  the  night  to  the  releife.  Major  Lane  sent 
to  our  releife  about  thirty  foote  more,  but  we  have  noe  orders  but 
to  Range  and  Defend  the  Plantations,  which  we  shall  doe  to  the 
best  of  our  skill,  and  I  suppose,  if  Baltimore  County  wants  assist- 
ance that  at  this  time  it  cannot  be  well  supply ed  from  Anne  Arundel; 
we  have  stood  to  our  Arms  all  night  and  need  enough.  Just  now 
more  news  of  three  families  robbed  at  Seavern. 

Your  humble  servts., 

Tho.  Francis,  Nich.  Gassaway." 

Major  Samuel  Lane  wrote:  "The  county  of  Anne  Arrundll  at 
this  time  is  in  Create  danger.  Our  men  marched  all  Monday  night, 
the  greatest  part  of  South  River  had  been  most  cutt  off.  Wee  want 
Ammunition  exceedingly,  and  have  not  where-with-all  to  furnish  half 
our  men.  I  hope  your  Ldpp.  will  dispatch  away  Coll.  Burges  with 
what  Ammunition  may  be  thought  convenient.  I  shall  take  all  the 
care  that  lyeth  in  me,  but  there  comes  daily  and  hourely  Complaints 
to  me  that  I  am  wholly  Imployed  in  the  Country's  Service. 

In  haste  with  my  humble  service, 
Sept.  13th,  1681.  Samuel  Lane." 

Robert  Proctor  wrote  that  Mr.  Edward  Dorsey  had  come  to 
him  very  late  in  the  night,  with  the  news  of  robberies  by  the  Indians 
upon  the  Severn. 

Upon  such  information,  followed  the  decisive  order  to  Colonel 
WilHam  Burgess  and  Colonel  Thomas  Tailler,  "to  fight,  kill,  take, 
vanquish,  overcome,  follow  and  destroy  them." 

Colonel  Taylor  commanded  the  horse,  Colonel  Burgess  the  foot, 
and  both  were  Protestants. 

From  that  date  on  to  1682,  Colonel  Burgess  was  a  delegate  to 
the  Lower  House;  from  1682  to  his  death  in  1686,  he  was  in  the 
Upper  House.     He  was  upon  many  committees. 


52        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

His  epitaph  is  a  most  remarkable  condensation  of  his  eventful 
life.     It  reads: 

"  Here  lyeth  the  body  of  Wm.  Burgess, 

Esq.,  who  departed  this  life  on  ye 

24th  of  January,  1686, 

Aged  64  years:  leaving  his 

Dear  beloved  wife,  Ursula  and  eleven 

children,  viz. :  seven  sons  and  four  daughters, 

And  eight  grand-children. 

In  his  life-time,  a  member  of 

His  Lordship's  Deputy  Governors; 

A  Justice  of  ye  High  Provincial  Court; 

Colon  of  a  regiment  of  Trained  Bands: 

And  sometimes  General  of  all  ye 

Military  Forces  of  this  Province. 

His  loving  wife,  Ursula,  his  executrix 

In  testimony  of  her  true  respect, 

And  due  regard  to  the  worthy 

Deserts  of  her  dear  deceased 

Husband,  hath  erected  this  monument." 

The  historian,  Geo.  L.  Davis,  says  of  Colonel  Burgess: 

"He  was  himself,  through  his  son  Charles,  the  ancestor  of  the 
Burgesses  of  Westphalia;  through  his  daughter,  Susannah,  of  the 
Sewalls  of  Mattapany-Sewalls,  closely  allied  to  Lord  Charles  Balti- 
more; through  his  granddaughter,  Ursula,  of  the  Davises  of  Mt. 
Hope,  who  did  not  arrive  from  Wales  before  1720;  and  through  a 
still  later  line,  of  the  Bowies  of  Prince  George." 

Colonel  Burgess  left  an  exceedingly  intelligent  will  of  entail; 
naming  his  sons  and  daughters,  Edward,  George,  William,  John, 
Joseph,  Benjamin,  Charles,  Elizabeth,  Susannah,  Anne.  I  give  to 
my  Sonne  William  my  message  land  where  I  now  dwell,  near  South 
River,  together  with  eighteen  hundred  acres  adjoining,  which  I  pur- 
chased of  George  Westall,  and  one  part  whereof  is  a  Town  appointed 
called  London,  provided  my  wife,  Ursula,  shall  live  there  until  my 
son  is  of  age.  I  give  unto  Wilham,  all  of  "Betty's  Choice,"  in  Balto, 
Co.,  near  Col.  Geo.  Wells,  containing  480  acres.  I  give  to  my  sonne, 
John  Burgess,  four  tracts,  "Morley's  Lott,"  "  Bednall's  Green," 
"  Benjamin's  Choice,"  and  "  Benjamin's  Addition,"  lying  near  Her- 
ring Creek,  some  800  acres.  I  give  to  my  sonne,  Joseph,  lands 
purchased  of  Richard  Beard,  near  South  River,  called  "West  Pud- 
dington,"  and  "Beard's  Habitation,"  1300  acres.  I  give  to  my 
sonne  Benjamin,  a  tract,  " Bessington,"  near  the  Ridge,  also  "Bur- 
gess Choice,"  near  South  River.  I  give  to  my  sonne,  Charles,  a 
tract,  purchased  of  Vincent  Lowe,  at  the  head  of  Sasafras  Hiver, 
of  1600  acres,  and  another  of  Vincent  Lowe,  on  the  SusquehaVinah, 
of  500  acres;  provided,  if  any  should  die  before  attaining  agei  then 
every  such  tract  shall  descend  to  the  eldest  then  living.  I  give 
all  the  rest  of  my  estate,  here  or  in  England,  to  my  dear  wife,  Ursula, 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        53 

at  pleasure,  and  she  shall  have  the  care  of  the  education  of  my  child- 
ren and  the  use  of  their  portions.  I  desire  that  she  shall  be  my 
executrix,  with  my  friends  Major  Nicholas  Sewall,  Major  Nicholas 
Gassaway  and  Captain  Henry  Hanslap,  as  supervisors,  and  to  each 
of  them  I  grant  ^5.  William  Burgess,  (seal.) 

His  sons,  Edward  and  George,  had  been  provided  for  before  his 
will.  His  daughters  received  ^300  in  money,  plate  and  other 
personals. 

His  seal-ring  of  gold  was  willed  to  his  daughter,  Susannah,  wife 
of  Major  Nicholas  Sewall.  She  was  the  daughter  of  Colonel  Burgess,  t 
by  Mrs.  Richard  Ewen.  Colonel  Burgess  bore  arms,  as  the  existing 
impression  of  his  seal  reveals,  of  a  family  of  Truro,  in  Cornwall,  but 
was  akin  to  the  Burgesses  of  Marlborough,  Wilts  County.  (Or  a 
fesse  chequy,  or,  and  gules,  in  chief,  three  crosses,  crosslet  fitchie 
of  the  last.) 

Except  Charles  Burgess,  of  Westphalia,  who  married  a  daughter 
of  Captain  Henry  Hanslap,  the  succeeding  Burgess  name  was  alone 
handed  down  by  Captain  Edward  Burgess,  the  son  who  came  up 
from  Virginia  with  him.  John  and  Joseph  died  early;  Benjamin, 
under  the  will,  claimed  their  estates,  but  finally  compromised  with 
Captain  Edward.  Benjamin  sold  his  whole  estate  and  went  to  Eng- 
land. George,  after  holding  the  office  of  High  Sheriff,  joined  his 
wife  Catherine,  the  widow  Stockett,  in  deeding  all  their  estate,  and 
removed  to  Devon  County,  England.  > 

Ann — Thomas  Sparrow,  and  died  the  same  year.  Jane  Sewall 
of  Major  Nicholas  and  Susannah  Burgess — Clement  Brooke,  son  of 
Major  Thomas.  Their  daughter,  Elizabeth  Brooke,  became  the 
mother  of  Charles  Carroll,  of  Carrollton.  William  Burgess,  Jr., 
inherited  the  homestead;  he  married  Ann  (Watkins)  Lord,  daughter 
of  John  Watkins,  the  stepson  of  Commander  Edward  Lloyd.  Bur- 
gess' will  left  1,000  acres  in  Baltimore  County  to  his  wife's  children 
by  her  former  husband,  Mr.  Lord. 

His  mother  became  the  wife  of  Dr.  Mordecai  Moore,  and  re- 
mained upon  the  homestead,  near  Londontown,  until  her  death, 
in  1700.  She  was  the  heir  of  Nicholas  Painter,  long  clerk  of  the 
Council,  whose  will  left  a  large  estate  to  her  children.  She  was 
buried  by  the  side  of  Colonel  Burgess. 

Captain  Edward  Burgess,  was  in  the  life-time  of  his  father, 
commissioner  for  opening  the  port  of  Londontown;  justice  of  the 
Provincial  Court  and  "Captain  of  the  Foote."  He  was  the  executor 
and  heir  of  Captain  George  Puddington. 

The  Chew  genealogy  records:  "Sarah,  daughter  of  Samuel 
Chew,  of  John  of  Chewtown,  married  a  Burges."  She  was  the  wife 
of  Captain  Edward  Burgess,  whose  oldest  son,  Samuel,  was  named 
for  Samuel  Chew.  Captain  Burgess'  will  left  his  estate  to  his  sons 
Samuel  and  John,  having  already  deeded  lands  to  his  daughter, 
Mrs.  Margaret  Ware  and  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Nicholson.  Mrs.  Sarah 
Burgess,  his  widow,  left  hers  to  "  my  daughters  Ann  White,  Sarah 


54        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Gaither  and  Susannah  Richardson."  Benjamin  Gaither,  her  son-in- 
law,  was  made  executor.  Samuel  Burgess  (of  Captain  Edward), 
married  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Durbin.  Issue,  Edward,  Benjamin  and 
Elizabeth. 

John  Burgess  (of  Captain  Edward)  married,  first  Jane  Mackle- 
fresh  (of  David).  Issue,  William,  Benjamin,  Samuel,  Sarah,  Ann 
and  Susannah. 

y-^'  He  married  second,  in  1733,  Matilda  Sparrow.  Issue,  John, 
Joseph,  Edward,  West  and  Caleb  Burgess,  all  revolutionary  patriots, 
whose  history  belongs  to  Howard  County. 

Upon  the  homestead  tract  of  the  late  General  George  Stewart, 
of  South  River,  is  the  original  site  of  Colonel  William  Burgess'  home; 
from  which,  upon  a  commanding  hill,  may  be  seen  his  tombstone, 
quoted  above.  Surrounding  General  Stewart's  home  are  massive 
oaks,  which  bear  the  imprint  of  ages.  Upon  this  site,  too,  stood 
the  home  of  Anthony  Stewart,  of  the  "Peggy  Stewart,"  who  came 
into  possession  of  Colonel  Burgess'  home  tract,  which  later  passed 
into  General  Stewart's  possession.  The  two  families,  with  similar 
names  claim  no  relation  to  each  other.  The  road  leading  past  the 
historic  place  and  on  to  All  Hallows  Church,  about  three-fourths  of 
a  mile  west,  is  the  same  over  which  General  Washington  passed  from 
Annapolis  to  Mt.  Vernon,  in  1783.  Along  this  road  are  yet  to  be 
seen  wayside  oaks,  that  reveal  the  remarkable  richness  of  this  South 
River  section,  when  occupied  by  our  early  settlers. 

Along  this  road,  beautiful  views  of  the  broad  South  River  may 
be  enjoyed. 

Between  Colonel  Burgess'  homestead  and  his  Londontown  tract, 
there  still  stands  a  well-preserved  old  brick  homestead,  with  massive 
chimneys  and  steep  roof.  It  is  within  sight  of  the  Alms  House  upon 
the  southern  bank  of  South  River.     I  have  not  found  its  builder. 

All  of  the  property  passed  through  Colonel  Burgess  and  his  son, 
William  Burgess,  Jr.,  to  Mrs.  Ursula  Moore,  wife  of  Dr.  Mordecai 
Moore.  From  that  family,  through  recorded  transfers,  it  may  be 
traced  to  the  present  owners.  The  most  of  it  is  now  in  the  estate  of 
General  George  Stewart,  whose  linage  has  been  clearly  traced  to 
Kenneth,  2nd,  the  first  Scottish  king. 

Colonel  Burgess'  son-in-law.  Major  Nicholas  Sewall,  son  of  Hon. 
Henry  Sewall,  of  "Mattepany,"  was  a  member  of  the  Council  from 
1684  to  1689.  His  sons  were  Charles  and  Henry.  Elizabeth 
Sewall,  widow  of  the  latter,  married  Hon.  William  Lee,  of  the  Council, 
and  became  mother  of  Thomas  Lee,  father  of  Governor  Thomas  Sim 
Lee. 

Nicholas,  son  of  Henry  and  Elizabeth  Sewall,  married  Miss 
Darnall,  of  "  Poplar  Hill,"  Prince  George  County. 

Their  descendants  were:  Hon.  Nicholas  Lewis  Sewall,  of  "Cedar 
Point,"  member  of  the  convention  for  ratification  of  the  Constitu- 
tion of  United  States;  and  Robert  Darnall  Sewall,  of  "Poplar  Hill.'^ 

This  was  a  part  of  the  famous  "  Woody ard,"  the  house  of  Colonel 
Henry  Darnall  of  1665,  whose  brother,  John  Darnall,  held  "  Port- 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        55 

land  Manor/'  in  Anne  Arundel.  Colonel  Henry  Darnall's  daughter, 
Eleanor,  became  the  wife  of  Clement  Hill.  Eleanor  Brooke  Darnall, 
of  the  "Woodyard,"  was  the  mother  of  Archbishop  John  Carroll^ 
and  Mary  Darnall,  of  "The  Woodyard,"  became  the  wife  of  Charles 
Carroll,  of  Carrollton.  Robert  Darnall,  grandson  of  Colonel  Henry, 
lost  all  the  magnificent  estate  except  "Poplar  Hill,"  about  eight 
hundred  arces,  which  came  into  possession  of  the  Sewalls,  through 
the  marriage  above  mentioned. — (Thomas.) 

Lady  Baltimore,  wife  of  Charles  Lord  Baltimore,  and  widow 
of  Hon.  Henry  Sewall,  was  the  danghter  of  Vincent  Lowe  and  Anne 
Cavendish,  of  London,  and  a  sister  of  Colonel  Vincent  Lowe,  of 
Maryland. 

Her  daughter,  Jane  Sewall,  became  the  wife  of  Hon.  Philip 
Calvert,  and  her  daughter  Elizabeth,  married  second  Colonel  Wm. 
Digges,  member  of  the  Maryland  Council,  son  of  Governor  Edward 
Digges,  of  Virginia.  Colonel  Digges  was  in  command  at  St.  Mary's, 
when  compelled  to  surrender  to  Captain  John  Coode's  revolutionary 
forces  in  1689.  He  later  removed  to  "Warburton  Manor,"  nearly 
opposite  to  Mt.  Vernon. 

It  was  in  the  garrison  of  Mattapany,  a  large  brick  mansion,  the 
property  of  Lady  Baltimore,  descending  to  her  son,  Colonel  Nicholas 
Sewall,  where  Governor  Calvert  had  erected  a  fort,  that  his  forces 
retired  when  attacked  by  Coode;  and  it  was  there  that  the  formal 
articles  of  surrender  were  prepared. 

The  house  and  property  of  the  proprietary  were  confiscated, 
but  came  back  to  the  possession  of  the  Sewalls  in  1722,  by  a  grant 
from  the  second  Charles  Lord  Baltimore,  to  Nicholas  Sewall,  son  of 
the  original  proprietor,  and  so  remained  until  the  present  century. 

There  are  on  record,  at  Annapolis,  the  wills  of  two  residents  of 
Wilts  County,  England,  viz:  Anthony  Goddard,  of  Suringden,  of 
Wilts,  England,  in  1663,  left  "to  William  Burgess,  of  Anne  Arundel, 
his  entire  estate,  in  trust  for  Hester  Burgess,  of  Bristol,  England. 
Joseph  Burgess,  of  Wilts,  in  1672,  named  his  brother,  William  and 
others.  Our  records  show  that  Colonel  Burgess,  of  Anne  Arundel 
County,  settled  the  estate. 

EDWARD  DORSEY. 

In  the  Land  Office  of  Annapolis,  may  be  seen  the  following 
warrant,  which  explains  ilself: 

"Warrant  MDCL,  granted  to  Edward  Dorsey,  of  Anne  Arundel 
Co.,  for  200  acres  of  land,  which  he  assigns  as  followeth;  as  also 
200  acres  more,  part  of  a  warrant  for  400  acres,  granted  John  Nor- 
wood and  the  said  Dorsey,  dated  XXIII  of  Feb.,  MDCLI.  Know 
all  men  by  these  presents  that  I,  Edward  Dorsey,  of  the  County  of 
Anne  Arundel,  boatwright,  have  granted,  bargained  and  sold,  for 
a  valuable  consideration,  already  received,  all  my  right,  title,  in- 
terest of  and  in  a  warrant  for  200  acres,  bearing  date  1650,  and 
also  200  acres  more,  being  half  of  a  warrant  of  400  acres — the  one 


56        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

half  belonging  to  Captain  Norwood,  bearing  date,   1651,  both  of 
which  assigned  to  George  Yate. — Edward  Dorsey,  Sealed." 

Signed  in  the  presence  of  Cornelius  Howard,  John  Howard,  Oct. 
22nd,  MDCLXVII,  (1667). 

That  same  year  the  same  Edward  Dorsey  assigned  to  Cornelius 
Howard,  his  right  for  land  for  transporting  seven  persons  into  the 
province.  Edward  Dorsey  and  Thomas  Manning  held  a  certificate 
from  Thomas  Marsh,  for  600  acres  adjoining  Captain  Norwood. 
"Norwood's  Fancy,"  held  by  Captain  Norwood,  was  near  Round 
Bay.  "  Dorsey,"  held  by  Edward  Dorsey,  gave  the  name  to  "  Dor- 
sey's  Creek,"  upon  which  was  located  Thomas  Gates,  whose  will  of 
1659,  reads:  "  I  give  to  Michael  Bellott  and  John  Holloway  my  plan- 
tation. I  desire  that  they  give  to  Edward  Dorsey's  children  free  out- 
let to  the  woods  and  spring  as  formally  I  have  given  them."  The 
following  transfer,  of  1668,  further  locates  the  above  testator:  "George 
Yate,  1668,  assigned  to  Colonel  Edward  Dorsey,  sixty  acres  called 
"Dorsey,"  on  the  south  side  of  the  Severn,  on  Dorsey's  Creek,  run- 
ning to  a  cove  called  Freeman's,  then  up  said  cove  to  Captain  John 
Norwood's,  then  bounding  on  a  line  of  a  place  formally  held  by 
Thomas  Gates." 

Colonel  Edward  Dorsey,  son  and  heir  of  Edward  Dorsey,  the 
immigrant,  held  this  tract  of  "Dorsey"  during  life.  It  was  sold  by 
his  widow,  Margaret,  the  wife  of  John  Israel,  in  1706,  to  Wm.  Bladen, 
of  Annapolis.  The  following  record  is  taken  from  "  Our  Early 
Settlers." — A  list  of  our  early  arrivels  up  to  1680. 

"  Robert  Bullen  demands  lands  for  bringing  over  a  number  of 
passengers,  amongst  whom  was  Edward  Dorsey,  in  1661." 

The  same  record  adds,  "  Aug.  25th,  1664,  patented  to  him,  John 
and  Joshua  Dorsey,  a  plantation  called  "  Hockley-in-the-Hole,"  four 
hundred  acres." 

In  1683,  this  land  was  resurveyed  for  John  Dorsey,  and  found 
to  contain  843  acres.  400  acres  first  surveyed  being  old  rents 
remaining  new,  whole  now  in  the  possession  of  Caleb  Dorsey. 

Such  is  the  record  of  "Hockley"  upon  our  Rent  Rolls,  at 
Annapolis. 

Among  the  restored  records,  collected  by  a  commission,  Hon. 
Wm.  Holland,  president,  Samuel  Young,  Captain  Richard  Jones  and 
Mr.  John  Brice,  appointed  after  the  fire  of  1704,  to  renew  the  land 
records  then  destroyed,  is  the  following  : 

"Came  1707,  Mr.  Caleb  Dorsey,  of  Hockley,  and  petitioned  the 
honorable  members  to  have  the  following  recorded: 

"To  all  Christian  people  to  whom  this  writing  shall  come,  be 
heard,  read,  or  seen,  I,  Edward  Dorsey,  of  the  County  of  Anne 
Arundel,  son  and  heir  of  the  late  Edward  Dorsey,  gentleman,  de- 
ceased, for  the  consideration  of  24,000  pounds  of  good  merchant- 
able tobacco,  transfer  my  right  in  a  tract  of  land  called  "  Hockley- 
in-the-Hole,"  granted  to  Edward,  Joshua  and  John  Dorsey,  in  1664, 
to  my  brother,  John  Dorsey,  and  I  further  covenant  to  guarantee 
his  right  to  said  land  against  any  demand  that  may  descend  from 


Founders  of  Anne  Akundel  and  Howard  Counties.        57 

my  said  father,  Edward  Dorsey,  for  or  by  reason  of  any  right  due 
to  him  in  his  hfe  time,  or  by  reason  of  any  survey  by  him  made,  or 
warrant  returned,  or  for  any  other  reason  of  any  other  matter." 
After  his  signature,  fully  attested,  follows  a  deed  from  Joshua  Dor- 
sey, for  his  right  in  said  tract  for  a  consideration  of  8,000  pounds 
of  tobacco,  to  his  brother,  John  Dorsey.  After  which,  also,  John 
Dorsey  petitioned  for  a  resurvey  and  increased  it  to  842  acres.  The 
date  of  Edward  Dorsey 's  transfer  was  1681.  He  states  that  his 
father,  who  was  living  in  1667,  was  then  dead. 

Edward  Dorsey,  the  last  mentioned,  in  1679  and  1685,  was 
recorded  one  of  the  justices  of  Anne  Arundel.  His  name  was  written 
both  Darcy  and  Dorsey. 

From  1680  to  1705,  Major  Dorsey  was  in  every  movement  look- 
ing to  the  development  of  the  colony.  From  1694  to  1696  he  was 
Judge  of  the  High  Court  of  Chancery,  during  which  time  he  was 
commissioned  to  hold  the  Great  Seal,  In  1694,  he  was  a  member 
of  the  House  of  Burgesses  for  Anne  Arundel,  and  from  1697  to  his 
death,  in  1705,  was  a  member  from  Baltimore  County  (now  Howard). 
He  was  one  of  the  subscribers  and  treasurer  of  the  fund  for  building 
St.  Anne's  church,  and  a  free  school  for  the  province  also  received 
his  aid.  He  signed  the  protestant  address  from  Baltimore  County 
to  the  King's  most  gracious  Majestie,  upon  the  succession  of  King 
William  III — an  appeal  in  behalf  of  Charles  Lord  Baron  of  Balti- 
more, whose  proprietary  government  had  been  wrested  from  the 
family  through  the  influence  of  Captain  John  Coode.  Though  a 
Protestant,  he  was  found  in  support  of  a  government  which  left 
religious  faith  untouched. 

Mrs.  Potter  Palmer,  of  Chicago,  a  descendant,  reviewing  the 
record,  writes:  "Edward  Dorsey  and  others  were  joined  in  the 
protestant  effort  to  have  Lord  Baltimore's  government  taken  from 
the  hands  of  the  Catholics,  and  made  a  Crown  Colony  under  a  Pro- 
testant governor.  They  took  part  in  all  the  movements  to  that 
end,  but  having  been  personal  friends  of  Lord  Baltimore,  and  lovers 
of  justice,  after  the  Protestant  government  was  established,  they 
joined  in  a  petition  to  the  king  to  restore  Lord  Baltimore's  lands 
to  him.  The  king  acted  favorably  on  this  petition  and  did  so  re- 
store these  lands,  which  were  enjoyed,  with  all  their  private  rights, 
rents  and  revenues,  by  the  Baltimores  during  all  the  time  the  govern- 
ment was  vested  in  the  Crown  and  the  Protestants  in  power. 

"  Edward  Dorsey  would  not  have  been  given  position  and  honors 
by  the  royal  government  had  he  been  against  it.  He  must  have 
been  one  of  the  most  influential  Protestants  in  the  colony,  for  the 
new  capital  was  taken  to  his  land  in  Annapolis,  and  not  to  that  of 
William  Burgess  on  the  South  River,  or  to  that  of  Nicholas  Green- 
berry,  opposite  on  Town  Neck.  He  seems  to  have  been  the  pre- 
siding genius  on  all  committees  to  build  the  town." 

Major  Edward  Dorsey  married,  first,  Sarah,  daughter  of  Nich- 
olas Wyatt,  the  pioneer  surveyor  of  the  Severn,  who  had  come  up 
from  Virginia  with  his  wife,  Damaris,  and  her  daughter,  Mary,  after- 


58        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

ward  the  wife  of  Major  John  Welsh.  She  was  the  half-sister  of 
Sarah  (Wyatt)  Dorsey.  Upon  "tlie^ death  of  Nicholas  Wyatt,  in  1673, 
he  left  a  will  made  in  1671,  in  which  Mrs.  Wyatt  was  made  execu- 
trix. Upon  her  subsequent  marriage  to  Thomas  Bland,  the  attorney, 
there  was  a  contest  in  chancery,  in  which  Major  Edward  Dorsey, 
as  the  representative  of  his  wife,  the  heir,  contended  for  the  admin- 
istration of  the  estate,  on  the  ground  of  a  subsequent  revocation 
of  the  will  of  1671.  From  that  case  in  chancery,  a  view  of  Nich- 
olas Wyatt's  neighbors  is  given. 

Captain  Cornelius  Howard  wrote  the  will,  and  testified  that  the 
testator  did  not  appear  to  be  in  condition  at  that  time,  to  remember 
what  he  owned.  He  stated  that  Richard  Warfield  and  Edward 
Dorsey  knew  more  than  he  did  of  the  revocation.  Thomas  Bland 
asked  for  a  "  Commission  to  Samuel  Chew  to  call  before  him  Captain 
Cornelius  Howard,  Robert  Gudgeon,  Nicholas  Shepherd,  Richard 
and  Ellen  Warfield,  John  Watkins,  Mary  Evans,  Sarah  Cooper, 
Benjamin  Stringer,  Guy  Meeke,  Johanna  Sewell,  John  and  Mary 
Welsh  and  Maurice  Baker;  and  that  they  be  cross-examined  con- 
cerning the  revocation,  or  confirmation  of  the  said  deceased."  The 
case,  after  an  extended  discussion  by  both  leading  lawyers,  in  which 
Major  Dorsey  contended  that  "the  heir,  not  the  administrator  can 
alone  make  good  the  warranty,"  was  decided  in  favor  of  Major 
Dorsey,  who  administered. 

As  Major  of  the  Horse,  he  joined  Captain  Edward  Burgess,  in 
asking  for  additional  arms  and  ammunition  for  defense. 

In  1694,  Major  Dorsey  was  upon  the  committee  with  Major 
John  Hammond,  Hon.  John  Dorsey,  Captain  Philip  Howard,  Major 
Nicholas  Greenberry  and  John  Bennett,  to  lay  out  town  lots  and  a 
town  common  for  "the  town  of  Proctor,"  or  Annapolis.  In  1705, 
he  sold  a  row  of  houses  upon  Bloomsbury  Square,  Annapolis,  which 
had  been  entailed  to  his  children,  but  which,  for  want  of  tenants, 
had  greatly  depreciated. 

At  the  time  of  his  death,  he  was  living  on  "Major's  Choice," 
now  Howard  County.  The  second  wife  was  Margaret  Larkin, 
daughter  of  John  Larkin.  He  left  five  minors  by  her.  She  after- 
wards became  Mrs.  John  Israel,  and  as  executrix,  sold  "Dorsey" 
and  houses  in  Annapolis,  lately  owned  by  Colonel  Edward  Dorsey, 
her  late  husband." 

Colonel  Dorsey's  will,  of  1705,  recorded  in  Baltimore  City  and 
in  Annapolis,  reads:  "To  my  son  Lacon,  my  tract  "Hockley,"  on 
the  Patapsco  Falls.  To  sons  Charles,  Lacon,  Francis  and  Edward, 
my  lands  on  the  north  side  of  Patapsco  River.  (These  were  deeded 
to  him  by  John  and  Thomas  Larkin,  1702).  To  my  beloved  wife, 
Margaret,  my  personal  estate.  To  my  daughter,  Ann,  a  lot  of  negroes. 
To  Joshua,  " Barnes  Folly."  To  Samuel,  "Major's  Choice."  To 
Nicholas,"  Long  Reach,"  at  Elk  Ridge.  To  Benjamin,"  Long  Reach." 
To  son  John,  all  the  remaining  part  of  "Long  Reach"  and  a  lot  of 
silver  spoons,  to  be  delivered  at  the  age  of  sixteen.     All  the  remain- 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        59 

ing  portion  of  my  estate  to  my  wife  and  executrix. — Edward 
Dorset.     (Seal.) " 

Colonel  Edward  Dorsey's  heirs  will  be  found  in  Howard  County 
records. 

Samuel  exchanged  with  his  brother,  Joshua,  his  interest  in 
"Major's  Choice,"  and  held  the  lands  of  his  mother,  upon  "Wyatt's 
Hill,"  on  the  Severn.  His  wife  was  Jane  Dorsey.  Their  daughter, 
Patience — Samuel  Howard,  of  Philip,  in  1740. 

After  the  death  of  Colonel  Dorsey,  Samuel  contested  the  sale 
of  Bloomsbury  Square,  on  the  ground  that  it  was  entailed  property, 
and  though  he  was  of  age  at  the  time  of  sale,  he  was  not  consulted 
by  his  father.     The  title  remained  in  the  purchaser. 

JOSHUA  DORSEY,  OF  **HOCKLEY/' 

There  is  but  little  information  obtainable  of  this  middle  patentee 
of  Hockley.  After  the  deed,  in  1681,  of  his  interest  in  Hockley  to 
his  brother,  John,  he  located  upon  "Taunton,"  a  tract  taken  up  by 
Lawrence  Richardson  and  left  by  him  to  his  sons,  one  of  whom, 
Lawrence,  Jr.,  conveyed  his  interest  to  Joshua  Dorsey.  The  will  of 
Lawrence  Richardson,  in  1666,  names  his  daughter,  Sarah.  She 
later  became  the  wife  of  Joshua  Dorsey,  and  after  his  death,  the 
wife  of  Thomas  Blackwell,  who  held  another  tract,  "  Burnt  Wood," 
taken  up  by  Lawrence  Richardson.  It  was  assigned  by  Richardson's 
heirs  to  Wm.  Gudgeon,  who  conveyed  it  to  Thomas  Blackwell,  and 
by  him  it  was  conveyed  to  John  Dorsey,  only  son  of  Joshua.  These 
same  tracts  were  conveyed  to  Amos  Garrett  by  John  Dorsey,  heir- 
at-law  of  Joshua,  in  which  he  recited  the  above  transfers,  to  him 
from  his  father,  Joshua  Dorsey,  and  his  father-in-law,  Thomas  Black- 
well.  Joshua  Dorsey's  will,  of  1687-8,  granted  one-third  of  his  es- 
tate to  his  widow,  Sarah  Dorsey,  and  made  his  brothers,  Edward 
and  John,  guardians  for  the  education  of  his  son,  John  Dorsey,  to 
whom  he  left  his  estate.     His  will  further  reads: 

"To  my  loving  cousin,  John  Howard,  a  grey  gelding;  to  cousin 
Samuel  Howard,  two  hogsheads  of  tobacco.  I  bequeath  to  my 
cousin,  Sarah  Dorsey,  twenty  shillings,  to  buy  her  a  ring." 

John  and  Comfort  Dorsey  sold  the  above  tracts  to  Amos  Garrett. 
Comfort  Dorsey  was  the  daughter  of  Thoinas  and  Rachel  Stimpson. 
The  latter  was  the  widow  of  Neale  Clarke,  and  the  daughter  oi  .  ^^ 
Richard  and  Rachel  Beard,  of  South  River.  Mrs.  Stimpson  became  ■^^-'"^ 
later,  Mrs.  Rachel  Killburne,  and  still  later,  Mrs.  Rachel  Freeborne. 
John  and  Comfort  Dorsey  had  issue — John  Hammond  Dorsey,  Vin- 
cent, Captain  Joshua,  Greenberry,  Sarah  and  Venetia  Dorsey.  John 
Hammond,  of  Cecil  County,  left  his  estate,  "Success,"  to  John  Ham- 
mond Dorsey,  Vincent  Dorsey,  Sarah  and  Venetia,  children  of 
John  and  Comfort  Dorsey,  of  Joshua.  Mrs.  Comfort  Dorsey,  in  her 
will,  named  her  legatees,  "Vincent  and  John  Hammond  Dorsey." 
To  her  sons,  Joshua  and  Greenberry,  she  left  one  shilling  each.  "  To 
John,  of  Greenberry,  a  memorial,  and  to  Comfort,  of  Greenberry, 
gold  ear  rings." 


60        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Vincent  Dorsey  married  Sarah  Day.  His  will  names,  "John, 
of  Greenberry;  also  Greenberry  and  Elizabeth,  of  John;  and  Vin- 
cent Cromwell." 

John  Hammond  Dorsey,  of  "Success,"  married  Francis  Watkins, 
of  John.  Issue,  John  Hammond  Dorsey,  Jr. — Anne  Maxwell,  whose 
daughter,  Mary  Hammond  Dorsey — John  Hammond  Cromwell,  son 
of  Thomas  Cromwell,  of  Huntingdon,  England,  whose  wife  was 
Venetia  Woolguist,  of  Wales;  yet  husband  and  wife  were  cousins. 
James  Maxwell  Dorsey,  in  1789,  married  Martha  McComas  and 
removed  to  Ohio.  Issue,  Dr.  G.  Volney  Dorsey,  of  Ohio.  Sarah 
Dorsey — Alexander  Cromwell,  in  1735. 

John  Hammond  Cromwell  and  his  brother,  Vincent,  after  the 
death  of  their  father,  came  to  Cecil  and  claimed  relationship  with 
the  Cromwells,  of  Anne  Arundel.  Vincent  Cromwell  removed  to 
Kentucky.  The  house  of  John  Hammond  Cromwell  still  stands. 
Its  family  cemetery  is  surrounded  with  a  box  hedge  six  feet  high. 
The  following  recent  death  in  that  homestead  gives  an  interesting 
history  of  the  family.  It  is  quoted  from  the  Baltimore  American. 
"Elkton,  Md.,  October  20th,  1902.— Mr.  Henry  B.  Nickle,  who 
was  buried  last  week,  at  Oxford,  Pa.,  near  Cecil  County  line,  was  a 
descendant  of  Oliver  Cromwell.  "Success  Farm"  was  the  name  of 
his  homestead.  It  lies  between  Susquehanna  River  and  Octararo 
Creek,  and  is  a  part  of  Lord  Baltimore's  Susquehanna  Manor,  in 
Cecil  County. 

"  Henry  B.  Nickle  was  a  great-grandson  of  John  Hammond 
Cromwell,  who  inherited  the  farm  from  his  mother,  Venetia  Crom- 
well (nee  Dorsey),  who  inherited  it  from  her  mother,  Mary  Dorsey 
(nee  Hammond),  who  inherited  it  from  her  father,  John  Hammond. 
Soon  after  the  close  of  the  Revolutionary  War,  John  Hammond 
Cromwell,  eldest  son  of  Venetia  and  Woolguist  Cromwell,  and  his 
niece,  Mary  Hammond  Dorsey,  settled  on  Success  Farm. 

"  The  old  mansion  stands  as  originally  built  by  Lord  Baltimore, 
from  whom  it  was  purchased  by  Lady  Lightfoot,  and  given  to  her 
son,  John  Hammond.  Across  the  lane,  in  front  of  the  house,  is 
the  family  burying  ground,  with  a  shaft  in  the  centre  of  which  are 
the  names  of  those  buried  there:  John  Hammond  Cromwell,  1745- 
1819;  Mary  Hammond  Dorsey  Cromwell,  wife  of  John  Hammond 
Cromwell,  died  1795;  Oliver  Cromwell,  1775-1792;  Eliza  Cromwell, 
1789-1796;  Ehzabeth  Cromwell,  1786-1787;  ;  Mary  Cromwell, 
1792-1793;  Rebecca  Cromwell  Wilson,  1708-1806;  Benedict  Crom- 
well, 1780-1806;  Lewis  Harlen,  1760-1825;  Matilda  Cromwell,  wife 
of  Lewis  Harlen,  1774-1825;  Frances  Dorsey,  died  1820,  sister  of 
John  W.  Cromwell;  J.  Cromwell  Reynolds,  M,  D.,  late  a  surgeon 
in  the  army  of  the  United  States,  born  February  6,  1810,  died  Feb- 
ruary 20,  1849. 

"John  Hammond  Cromwell,  by  will,  devised  money  to  be 
divided  among  his  children  to  be  used  in  the  purchase  of  mourning 
brooches,  each  to  contain  some  of  his  hair.  The  brooches  were 
made  in  a  design  of  onyx,  inlaid  with  silver,  in  the  centre  of  which 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        61 

was  an  oval  of  braided  hair  under  glass.  Mr.  Cromwell  was  wealthy, 
entertained  largely,  and  was  prominent  in  politics.  He  had  large 
peach  orchards,  and  manufactured  peach  brandy.  In  a  grove  west 
of  his  mansion  may  be  seen  the  ruins  of  the  old  still-house. 

"Among  the  Nickle  heirlooms  is  John  Hammond  Cromwell's 
silver  sugar  tongs.  \  Another  is  an  old  fashioned  sampler  embroidered 
by  Rebecca  Cromwell,  August  16,  1796.J1-- 

Greenberry  Dorsey,  of  John  and  Comfort — Mary  Belt,  daughter 
of  John  and  Lucy  Lawrence,  daughter  of  Benjamin  and  Elizabeth 
Talbott.     Issue,  John  Dorsey  and  Thomas  Edward  Dorsey. 

Greenberry  Dorsey,  as  heir-at-law  of  Colonel  John  Dorsey,  who 

held  "  Dorsey's  Plains,"  on  the  Gunpowder,  deeded  the  same  to  his 

son,  Thomas  Edward  Dorsey,  of  Harford  County.     John  Dorsey,  of 

this  family — Cassandra  Carnan.     Their  son,  Ehsha,  of  "Dorsey's 

Plains," — ^I\lary  vSlade,  whose  son,   Nicholas  Slade  Dorsey-sJIaria 

Hance,  of  Baltimore,  descendant  daughter  of  the  Hances,  of  Calvert, 

connected  with  the  Dukes,  Irelands,  Clares  and  Calverts,  of  that 

county. 

^  They  were  the  parents  of  Rev.  Owen  Dorsey,  late  of  the  In- 

terior  Department,  who  collected  considerable  data  of  the  family. 

-^  Captain  Joshua  Dorsey,  of  John  and  Comfort — Flora  Fitzim- 

'^'    mons,  and  resided  in  St.  Margarets  Parish,  on  the  Severn.     Their 

K      children  are  all  recorded  in  that  parish.     His  widow,  in  1784,  named 

^      her  six  absent  sons,  Frederick,  a  mariner.  Peregrine,  Greenberry, 

Joshua,  John  and  James,  granting  them  a  nominal  rememberance, 

if  they  be  living.     To  her  son  Nicholas  and  her  daughters,  Providence 

Lane  and  Rebecca  Dorsey,  she  left  her  estate,  "Mascalls  Rest." 

I  have  seen  a  saucer  that  belonged  to  Providence  Lane.     Upon 

it  is  a  sea  gull  on  a  rock,  surrounded  by  ten  stars.     It  was  inherited 

—  X^y  ^^rs.  Reuben  M.  Dorsey,  daughter  of  the  Prussian^ Minister,  I. 

^-^    P.  Krafft,  who  married  Eliza  Brice,  daughter  of  Providence  Lane. 

Judge  Reuben  M.  Dorsey,  wishing  to  depart  from  the  old  Dorsey 

custom  of  marrying  cousins,  sought  the  hand  of  his  wife;   but  when 

he  began  to  study  her  genealogical  record,  found  that  she,  too,  came 

from  one  of  the  three  Dorsey  brothers,  who  took  up  Hockley,  in 

1664.     The  sons  of  Judge  Dorsey  are  Dr.  Reuben  M.  Dorsey,  of 

Baltimore;    the  late  Charles  Krafft  Dorsey,  attorney-at-law;    Dr. 

Caleb  Dorsey,  of  Baltimore;   Phihp  Hammond,  Nicholas  and  Frank 

Dorsey,  of  Howard.     Phillip  Hammond  Dorsey  married  Miss  Duvall, 

of  Anne  Arundel  County.     He  holds  the  homestead. 

HON.  JOHN  DORSEY,  OF  ^'HOCKLEY/* 

Coming  into  possession  of  "Hockley,"  in  1683,  Hon.  John  Dor- 
sey married  Plesance  Ely,  who  later  took  up  a  tract  of  land  on  Elk 
Ridge,  which  she  named  ''The  Isle  of  Ely."  In  1694,  Hon.  John 
Dorsey,  was  a  commissioner  for  the  development  of  Annapolis.  He 
was  upon  many  important  committees  during  his  service  in  the 
Lower  House  of  the  Assembly.     In  1711,  he  was  advanced  to  the 


62        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Upper  House,  and  there  remained  until  his  death,  in  1714.  Dur- 
ing his  hfe-time  he  was  a  surveyor  of  a  vast  estate  of  valuable  lands. 
He  left  an  exceedingly  intelligent  will  of  entail,  which  gives  a  sum- 
mary of  his  large  estate.  It  reads:  "My  wife,  Plesance,  is  to  have 
one-third  of  my  estate,  and  also  the  choice  of  my  estate  on  South 
River,  or  my  now  dwelling  place  on  Elk  Ridge.  To  my  grandson, 
John  Dorsey,  son  of  my  son,  Edward  Dorsey,  deceased,  my  Patuxent 
plantation  and  lands  thereunto  adjoining,  called  "  Dorsey's  Search," 
lying  in  Baltimore  County.  If  no  issue,  to  go  to  the  three  yoimgest 
grandchildren  of  my  daughter,  Deborah. 

"I  give  to  my  grandson,  Edward  Dorsey,  son  of  my  son,  Ed- 
ward Dorsey,  deceased,  'Dorsey's  Adventure'  and  'Whitaker's  Pur- 
chase' adjoining  it.  If  he  leave  no  issue,  then  to  John,  of  Edward, 
and  if  he  leave  none,  then,  as  above,  to  Deborah's  youngest  three 
children.  To  my  grandsons,  Charles  and  William  Ridgely,  of  Deb- 
orah, my  tract  called  'White  Wine  and  Claret,'  south  side  of  the 
middle  branch  of  the  Patuxent.  If  they  leave  no  issue,  to  go  to 
Martha,  Elinor  and  Edward  Clagett. 

"I  give  to  my  two  grandsons,  Samuel  and  Richard,  of  Caleb, 
my  son,  my  plantation  on  South  River,  called  'South  River  Quarter,' 
it  being  the  remainder  of  a  tract  given  to  my  son,  Caleb.  In  case 
of  no  issue,  the  same  to  go  to  granddaughters,  Achsah  and  Sophia, 
of  Caleb. 

"To  grandson,  Basil,  of  Caleb,  my  plantation  on  Elk  Ridge, 
called  'Troy.'  If  no  issue,  to  my  grandsons,  John  and  Caleb,  of 
Caleb.  My  son,  Caleb,  to  be  my  administrator. — John  Dorsey. 
(Seal)." 

Mrs.  Plesance  Dorsey  became  Mrs  Robert  Wainwright.  Her 
tract,  "The  Isle  of  Ely,"  was  sold  by  her  grandson,  "Patuxent  John 
Dorsey,"  to  Basil  Dorsey,  of  Caleb,  whose  homestead,  "Troy  Hill," 
was  the  former  residence  of  Hon.  John  Dorsey.  It  is  now  the 
Pfeiffer  property,  in  Howard, 

CALEB  DORSEY,  OF  "HOCKLEY/' 

Caleb  was  born  at  "Hockley,"  in  1686.  In  1704,  he  married 
and  came  into  possession  of  the  whole  estate.  His  wife  was  Elinor 
Warfield,  youngest  daughter  of  Richard  and  Elinor  (Browne)  War- 
fijgld.  They  lived  in  the  old  mansion  house,  which  stood  only  a  few 
feet  from  the  railroad,  just  west  of  "Best  Gate." 

On  the  east,  looking  toward  Annapolis,  was  the  Carroll  estate. 
On  the  north  was  General  John  Hammond's,  in  the  valley  of  which, 
long  after  the  last  relics  of  his  homestead  had  disappeared,  was 
found  a  memorial  tablet,  which  now  rests  in  the  grounds  of  St. 
Annes.  To  the  northwest  of  old  Hockley,  reaching  back  to  Round 
Bay,  were  the  three  Howard  brothers, — Samuel,  Cornelius  and  John 
Howard — running  with  Hockley  branch.  On  the  southwest  was 
"  Todd's  Gap,"  which  opened  up  the  way  to  Lancelot  Todd's.  Upon 
a  hill  to  the  south  of  the  mansion,  is  the  old  Dorsey  burial  ground, 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties,        63 

now  succeeded  by  a  later  one  in  the  beautiful  gardens  of  new  Hockley, 
upon  the  southern  border  of  the  estate.  Upon  the  site  of  the  old 
coachhouse,  the  plowshare  turned  up  a  silver  plate,  which  was  evi- 
dently used  upon  some  family  carriage.  It  represents  a  bended 
arm  in  armor,  holding  a  sheaf  of  wheat.  (This  is  claimed  to  be 
Eden's  arms). 

Caleb  Dorsey  increased  his  father's  estates  upon  the  Severn, 
and  took  up  an  extensive  body  of  land  in  what  is  now  Howard  County. 
It  extended  from  Elk  Ridge  Landing  back  to  the  old  brick  Church, 
upon  which  he  placed  his  three  sons,  John,  Basil  and  Caleb  of  Bel- 
mont. Still  later,  the  three  sons  of  Thomas  Beale  Dorsey,  of  Caleb, 
surveyed  a  still  more  valuable  estate  west  of  Ellicotts  City.  In 
1732,  Caleb  Dorsey  deeded  to  his  son,  Richard,  the  attorney,  the 
homestead.  After  its  destruction  by  fire  Richard  built  upon  the 
present  site,  upon  the  southern  border.  Caleb  Dorsey's  will,  of  1742, 
gives  us  a  view  of  the  extensive  farming  systems  of  that  period. 
"To  my  sons,  Basil,  John  and  Caleb,  whom  I  have  sufficiently  pro- 
vided for,  I  give  £b  each.  To  Richard,  Edward  and  Thomas  Beale, 
I  give  twenty  head  of  cattle,  and  twenty  head  of  sheep,  each. 

■^ — >  To  Thomas  Beale,  the  two  tracts  of  land  I  bought  of  Thomas 
Higgins,  after  the  death  of  my  wife." 

A  large  part  of  his  estate  had  been  deeded  to  his  children  through 
his  trustee,  John  Beale. 

His  widow  survived  him  ten  years,  and  in  her  will,  of  1752 
named  her  son  Edward,  daughter  Sophia  Gough,  grandson  Henry 
Woodward,  goddaughter  Mary  Todd,  goddaughter  Elinor  Dorsey, 
of  John.  She  made  her  sons,  Edward  and  John  Dorsey,  her  execu- 
tors. 

Achsah  Dorsey,  her  oldest  daughter,  married  Amos  Woodward, 
nephew  of  Amos  Garrett,  first  Mayor  of  Annapolis. 

Henry  Woodward  was  their  only  son.  Their  daughters  were, 
Mary,  Elizabeth,  Eleanor  and  Achsah  Fotterall. 

Henry  Woodward  married  Mary  Young,  daughter  of  Colonel 
Richard  Young,  of  Calvert  County,  and  Rebecca,  his  wife.  Their 
issue  were,  Rebecca — Philip  Rogers;  Eleanor — Samuel  Dorsey; 
Mary — first,  Mr.  Govane,  second,  Mr.  Owings;  Harriet — first.  Colonel 
Edmund  Brice,  whose  son  ,  James  Edmund  Brice,  was  consul  to 
St.  Domingo;  second.  Colonel  Murray. 
.--^  Achsah  Woodward,  of  Henry,  died  young.  • 

The  early  death  of  Henry  broke  the  male  line  of  Amos  Wood- 
ward. Mrs.  Mary  (Young)  Woodward  married,  second,  John  Hes- 
silius,  the  artist,  whose  portrait  of  her  is  now  owned  by  Dr.  Wm.  G. 
Ridout.  Her  home  was  "Belfield,"  upon  the  Severn.  She  was  a 
lady  of  strong  Christian  character,  interested  in  the  religious  move- 
ments of  the  early  days  of  Methodism.  She  was  a  member  of  the 
Church  of  England.     "Primrose"  was  her  later  home. 

Sophia  Dorsey,  of  Caleb,  of  "Hockley,"  married  Thomas  Gough, 
of  England.  Their  son,  Harry  Dorsey  Gough,  inherited  a  fortune 
from   England,  "and   built  'Perry    Hall.'  "     This    has   thus   been 


64        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

described  by  a  Methodist  minister:  "For  the  first  I  saw  Perry  Hall, 
the  seat  of  Harry  Dorsey  Gough,  when  we  got  in  sight  of  the  house, 
and  it  could  be  seen  far  off.  I  felt  some  strange  sensations.  Ferry 
Hall  was  the  largest  dwelling  house  I  had  ever  seen,  and  all  the 
arrangements,  within  and  without,  were  tasteful  and  elegant;  yet 
simplicity  and  utility  seemed  to  be  stamped  on  the  whole.  The 
garden,  containing  four  acres  of  ground,  orchards  and  everything 
else  were  delightful  indeed,  and  looked  to  me  like  an  earthly  para- 
dise. But  what  pleased  me  better  than  anything  else,  was  a  neat 
chapel  attached  to  the  house,  with  a  small  cupola  and  bell  that 
could  be  heard  all  over  the  farm.  In  this  chapel  morning  and  even- 
ing prayers  were  offered,  when  the  manager  and  servants  from  the 
farm  house  and  servant's  quarters,  together  with  the  inhabitants  of 
the  great  mansion  house,  repaired  to  the  chapel,  sometimes  num- 
bering fifty  persons  at  prayers.  The  whole  family,  including  children, 
numbered  about  one  hundred;  all  seemed  to  know  their  duty  and 
did  it.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Gough,  (who  was  Miss  Carnan),  were  con- 
verted under  Mr.  Asbury,  and  became  members  of  the  first  Metho- 
dist class  organized  in  Baltimore;  and  Mr.  Gough  sometimes  preached, 
though  the  sect  was  often  times  persecuted.  At  a  camp-meeting 
near  the  Belair  road,  Mr.  Gough  rode  up  on  horse  back,  and  his 
family  in  a  coach  drawn  by  four  splendid  white  horses.  Never 
before  had  I  seen  people  in  a  coach  of  four  to  hear  a  back-woods 
preacher,  in  a  log  cabin.  Our  house  was  too  small,  and  we  got  up 
a  subscription  for  a  larger  one.  When  Mr.  Gough  heard  of  it  he 
went  to  them  and  said,  "Take  what  you  have  and  build  a  school- 
house  for  your  children,  and  I  will  get  you  a  meeting-house."  Gen- 
eral Ridgely,  of  "  Hampton,"  Mrs.  Gough's  brother,  gave  them  an 
acre  of  ground  for  a  meeting-house  and  a  burial  ground.  Mr.  Gough 
advanced  the  money  and  paid  all  expenses.  He  named  it  "Camp- 
Meeting  Chapel." 

After  Mr.  Gough's  death,  Mrs.  Gough  took  up  the  cross  and  led 
the  worship  of  God  in  her  family.  She  was  a  woman  of  uncommon 
fortitude  and  courage.  The  very  day  of  the  battle  of  North  Point, 
I  preached  to  a  few  old  men  and  some  females,  among  whom  was 
Mrs.  Gough.  The  report  of  the  guns  was  very  plainly  heard  while 
I  was  preaching,  and  the  bombs  were  heard  at  "  Perry  Hall,"  twelve 
miles  from  Baltimore,  nearly  all  night.  Mrs.  Gough  determined  to 
send  away  a  part  of  her  family,  but  to  stay  herself  and  plead  her 
own  cause.  It  was  in  the  mouth  of  eyeryone,  '  the  prayers  of  the 
good  people  of  Baltimore  saved  the  city.' 

"Mrs.  Carroll,  daughter  of  Mrs.  Gough,  was  an  accomplished 
lady,  and  what  is  still  better  an  humble  Christian.  Her  end  was 
most  triumphant.  Bishop  Asbury 's  journal  notes  the  following: 
'  'Perry  Hall'  was  always  hospitably  open  to  visitors.' 

"Harry  Dorsey  Gough's  funeral  sermon  was  preached;  there 
might  be  two  thousand  people  to  hear.  My  subject  was  pretty  much 
a  portraiture  of  Mr.  Gough's  religious  character.  His  hospitable 
home  was  burned  down  many  years  ago,  with  the  portraits  paneled 


Founders  of  Axne  Aeundel  axd  Howard  Counties.        65 

in  its  dining  room.  The  present  mansion  was  built  by  Mr.  James 
Carroll;  the  property  has  passed  out  of  the  family,  but  a  member 
has  a  picture  of  the  original  building.  The  portraits  of  Mr.  Gough 
have  only  recently  been  destroyed  by  fire.  The  approach  to  '  Perry 
Hair  is  the  Belair  road." 

The  only  daughter  and  child  of  Mr.  Govigh  was  Sophia,  who 
married  James  Mackubin,  son  of  Nicholas  and  Mary  Clare  Carroll, 
sister  of  "The  Barrister."  At  the  latter's  request,  to  perpetuate 
his  name  and  fortune,  Mr.  James  Mackubin  took  the  name  of  James 
Carroll.  His  heirs  were  Harry  Dorsey  Gough  Carroll — Eliza  Ridgely, 
daughter  of  Governor  Charles  C.  Ridgely,  of  "  Hampton."  Prudence 
Gough  Carroll — John  Ridgely,  son  of  Governor  Ridgely.  Charles 
Ridgely  Carroll — Rebecca  Anna  Pue.  Issue,  Charles  Arthur  Car- 
roll— Sally  Heath  White.  Their  heirs  were  the  late  Charles  Ridgely 
Carroll,  Harry  Dorsey  Gough  Carroll,  and  Sally  Heath  White  Car- 
roll, all  of  New  Brighton,  Staten  Island. 

Rebecca,  daughter  of  Charles  Ridgely  Carroll,  married  Hon. 
Carroll  Spence;  Sophia — George  B.  Milligan;  Susan — Thomas 
Poultney;  Mary — Robert  Denison.  Their  daughter  is  the  wife  of 
Colonel  Henry  Mactier  Warfield,  of  the  Fifth  Maryland  Regiment. 

When  we  were  subjects  of  King  George  III,  Mr.  Harry  Dorsey 
Gough  built  a  block  of  houses  on  Baltimore  Street,  extending  on 
the  south  side  from  Light  Street  to  Grant  Street.  In  these  houses 
were  Grant's  Fountain  Inn,  the  Post-Office  under  Miss  Goddard;  the 
American  office,  and  Colonel  Wm.  Hammond's,  the  merchant. 
Several  of  these  were  lately  condemned.  The  Carrollton  Hotel 
stood  upon  the  site  of  the  old  Fountain  Inn,  where  Washington 
made  his  headquarters.  The  disastrous  fire  of  February,  1904, 
destroyed  this  whole  block.  Upon  the  same  site  to-day,  a  new 
order  of  beautiful  architecture  has  been  located. 

RICHARD  DORSEY,  OF  "HOCKLEY/* 

Richard  Dorsey,  the  attorney,  came  into  possession  of  the  home- 
stead in  1732.  He  built  upon  the  present  site.  His  wife  was  Eliza- 
beth Nicholson,  widow  of  William  Nicholson,  and  daughter  of  John 
and  Elizabeth  (Norwood)  Beale. 

John  Beale  was  the  son  of  Thomas  Beale,  of  St.  Mary's.  He 
was  Caleb  Dorsey's  trustee.  He  bought  from  Andrew  Norwood, 
"Norwood's  Intact"  and  "Proctor's  Chance,"  in  the  city  of  Annap- 
olis. His  coat  of  arms  may  be  seen  upon  his  original  will,  in  1734. 
Mrs.  Elizabeth  Beale,  that  same  year,  deeded  to  her  daughter,  Eliza- 
beth, then  wife  of  Richard  Dorsey,  of  "Hockley,"  her  father's  es- 
tate; a  portion  of  which  had  been  deeded  to  Beale  Nicholson,  only 
son  of  William,  both  then  deceased.  A  portrait  of  Beale  Nicholson 
is  one  of  the  heirlooms  of  "Hockley." 

Mrs.  Elizabeth  Dorsey  was  a  sister  of  Mrs.  Anne  Rutland,  wife 
of  Thomas,  who  in  her  will,  of  1773,  named  her  nieces,  Ann  Beale, 
Jlliza  Harrison  and  Mary  Dorsey,  children  of  my  sister,  Elizabeth 


66        FouNDEES  OF  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Dorsey,  Mary  Dorsey,  of  Richard  and  Elizabeth,  married  John 
Weems;  Elinor — Chancellor  John  Hall;  Ann — John  Beale;  Eliza- 
beth became  Mrs.  Harrison.  Caleb  Dorsey,  only  son  of  Richard, 
inherited  Hockley.  He  married  Mary  Rutland,  of  Thomas,  the 
Annapolis  importer,  who  built  "Rutland  Row,"  in  Annapolis. 

Caleb  and  Mary  Dorsey  had  Richard,  of  "  Hockley,"  who  mar- 
ried Anne  Warfield,  daughter  of  Captain  Philemon  Warfield,  thus 
uniting  again  descendants  of  the  two  neighboring  houses  of  Dorsey 
and  Warfield.  Their  issue  were,  Caleb — Elizabeth  Hall  Dorsey, 
whose  dancing  slippers  are  still  at  "Hockley."  Issue,  Colonel  Ed- 
ward Dorsey,  who  was  with  Colonel  Harry  Gilmonr's  dashing  troop- 
er's; Bartus  Dorsey,  of  Baltimore;  Richard  Dorsey,  and  Mary 
Elizabeth,  who  married  the  late  Magruder  Warfield,  of  Baltimore. 

Edward  Dorsey,  of  Richard  and  Anne — Elizabeth  Worthington; 
Mary,  of  Richard  and  Anne — Hon.  John  Stevens  Sellman,  of  the 
"  Nineteen  Van  Buren  Electors,"  who,  by  entering  the  Senate  Cham- 
ber, when  others  refused,  helped  to  bring  on  the  compromise  during 
the  administration  of  Governor  Veazey." 

Anne,  of  Richard  and  Anne,  inherited  "Hockley" — Essex 
Ridley  Dorsey,  of  Vachel  and  Elizabeth  Dorsey,  grandson  of  Vachel 
and  Ruth  Dorsey,  and  great-grandson  of  John  and  Honor  (Elder) 
Dorsey.  Vachel  Dorsey,  Jr.,  and  Charles  Carroll,  of  Carrollton,  were 
surveyors  of  "Vacant  Land."  Essex  Ridley  Dorsey's  mother, 
Elizabeth  Dorsey,  was  the  daughter  of  Joshua  and  Elizabeth  (Hall) 
Dorsey,  and  granddaughter  of  Henry  and  Elizabeth  (Worthington) 
Dorsey. 

"  Hockley,"  taken  up  by  two  brothers.  Major  Edward  and  Hon. 
John,  is  thus  held  by  the  combined  descendants  of  those  brothers, 
viz.:  Vachel  Charles,  who  holds  the  old  "Hockley"  estate,  upon 
which  he  has  built  a  modern  house;  Miss  Anne  Elizabeth,  who 
presides  at  "Hockley,"  Evalina,  Andrew  Jackson  and  Richard  Dor- 
sey, of  "  Hockley."  Evalina — Richard  Dorsey  Sellman,  son  of  Hon. 
John  Stevens  Sellman.  Issue,  Mary  Laura,  Anne  Elizabeth  Dorsey, 
Eleanor  and  Gertrude  Sellman.  Mrs.  Sellman  died,  January  1st, 
1900.  Her  first  three  daughters  are  of  the  household  of  "  Hockley." 
Miss  Gertrude  Sellman  resides  in  Baltimore. 

The  original  patent  for  "Hockley,"  under  the  seal  of  Lord 
Charles  Baltimore,  perfectly  legible  and  well-preserved,  is  an  heir- 
loom of  "Hockley."  A  silouette  of  Mr.  Essex  Ridley  Dorsey  hangs 
upon  the  walls  of  "  Hockley,"  in  the  charming  gardens  of  which, 
among  the  flowers  and  shrubs,  he  now  sleeps  beside  his  wife  and 
her  ancestors. 

Samuel  and  Joshua  Dorsey,  of  Caleb  and  Ehnor,  both  died 
bachelors,  and  left  their  estates  to  their  brothers  and  sisters. 

Edward  Dorsey,  of  Caleb  and  Elinor,  was  an  attorney  and  residd^d 
in  Annapolis.     He  took  up  an  extensive  estate  in  Frederick  County, 
and  became  a  member  of  the  Council  from  that  county.     He  wgis 
engaged  in  many  important  legal  cases  in  the  Court  of  the  ChancerV 
Governor  Sharp,  in  his  correspondence  with  Lord  Baltimore,  note,^ 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        67 

the  fact  that  the  then  existing  Council  was  composed  of  relatives 
of  Mr.  Edward  Dorsey,  all  of  whom  were  opposed  to  the  proprietary. 
As  Frederick  Calvert  was  then  at  the  head,  it  was  only  an  honor 
to  be  in  opposition.  Edward  Dorsey  was  in  partnership  with  his 
brother,  Caleb,  of  Belmont,  in  smelting  iron  ore.  After  his  early 
death,  and  the  death  of  all  his  heirs,  Ely  Dorsey,  husband  of  Ed- 
wards' sister,  Deborah,  entered  a  suit  in  chancery  for  the  recovery 
of  a  large  share  of  the  property  of  the  firm,  then  held  by  Caleb  of 
Belmont.  After  a  long  and  exhaustive  trial,  the  case  was  com- 
promised. 

Edward  Dorsey  loaned  money  on  many  tracts  in  Howard  and 
Frederick  Counties,  and  made  extensive  transfers  in  real  estate. 
He  was  his  mother's  executor.  He  was  a  brother-in-law  of  Governor 
Paca.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Tuesday  Club,  of  Annapolis,  in  its 
palmy  days,  and  was  one  of  its  eloquent  debaters.  His  wife  was 
Henrietta  Marie  Chew,  daughter  of  Samuel  and  Henrietta  Maria 
Lloyd,  of  Colonel  Philemon  and  Henrietta  Marie  (Neale)  Bennett, 
In  early  manhood,  whilst  on  a  trip  to  Boston  for  his  health,  he  died 
at  New  Port,  in  1760. 

His  widow  followed  him  in  1762.  Their  two  daughters,  Eleanor 
and  Henrietta  Marie  Dorsey,  both  died  before  reaching  womanhood, 
leaving  their  estate  of  ^30,000  to  their  Dorsey  relatives. 

The  Annapolis  Gazette,  in  reviewing  the  eminent  service  of 
Captain  Edward  Dorsey,  gave  him  the  title  of  "Eminent  Councilor." 

Eleanor- Dorsey  (of  Caleb  and  Eleanor),  married  Thomas  Todd, 
of  "Todd's  Neck,"  Baltimore  County,  whose  genealogy  has  already 
been  traced.  Their  only  son  was  Thomas  Todd,  the  fifth,  who  left 
four  sons,  Thomas,  Bernard,  Dr.  Christopher  and  Robert  Todd.  The 
daughters  of  Thomas  and  Eleanor  Todd  were  Elizabeth,  Eleanor, 
Francis  and  Mary,  already  noted  elsewhere. 

Mrs.  Todd  married  again,  William  Lynch,  and  resided  near 
Pikesville.  Their  daughter,  Deborah  Lynch,  married  Samuel  Ow- 
ings,  founder  of  Owings  Mill,  son  of  Samuel  and  Urith  (Randall) 
Owings.  From  this  marriage  descends  Mr.  Thos.  B.  Cockey,  of 
Pikesville,  and  Richard  Cromwell,  of  Baltimore. 

(The  remaining  heirs  of  Caleb  and  Eleanor  will  be  found  in 
Howard  County.) 

THE  HOWARDS,  OF  THE  SEVERN. 

An  early  certificate  in  the  Land  Office  at  Annapolis  reads: 
"Laid  out,  July  3rd,  1650,  for  Matthew  Howard,  on  the  Severn, 
southside,  near  a  creek  called  Marsh's,  beginning  at  a  hollow,  called 
"Howard's  Hollow,"  and  binding  on  said  creek,  a  tract  containing 
350  acres;  also  another  tract  running  with  Howard's  swamp,  con- 
taining 350  acres  more."  These  surveys  of  Lloyd  were  not 
patented. 

This  record  indicates  clearly,  that  Matthew  Howard  came  up 
with  Edward  Lloyd,  in  1650.     In  support  of  this,  the  records  of 


hy, 


68        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Lower  Norfolk  County,  Virginia,  give  us  the   following  history  of 
the  Howards,  of  Virginia. 

V  "There  were  three  Howards,  or  Haywards,  among  the  Eng- 
lish members  of  the  Virginia  Companies,"  records  Alexander  Brown, 
in  his  "First  Republic."  "They  were  Master  John,  Rev.  John,  and 
Sir  John  Howard,  Knight.     They  contributed,  in  all,  ^112  and  12s. 

Master  John,  the  historian,  was  born  in  Suffolk,  in  1560;  was 
D.  C.  L.  of  Cambridge;  pleader  in  ecclesiastical  courts;  was  knighted 
1619,  and  an  M.  P.  in  1621;  married  Jane  Pascal;  died  in  London 
1627.     His  "Life  of  Edward  VI."  was  pubhshed  after  his  death. 

Rev.  John  Howard,  was  reported  in  Stiths  History  of  Virginia, 
as  "John  Howard,  Clerk." 

He  subscribed  ^37.  He  was  the  author  of  "Strong  Helper," 
in  1614. 

Sir  John  Howard  subscribed  £15.  He  was  the  second  son  of 
Sir  Rowland,  by  his  second  wife,  Catherine  Smythe.  He  was  knighted 
at  Windsor,  July  23rd,  1609;  was  High  Sheriff  of  Kent  in  1642. 

In  1622,  a  John  Howard,  who  had  come  with  Edward  Bennett's 
first  company,  in  1621,  was  killed  by  the  Indian  massacre  of  1622. 
His  plantation  formed  the  border  Hne  of  the  Isle  of  Wight,  Virginia. 
From  some  of  these  Howards,  members  of  the  Virginia  Company, 
descended  Matthew  Howard,  a  close  friend,  relative  and  neighbor  of 
Edward  and  Cornelius  Lloyd,  in  Virginia,  and  with  the  former,  came 
to  Maryland. 

Matthew  Howard  was  in  Virginia,  in  1635,  as  shown  by  a  court 
record,  in  which  he  had  a  suit  with  Mr.  Evans.  In  1645,  he  was 
the  executor  of  the  will  of  Richard  Hall,  a  merchant  of  Virginia, 
who,  in  1610,  was  one  of  the  "Grocers  Coiu-t,"  of  England,  which 
contributed  2^100  toward  the  plantation  in  Virginia. 

Colonel  Cornelius  Lloyd  was  a  witness  to  Richard  Hall's  will, 
in  1645.  The  testator's  property  was  left  to  Ann,  Elizabeth,  John, 
Samuel,  Matthew  and  Cornelius  Howard,  children  of  Matthew  and 
Ann  Howard. 

Philip  Howard,  the  youngest  son  of  Matthew  and  Ann,  was 
evidently  not  born  in  1645,  for  his  name  was  not  included  in  the 
hst  of  legatees.  But,  in  1659,  Commander  Edward  Lloyd  surveyed 
for  him,  after  the  death  of  Matthew,  the  Severn  tract  of  "  Howard- 
stone,"  for  "Philip  Howard,  Orphant." 

In  1662,  the  sons  of  Matthew  Howard,  came  up  to  the  Severn, 
and  seated  themselves  near  their  father's  surveys.  John,  Samuel 
and  Cornelius  Howard,  all  transported  a  number  of  settlers,  and 
received  grants  for  the  same  upon  the  Severn.  They  located  ad- 
joining each  other,  near  Round  Bay. 

In  1661,  Henry  Catlin,  one  of  Edward  Lloyd's  commissioners, 
also,  of  the  Nansemond  Church,  assigned  his  survey  to  Matthew 
Howard,  Jr.,  who  resurveyed  the  same,  with  "Hopkins  Plantation" 
added,  into  "Howard's  Inheritance." 

In  1662,  the  five  brothers,  John,  Samuel,  Matthew,  Cornelius 
and  Philip,  had  nine  hundred  acres  granted  them  as  brothers. 


Pounders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        69 

It  was  upon  one  of  these  many  hills  of  Severn,  in  the  neighbor- 
hood of  Round  Bay,  that  John  Howard  slew  the  lion. 

John  Howard,  heir-at-law  of  Matthew  and  namesake  of  his 
grandfather,  John,  was  a  progressive  surveyor  of  lands.  He  located 
at  Round  Bay.  In  1663,  with  Charles  Stephens,  he  took  up  "The 
Woodyard"  and  "Charles  Hills,"  on  the  south  side  of  the  Severn. 

Upon  the  death  of  Charles  Stephens,  John  Howard  married 
Susannah  Stephens,  the  widow.  She  was  the  heir  of  Captain  John 
Norwood.  The  only  issue  of  John  and  Susannah  Howard  was  Cap- 
tain John  Howard,  Jr.  John  Howard,  Sr.,  extended  his  surveys  to 
Baltimore  County,  and  took  up  "Timber  Neck,"  upon  the  mouth 
of  the  Whetstone.  It  later  became  a  part  of  Baltimore  City.  He 
also  took  up  lands  in  Harford  County.  John  Howard's  second  wife 
was  Elinor,  widow  of  John  Maccubin,  by  whom  there  was  no  issue. 
She  was  of  the  Carroll  family.  Her  daughter,  Sarah  Maccubin,  be- 
came the  wife  of  William  Griffith,  the  immigrant.  John  Howard's 
will,  of  1696,  left  his  extensive  estate  to  his  son,  John  Howard,  Jr., 
and  to  his  wife's  grandson,  Orlando  Griffith. 

Captain  John  Howard,  Jr.,  increased  his  father's  estate  by 
yearly  surveys.  About  1690,  he  married  Mary,  daughter  of  Richard 
and  Elinor  (Browne)  Warfield,  his  neighbor  on  Round  Bay.  Their 
issue  were  Benjamin,  Absolute  and  Rachel  Howard,  all  minors  at 
the  death  of  his  wife.  Captain  Howard  married  again,  Katherine, 
widow  of  Henry  Ridgely,  and  daughter  of  Colonel  Nicholas  Green- 
berry.  Their  only  issue  was  one  daughter,  Katherine  Howard.  Mrs. 
Howard  died  before  her  husband,  leaving  five  minors  by  her  former 
husband,  Henry  Ridgely. 

Captain  John  Howard  soon  followed  her,  and  left,  in  1704,  the 
following  will: 

"I  give  unto  my  son,  Benjamin  Howard,  my  dwelling  planta- 
tion, whereon  I  now  do  live,  and  all  the  land  adjoining  it,  during 
his  natural  life,  and  to  the  lawful  heirs  of  his  body,  and  for  want 
of  such  heirs,  to  go  to  the  next  of  blood  in  the  name. 

"I  give  to  my  son  Benjamin,  'Howard's  Cove,'  lying  at  Round 
Bay;  also,  a  plantation  on  the  Patapsco,  bought  of  James  Greeniffe, 
and  another  parcel,  lying  near  the  head  of  Bush  River,  and  upon 
the  branches  of  Deer  Creek,  containing  four  hundred  acres,  called 
'Howard's  Harbor,'  and,  also,  a  half  part  of  'Howard's  Chance.' 

"I  give  to  my  son.  Absolute  Howaird,  two  tracts  on  Patapsco, 
called  'Yates  Inheritance,'  and  "Howard's  Point,'  also  'Howards 
Cattle  Range,'  south  side  of  Patapsco  on  Mill  Branch;  also  a  tract 
on  '  Bush  River.'  I  give  to  my  two  daughters,  Rachel  Howard  and 
Katherine  Howard,  all  that  parcel  of  land  called  "  Howards  Timber 
Neck,'  lying  at  the  mouth  of  Whetstone,  to  be  equally  divided  be- 
tween them,  during  their  natural  life,  and  to  their  lawful  heirs, 
and,  for  want  of  such  heirs,  to  my  son  Benjamin  and  his  heirs. 

I  desire  that  the  orphans  of  Mr.  Henry  Ridgely  have  their  portion 
paid,  according  to  their  father's  will,  and  I  give  to  my  son,  Charles 
Ridgely,  '  Howard  Luck,'  lying  at  Huntington,  A.  A.  Co.     I  .iiive  to 


70        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Mr.  Henry  Ridgely's  five  children,  twenty  pounds  apiece,  to  be  paid 
them  at  the  day  of  marriage,  or  at  the  age  of  twenty-one. 

"  I  make  and  ordain  my  loving  brothers,  Mr.  Richard  Warfield 
and  Mr.  Alexander  Warfield  ,to  be  my  full,  whole  and  only  executors 
of  this  my  last  will  and  testament.  And  my  loving  brothers,  Mr. 
Charles  Greenberry  and  John  Hammond,  I  make  and  ordain  over- 
seers of  this  my  will,  and  I  give  each  of  them  thirty  shillings  to  buy 
them  a  ring  to  wear  for  my  sake.  I  desire  my  son  Benjamin  shall 
have  my  silver-headed  cane,  that  has  come  in  this  year;  and  my 
son  Absolute,  shall  have  my  silver  tobacco  box,  that  has  my  name 
on  it;  and  my  son-in-law  (stepson),  Henry  Ridgely,  shall  have  the 
other  silver  tobacco  box,  that  has  his  father's  name;  and  that  Joshua 
Dorsey  shall  have  my  silver-hilted  sword,  that  is  at  John  Green- 
iffe's  house,  which  his  father  Dorsey  gave  me.  If  you  find  three 
gold  rings,  given  by  me,  I  desire  you  to  let  Anne  Ridgely  have  her 
first  choice,  and  Betty  and  Rachel  have  the  other  ones.  I  desire 
to  be  buried  by  my  father,  on  his  left  hand,  and  have  the  grave- 
yard pailed. 

"I  desire  you  to  send  for  a  ring,  equal  in  value  to  the  others, 
for  my  daughter,  Katherine  Howard. 

"I  do  advise  that  you  take  care  that  all  the  lands  I  have  sur- 
veyed this  year,  have  patents  issued  in  the  names  of  the  orphans, 
I  desire  that  you  will  give  honorable  satisfaction  to  my  friend,  Mr. 
Edward  Rumney,  for  any  trouble  I  may  be  when  I  draw  my  last 
breath,  and  that  you  will  give  his  wife  a  ring  at  that  period. 

"I  give  to  Mrs.  Eleanor  Howard,  twenty  shillings,  to  buy  her 
a  ring."  John  Howard,     (seal.) 

Witnesses:  Joseph  Hill,  Cornelius  Howard,  Zachariah  Taylor, 
Zachariah  Maccubin,  Benjamin  Warfield,  John  Warfield,  William 
Maccubin. 

The  above  will  was  supplemented  by  seven  codicils,  as  after 
thoughts,  during  this  critical  period,  with  both  wives  dead  and  nine 
young  children  to  dispose  of. 

SAMUEL  HOWARD. 

There  is  still  one  living  neighbor  of  the  Severn,  who  remembers 
seeing,  when  a  boy,  the  terraced  grounds  which  surrounded  the  old 
stone  house  of  Samuel  Howard,  and  he  read  from  the  tombstone  in 
the  graveyard,  the  name  of  "  Patience  Howard,  daughter  of  Samuel 
Howard."     She  was  the  daughter  of  the  later  Samuel  Howard. 

Samuel  Howard  married  Catherine,  daughter  of  James  and 
Elizabeth  Warner,  daughter  of  William  Harris,  of  South  River. 
The  will  of  James  Warner,  names  "his  son  Samuel  Howard,  to  whom 
he  left  his  cloth  suit,  and  to  his  grandson  Philip  Howard,  another 
suit  of 'stuff e.' " 

Peter  Porter,  the  second,  in  his  will  names  "his  father  Samuel 
Howard,"  and  made  him  heir  and  executor.     His  wife  was  Sarah 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        71 

Porter,  daughter  of  Samuel  Howard.  Samuel  Howard's  will,  of  1703, 
throws  considerable  light  on  his  family.  He  named  his  wife,  Cath- 
erine; his  son  Philip;  his  grandsons  John  and  Samuel  Maccubin, 
and  his  granddaughter,  Elizabeth  Maccubin,  to  whom  he  left  ^^20 
each.  To  "cousin"  John  Howard,  "cousin"  John  Hammond,  "cou- 
sin's Sarah  Brice,  Hannah  Hamm.ond,  Cornelius  and  Joseph  How- 
ard, and  "cousin"  Elizabeth  Norwood,  he  left  twenty  shillings  each. 
It  is  well  known,  all  these  "cousins"  were  his  nephews  and  nieces. 
John  Howard  was  the  only  son  of  John  Howard,  brother  of  the 
testator;  John  Hammond  was  the  son  of  Major  John  Hammond, 
and  Mary  Howard  his  wife,  sister  of  the  testator.  Sarah  Brice  was 
the  daughter  of  Matthew  Howard,  brother  of  the  testator.  Hannah 
Hammond  was  the  daughter  of  Philip  Howard,  another  brother. 
Cornelius  and  Joseph  Howard  were  the  sons  of  his  brother  Cornelius, 
and  Elizabeth  Norwood  was  the  wife  of  Andrew  Norwood,  and 
daughter  of  Cornelius  Howard.  Samuel  Howard  made  his  nephews, 
John  Hammond  and  John  Howard,  overseers  of  his  will,  with  his 
son  Philip,  executor.  This  will  establishes,  beyond  question,  that 
the  above  five  Howards  were  brothers.  As  executor  of  his  father, 
Philip  Howard  had  a  case  in  Chancery,  leading  out  of  the  will  of  his 
grandfather,  James  Warner,  who  left  "Warner's  Neck"  to  his 
daughter,  Joanna  Sewell,  with  the  provision  that  it  would  descend 
to,  and  remain  always  in  possession  of  her  heirs.  It  was  sold  by 
her  son,  James  Sewell,  to  Samuel  Howard.  This  sale  was  contested 
by  other  Sewell  heirs,  but  the  Rent  Rolls  show  the  same  tract  "in 
possession  of  Henry  Pinkney,  by  his  marriage  to  the  widow  of  Philip 
Howard."  The  latter  died  two  years  after  his  father  and  "Henry 
Pinkney,  Cornelius  Howard  and  Joseph  Howard  were  made  guardians 
of  Samuel,  James,  Priscilla  and  Rachel  Howard,  children  of  Philip 
Howard."  Samuel,  in  1744,  married  Patience  Dorsey.  Annie  Ho- 
ward, of  the  city  of  Annapolis,  in  1744,  named  her  children  Samuel, 
Harvey,  Annie,  Philip,  Charles,  Benjamin  and  Thomas  Howard. 
Samuel  Howard  married  Miss  Higginbottom. 

CAPTAIN  CORNELIUS  HOWARD. 

Named  for  Colonel  Cornelius  Lloyd,  this  Severn  settler  was 
made  Ensign  in  command  of  the  Severn.  From  1671  to  1675  he 
represented  Anne  Arundel  County  in  the  Legislative  Assembly.  His 
colleagues  were  Robert  Francklyn  and  Colonel  Wm.  Burgess.  This 
official  position  enabled  him  to  increase  his  surveys  and  take  up 
surveys  for  his  neighbors.  He  was  frequently  called  upon  to  write 
the  will  and  become  a  witness  of  the  same  for  his  neighbors.  He 
was  sole  executor  and  legatee  of  Wm.  Carpenter,  in  1676.  Captain 
John  Sisson,  in  1663,  named  Cornelius  Howard,  "my  brother"  and 
executor.  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Howard,  wife  of  Cornelius,  was  "aunt" 
of  Mary  Todd,  daughter  of  Lancelot. 

Captain  Cornelius,  of  1680,  left  the  homestead  to  his  wife  and 
son  Joseph.     Captain  Cornelius  Howard,  Jr.,  the  boatwright,  heired 


72        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

adjoining  lands.  The  daughters  were  Sarah,  Mary,  the  spinster,  and 
EHzabeth,  wife  of  Andrew  Norwood,  whose  daughter  married  John 
Beale. 

JOSEPH  HOWARD,  OF  CAPTAIN  CORNELIUS. 

The  homestead,  near  the  old  Indian  trail,  and  a  later  survey  of 
"Howards  Inheritance,"  became  Joseph's  estate  in  Anne  Arundel. 
He  was  twice  married:  first  to  Anne  Burroughs,  widow  of  Joseph 
Burroughs,  who  held  land  on  South  River;  second  to  Margery  Keith. 
Joseph  Howard  took  up,  for  his  sons,  the  following  tracts  in  Howard 
County,  in  the  neighborgood  of  Clarksville.  In  1722,  he  and  others 
took  up  a  tract  of  2,590  acres,  called  "Discovery."  This  was  fol- 
lowed by  500  acres  known  as  "Howards  Passage,"  in  1728.  And 
"Joseph's  Hazard,"  of  100  acres,  in  1727.  His  will  of  1736,  records: 
"I  give  to  my  son,  Henry  Howard,  "Kil-Kenny"  and  "Howards 
Hazard"  adjoining,  ouf^  a  tract  of  "Howards  Passage,"  and  300 
acres  of  "The  Second  Discovery."  I  give  to  son  Ephriam,  500  acres 
of  "Discovery."  (This  was  later  deeded  by  EphriaiTrto  his  brother 
Henry).  I  give  to  my  son  Joseph,  200  acres  called  "Discovery," 
adjoining  Ephriam.  I  give  to  my  son  Cornelius  the  remainder  of 
said  "Discovery,"  and  400  acres  of  "Howard's  Passage."  I  give 
to  Joseph  the  plantation  on  which  I  now  live,  known  as  "  Howards 
Inheritance,"  380  acres,  and  it  is  my  desire  that  my  friend,  Dr. 
Richard  Hill,  will  instruct  in  the  knowledge  of  phisick,  and  be  his 
guardian.  I  give  to  my  grandson,  Joseph  Higgins,  100  acres  of  "  The 
Second  Discovery."  To  daughter  Sarah,  was  left  money;  to  daughter 
Ruth  Duvall,  and  daughter  Hannah  Jacob,  twenty  shillings  each. 
I  desire  my  friends,  Colonel  Henry  Ridgely,  Joshua  Dorsey,  and  John 
Dorsey,  of  Edward,  to  be  overseers  to  look  after  the  interests  of  my 
sons."  Joseph  Howard. 

Witnesses:     John  Howard,  John  Burgess,  William  Phelps. 

Margery  Howard,  his  widow,  in  1739,  gave  to  her  sons,  Cor- 
nelius, Ephriam,  Joseph  Howard,  and  daughter  Sarah,  a  number 
of  negroes. 

In  1737-8,  Ephriam  Howard  deeded  his  portion  of  "Discovery" 
to  his  brother  Henry.  This  tract  was  on  the  east  and  south  of  Car- 
rolls  Manor.  500  arces  of  the  original  body  of  2,590  acres,  were 
patented  to  John  Beale;  1090  acres,  to  Joseph  Howard;  200  acres, 
to  Abel  Browne;  800  acres,  to  Thomas  Bordley.  The  tract  known 
as  "Second  Discovery"  began  at  a  line  of  "Altogether,"  which  w^as 
on  the  western  border  of  Carroll's  Manor,  and  extended  west  and 
north  toward  Glenelg  and  West  Friendship.  It  was  surveyed  for 
John  Beale,  Vachel  Denton,  Priscilla  Geist  and  Joseph  Howard,  and 
patented  to  Vachel  Denton  and  Joseph  Howard,  who  held  910  acres. 
Denton  sold  his  interest  to  William  Worthington.  Joseph  Howard, 
Jr.,  was  the  only  one  who  remained  in  Anne  Arundel  County.  His 
will,  of  1783,  granted  to  his  wife  one-half  of  the  dwelling  place, 
"Howards'  Inheritance,"  a  part  of  "Rich  Neck"  and  "Chaney's 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        73 

Hazard."  After  her  death  it  was  to  go  to  Joseph  Howard,  Jr.,  and 
Margery,  wife  of  Major  Henry  Hall;  to  son  Benjamin  the  other  half 
of  the  above  lands.  *'  It  is  my  will  that  Benjamin  give  up  his  claim 
to  his  part  of  his  grandmother's,  Margaret  Gaither's  estate,  willed  to 
him  by  her,  and  he  is  to  receive  no  part  of  my  personal  estate,  but 
that  it  be  divided  equally  between  my  granddaughter,  Margaret 
Howard,  daughter  of  my  son  Joseph,  and  my  grandson  Henry,  son 
of  my  daughter  Margery,  wife  of  Henry  Hall.  To  grandson  Thomas 
Rutland,  son  of  my  daughter  Mary,  one  shilling.  To  my  son  Joseph, 
all  my  tract  lying  at  South  River,  known  as  "  Howard's  Angle." 
If  Benjamin  will  not  make  over  his  grandmother's  part,  then  Joseph 
is  to  have  Benjamin's  part."  Richard  Burgess,  Charles  Stewart,  Jr., 
and  Samuel  Burgess,  witnesses. 

Mrs.  Joseph  Howard  was  Margaret  Williams,  daughter  of  Mrs. 
Margaret  Gaither,  widow  of  Edward.  She  inherited  "Folkland." 
Joseph  Howard,  Jr.,  gave  to  his  daughters  the  old  dwelling  house, 
whereon,  as  tenant,  lived  Richard  Rawlins.  After  them,  it  was  to 
go  to  Joseph  Howard  his  son,  his  wife,  Martha  Howard,  and  brother 
Benjamin,  executors.  She  was  Martha  Hall,  daughter  of  Rev.  Henry 
Hall,  of  St.  James  Parish.  She  later  married  Nicholas  Hall.  Ben- 
jamin Howard,  brother  of  the  above  testator,  left  his  estate  of  500 
acres  to  Joseph,  of  Joseph,  and  a  part  of  the  dwelling  and  residence 
to  his  nieces,  Elizabeth,  Eleanor,  Martha,  Margery  and  Kitty,  and 
to  his  nephew,  John  Washington  Hall;  sister  Martha  Howard,  widow 
of  brother  Joseph,  executrix. 

JOSEPH  HOWARD,  OF  '*  HOWARD'S  GROVE." 

In  r|36,  the  above  testator  left  his  "Mansion  House"  to  his 
wife  Catherine,  with  power  to  control  it  as  he  was  accustomed  to 
do,  and  to  live  in  the  same  style;  to  command  servants,  horses 
and  teams  at  her  will;  sons  Thomas  and  Joseph,  to  assist  her  in 
its  management;  daughters  Elizabeth,  Margaret  and  son  Allen,  all 
to  hold  their  interests  in  common.  The  property  to  be  held  to- 
gether imtil  the  marriage  of  all  his  daughters,  and  then  to  be  divided. 
He  desired  that  all  of  his  children  should  be  baptised,  and  paid  a 
high  tribute  to  his  wife.  Robert  Welsh,  of  Benjamin,  Thomas  G. 
Waters  and  John  Thomas  were  witnesses.  A  codicil,  modifying  some 
of  the  provisions,  was  witnessed  by  Richard  Duckett,  Martha  Howard 
and  Thomas  Duckett. 

The  above  testator  has  been  recorded  in  "  The  Bowies  and  Their 
Kindred,"  as  descending  from  Matthew  Howard,  of  Matthew,  as  seen 
by  the  following  quotations,  "  Matthew  Howard,  of  Matthew,  of  1650, 
through  his  son  Joseph  Howard,  who  married  Martha  Hall,  daughter 
of  Rev.  Henry  Hall,  of  the  Episcopal  ministry,  of  England,  left 
Joseph  Hov^^ard,  Jr.,  born  1786,  who  married  Elizabeth  Susannah 
Bowie,  daughter  of  Captain  Fielder  Bowie.  Issue:  Dr.  Joseph 
Howard,  of  181 1,  married  Eleanor,  daughter  of  William  Digges  Clagett 
and  Sarah  Young;  second  Thomas  Contee  Bowie  Howard,  born  1812, 


74        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

married  Louisa,  daughter  of  John  Selby  Spence,  of  Worcester  Co., 
United  States  Senator.  Issue:  Margaret  Louisa  Howard,  married 
Nicholas  T.  Watkins,  of  Howard  Co. ;  Thomas  Contee  Bowie  Howard, 
Jr.,  married  Sally  Stevens,  of  Cambridge,  and  lived  near  Annapolis; 
third  Margaret  Howard,  married  Dr.  Thomas  S.  Duckett.  Issue: 
Marion  and  Ella  Duvall;  Allen  Bowie  Howard,  of  Joseph,  Jr.,  mar- 
ried Anna  Maria  Spence,  sister  of  his  brother's  wife  and  lived  at 
"Mulberry  Grove,"  Anne  Arundel.  Issue:  John  Spence  Howard, 
married  Mary  E.  Hodges.  Issue:  Mary,  John  Spence,  Jr.,  Mar- 
garet, Ellen  Howard,  Sophia  and  James  Hodges  Howard;  Allan 
Bowie  Howard  married  Rose  Alexander,  of  Philadelphia;  Sarah 
Maria  Howard."  Captain  Thos.  Howard,  the  popular  commander 
of  the  Oyster  Navy,  under  both  Governors  Smith  and  Warfield, 
descends  from  this  branch  of  Howards. 


CAPTAIN  PHILIP  HOWARD. 

"Our  Early  Settlers"  notes  the  arrival  of  Philip  Howard,  in 
1669,  and  his  demand  for  fifty  acres  for  transporting  himself.  In 
1659,  a  grant  was  made  to  Philip  Howard,  orphan,"  under  the  title 
of  "  Howard's  Stone."  This  was  on  the  north  side  of  the  Severn, 
adjoining  Edward  Lloyd.  Philip  Howard  bought  lands  also  from 
Cornelius  Howard,  on  the  south  side  of  the  Severn.  He  bought, 
also,  from  Robert  Proctor.  He  was  one  of  Her  Majesty's  Justices 
in  1694,  and  during  that  same  year,  was  a  commissioner  in  laying 
off  the  town  of  Annapolis.  He  married  Ruth  Baldwin,  daughter 
of  John  Baldwin,  and  Elizabeth,  his  wife.  She  was  a  sister  of  John 
Baldwin,  who  married  Hester  (Larkin)  Nicholson,  and  also  a  sister 
of  Mrs.  Thomas  Cruchley,  of  Annapolis.  She  was  the  aunt  of  Anne 
Baldwin,  wife  of  Judge  Samuel  Chase  and  Hester,  wife  of  Judge 
Jeremiah  Townley  Chase. 

Captain  Philip  and  Ruth  Howard  had  one  daughter,  Hannah, 
who  married  her  cousin,  Charles  Hammond.  In  his  will,  of  1701, 
Captain  Howard  named  his  grandsons,  Charles  and  Philip  Hammond, 
sons  of  his  daughter,  Hannah.  Mrs.  Ruth  Howard  was  made  execu- 
trix. The  Rent  Rolls  record:  "Ruth  Howard,  relict  of  Captain 
Philip  Howard,  enters  a  tract  of  land  called  'Green  Spring,'  pur- 
chased by  said  Howard  from  Robert  Proctor.  She  also  claims 
'Maiden,'  and  'Howard  and  Porters  Range,' — conveyed  from  Cor- 
nelius Howard  to  said  Philip;  also  a  tract  called  'The  Marsh.'  She 
further  claims  that  Cornelius  Howard,  Sr. ,  left  a  portion  of  '  Howard 
and  Porter's  Range'  to  Mary  Howard,  spinster,  and  that  she  con- 
veyed it  to  Cornelius  Howard,  Jr.,  who  conveyed  it  to  her  husband, 
Philip  Howard."     All  of  these  claims  stand  as  demanded. 

From  Hannah  Howard,  only  daughter  of  Philip  and  Ruth 
(Baldwin)  Howard,  descended  a  long  line  of  Hammonds,  the 
largest  land  holders  in  both  Howard  and  Anne  Arundel  Counties. 


FOUNDERS  OF  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        75 

MATTHEW  HOWARD. 

Matthew  Howard,  Jr.,  was  in  the  province  as  early  as  his 
brothers,  in  1662.  Yet  the  following  record  from  "Our  Early  Set- 
tlers" re-tTS  to  him:  "May  7th,  1667,  Matthew  Howard  demanded 
land  fox  transporting  Sarah  Darcy,  his  wife,  John  Pine,  Thomas 
Gleve.;  Thomas  Madloe,  Wm.  Cooke,  Joseph  Windoes,  Sarah  Driven, 
Elizabeth  Warrenton,  Samuel  Doyle,  Joane  Garnish.  Warrant,  then 
issued  in  the  name  of  Matthew  Howard,  for  five  hundred  acres  of 
land, due  him  for  transportation  of  said  persons." 

Matthew  Howard  surveyed  and  bought  extensively  upon  the 
neciv  of  the  Severn  and  Magothy  Rivers.  He  was  an  associate 
justice  of  the  county,  and  upon  the  committee  of  the  port  of  entry. 

Two  sons  and  one  daughter  were  his  heirs. John  held  "  Howard's 

P^irst  Choice,"  which  he  and  his  wife  Susannah,  transferred  to  Lance- 
lot Todd,  in  1698.  He  resided  upon  the  Magothy.  St.  Margaret's 
Parish  shows  the  births  of  his  sons,  Matthew,  John  and  Abner.  He 
died  in  1702,  when  his  widow,  the  same  year,  married  William 
Crouch,  who  held  "Poplar  Plains,"  suryeved  in  1683,  by  Matthew 
Howard,  Sr.,  for  Matthew  Howard,  Jr.,  the  minor.  The  two  sons 
of  John  and  Susannah  Howard,  were  progressive  surveyors  in  the 
upper  districts  of  Baltimore  and  Anne  Arundel  Counties.  They 
made  the  following  record  in  Annapolis:  "Matthew  Howard  and 
John  Howard,  of  Baltimore  County,  planters,  eldest  sons  of  John 
Howard  and  grandsons  of  Matthew  Howard,  both  of  Anne  Arundel, 
and  Ruth  Howard,  wife  of  said  John  Howard,  grant  to  John  Brice, 
"Hopkins  Plantation,"  northwest  of  the  Severn;  said  land  assigned 
to  Matthew  Howard,  in  1663." 

John  Howard,  also,  sold  "Left  Out,"  a  tract  near  Dayton, 
Howard  County,  to  John  Gaither.  Ruth  Howard,  his  wife,  was  the 
widow,  first  of  Edward  Dorsey,  and  second  of  Greeniffe.  Her  will 
of  1747,  named  her  sons,  and  executors  John  and  Edward  Dorsey; 
her  grandson,  John  Greeniffe  Howard,  and  her  granddaughter  Eliza- 
beth Hammond.  She  was  then  residing  near  her  sons,  or  with 
them,  at  Columbia,  Howard  County. 

Sarah  Howard,  only  daughter  of  Matthew  and  Sarah  Darcey, 
inherited  a  large  portion  of  her  father's  Severn  estate;  finally,  by 
her  two  marriages  to  Captain  John  Worthington  and  Captain  John 
Brice,  she  held  all  of  the  estate;  dying  in  1735,  in  the  old  Worth- 
ington homestead,  just  opposite  the  Naval  Academy.  Matthew 
Howard,  her  brother,  held  by  the  will  of  his  father,  in  1692,  "  Hop- 
kins Plantation,"  "Poplar  Plains"  and  "The  Adventure,"  on  the 
Patuxent.  He  sold,  in  1728,  "Poplar  Plains"  to  Anne  Price,  and 
left  no  other  records  at  Annapolis.  Matthew  Howard,  of  Frederick 
County,  sold  lands  to  Edward  Dorsey,  the  attorney  of  Annapolis. 
There  was,  also,  a  Matthew  Howard,  of  Kent  County,  "who  left  a 
considerable  estate  to  his  heirs."  He  named  in  his  will,  several 
tracts  in  Anne  Arundel.     I  have  not  followed  these  testators. 


76        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  CountiS. 

HENRY  HOWARD,  THE  BACHELOR. 

Henry  Howard,  of  Anne  Arundel,  appeared  as  a  witness  for 
John  Homewood,  in  a  case  brought  by  the  latter  against  Sheriff 
John  Welsh.  Henry  Howard  held  lands  on  the  GunpowaPr  River, 
but  he  is  recorded  as  a  resident  of  Anne  Arundel.  In  hiJa"'"''!!!  of 
1683,  he  left  to  "John  Howard  his  wearing  apparel,"  and  to  ''John 
Howard  and  to  Matthew  Howard,  of  Anne  Arundel,  each  a  silver 
seal  ring."  To  John  Bennett  and  Sarah,  his  wife,  "a  seal  ring  with 
the  coat  of  arms,"  and  a  hooked  ring  with  the  initials  F.  C."  vThe 
above  Sarah  wife  of  John  Bennett,  was  the  widow  of  John  Ho^^ 
wood,  and  the  daughter  of  Thomas  Meeres,  the  Quaker,  of  Edw^-^^ 
Lloyd's  commissioners,  in  1650.)  He  also  left  "to  Sarah  Dasey; 
wife  of  Joseph  Dasey,  two  hundred  acres  of  land  upon  the  Gun-" 
powder."  His  personal  estate  was  granted  to  Edward  Skidmore; 
Elizabeth  Skidmore  and  Michael  Skidmore.  To  Theophilus  Hacketti 
his  administrator,  he  left  a  pair  of  silk  stockings  and  sixteen  hundred 
pounds  of  tobacco.  Richard  Howard  was  a  witness.  Edward  Skid-" 
more,  gentleman,  of  Cecil,  left  a  remembrance  to  his  friend,  Henry' 
Howard,  and  made  the  above  Skidmores  legatees. 

This  testator  was  evidently  a  connection  of  the  five  Howard: 
brothers,  and  may  have  been  the  traditional  "Sir  Henry  Howard/' 
to  whom  descendants  of  a  later  namesake  refer. 

CAPTAIN  CORNELIUS  HOWARD,  JR.  1 

As  a  mariner  he  held  but  a  small  estate  in  realty.  He  was  of- 
the  vestry  of  St.  Anne's  church,  upon  its  organization,  in  1696,  with' 
Thomas  Bland,  Richard  Warfield,  Jacob  Harness  and  William  Brown. 
His  wife  was  Mary  Hammond.  The  will  of  her  mother,  Mary  (Heath) 
Hammond,  in  1721,  named  her  grandson,  John  Howard,  grand- 
daughter, Sarah  Howard;  grandson,  Thomas  Howard;  grand- 
daughter, Eleanor  Howard;    grandson,  Cornelius  Howard. 

Mrs.  Cornelius  Howard  died  in  1714,  and  her  husband  in  1716. 
His  will  reads:  "My  son  Charles,  is  already  provided  for.  To  my 
son  John  Howard,  my  lands  on  the  Choptank.  To  my  son  Thomas' 
Howard,  my  lands  on  the  Patapsco.     To  Cornelius,  the  homestead."' 

His  son  Charles  died  in  1717.  His  will  reads:  "I  give  to  my' 
brother  Thomas  one-half  of  a  tract  conveyed  to  me  by  Richard^ 
Freeborne,  called  "Freeborne's  Progress,"  in  Baltimore  County.  To" 
brother  Thomas  I  give  my  part  after  my  brother,  Cornelius  Howard,' 
has  had  his  moiety  mentioned  in  a  deed  of  a  gift  to  my  said  brother."" 

"This  gift  to  my  brother  Thomas,  is  to  be  void  unless  he  gives| 
a  tract  left  by  his  father  on  the  Patapsco,  to  such  person  my  wife,^ 
Mary  Howard,  shall  sell  the  said  tract  of  fiftj^  acres  to.  I  authorize^ 
my  wife  Mary,  to  sell  my  lands  on  the  Patapsco,  called  "Roger's, 
Increase,"  and  the  money  thus  raised,  to  be  paid  over  to  my  brother 
Thomas,  as  a  part  which  I  gave  him  by  deed  of  gift,  not  signed.       i 

"To  my  wife  Mary  and  son  Benjamin,  all  my  personal  estate,^ 
and  appoint  her  my  executrix."     Witnesses,  Jno.  Beale,  Jno.  Cun- 
ningham and  James  Howard. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        77 

Thomas  Howard  surveyed  "Hazard"  in  1724,  adjoining  lands 
laid  out  for  Samuel  Dorsey.  In  1731,  he  sold  the  same  to  Mr.  Wright, 
who  sold  to  William  Gumming.  The  will  of  Thomas  Howard, 
in  1771,  left  all  his  estate  to  his  wife  Anne,  and  made  her  executrix. 

Cornelius  Howard,  of  Captain  Cornelius,  Jr.,  lived  upon  the 
homestead  in  Anne  Arundel.  His  wife  was  Elizabeth,  and  their 
son,  Cornelius  Howard,  was  born  in  1728.  A  Thomas  Howard  of 
this  line  and  his  wife,  Priscilla  Selby,  were  granted  "Freeborn's 
Progress"  by  Robert  and  Sarah  Ridgely,  of  Elkridge,  which  they 
sold  to  Mr.  Peele,  in  1728.  In  the  deed  of  transfer,  Robert  Ridgely 
stated  it  came  to  his  wife  by  inheritance. 

Still  later,  a  Thomas  Howard  married  Ruth  Dorsey,  daughter 
of  Elias  and  Mary  Lawrence,  daughter  of  Benjamin  Lawrence,  of 
"Delaware  Hundred." 

^  COLONEL  HENRY  RIDGELY. 

From  the  manuscript  of  Judge  Nicholas  Ridgely,  of  Delaware, 
now  in  possession  of  Mrs.  Henry  Ridgely,  of  Dover,  and  from  the 
records  of  Annapolis,  I  find  the  Ridgelys,  of  Annapolis,  and  of  Dela- 
ware, descended  from  the  "Hon.  Henry  Ridgely,  of  Devonshire, 
England,  who  settled  in  Maryland,  in  1659,  upon  a  royal  grant  of 
6,000  acres.  He  became  a  Colonel  of  Militia,  member  of  the  Assembly 
of  the  Governmental  Council,  Justice  of  the  Peace,  and  Vestryman  of 
the  Parish  Church  of  St.  Ann's." 

The  above  is  taken  from  the  Ridgely  manuscript  of  a  grandson, 
and  confirms  the  record  made  by  Mr.  Creagar,  who  indexed  "  Our 
Early  Settlers."  He  assumed  that  the  following  record  was  intended 
for  the  above  Colonel  Henry  Ridgely :  "  Henry  Ridley  demands  lands 
for  transporting  himself,  which  is  entered  in  Buries  book,  and  Eliza- 
beth Howard,  his  wife,  and  John  Hall,  Stephen  Gill,  Richard  Ravens 
and  Jane  his  servants,  in  the  year  1659." 

The  next  entry  is  1661,  when  "James  Wardner  (Warner)  and 
Henry  Ridgely  were  granted  a  certificate  for  600  acres,  called  '  Ward- 
ridge,'  on  the  north  side  of  South  River,  joining  a  tract,  *  Broome/ 
formally  Richard  Beard's,  adjoining  Neale  Clarke's." 

In  1665,  James  Warner  assigned  his  right  to  Henry  Ridgely. 
This  transfer  was  one  of  the  burnt  records  of  1704.  It  was  restored 
by  Colonel  Charies  Greenberry,  in  the  interest  of  his  sister's  children. 

Judge  Nicholas  Ridgely 's  bible-record  throws  more  light  on 
Colonel  Henry  Ridgely's  wife;  it  reads  thus,  "Nicholas  Ridgely, 
son  of  Henry,  (who  was  the  son  of  Colonel  Henry  and  Sarah,  his 
wife),  and  Catherine,  his  wife,  (who  was  the  daughter  of  Colonel 
Nicholas  Greenberry  and  Ann,  his  wife),  all  of  Anne  Arundel  County, 
in  the  Province  of  Maryland),  the  said  Nicholas  was  born  the  12th 
day  of  February,  A.  D.,  1694,  and  was  married  to  Sarah  Worth- 
ington,  (the  daughter  of  Captain  John  and  Sarah,  his  wife,  of  Anne 
Anmdel  County,  aforesaid),  the  26th  day  of  December,  1711." 


78        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

This  record  shows  that  if  Colonel  Henry  Ridgely's  wife  was 
Elizabeth  Howard,  she  was  not  the  mother  of  Colonel  Ridgely's  son 
Henry.  His  mother  evidently  belonged  to  the  house  of  James 
Warner  and  Elizabeth  Harris,  his  wife.  In  1679,  Henry  Ridgely, 
Sr.,  was  commissioned  associate  Justice  of  Anne  Arundel;  in  1689, 
he  was  appointed  "Captain  of  the  Foote";  in  1692,  he  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Lower  House;  in  1694,  he  was  promoted  Major,  and  in 
the  same  year  was  advanced  to  Colonel  in  the  Militia.  In  1685, 
Colonel  Henry  surveyed  "Ridgely's  Forrest."  It  covered  all  the 
land  surrounding  Annapolis  Junction  and  Savage  Factory.  In  1699, 
he  granted  to  his  son  Henry,  220  acres  of  "Broome"  and  200  acres 
of  "Wardridge."  Upon  this  combined  plantation,  Henry  Ridgely, 
Jr.,  having  removed  from  his  Annapolis  homestead,  died  in  early 
manhood,  thirty  years  of  age,  in  1699.  There  in  the  reserved  grave- 
yard stood,  for  years,  the  well  preserved  tablet  to  his  memory.  In 
1702,  Colonel  Henry  sold  Charles  Carroll  "the  house  and  lot  in 
Annapolis,  lately  in  the  tenture  of  my  son,  adjoining  the  lots  of 
Charles  and  Rachel  Kilburne."{f  In  1696,  Colonel  Henry  Ridgely 
married  Mary  (Stanton)  Duvall,  widow  of  Mareen  Duvall,  the 
Huguenot,  and  with  her  administered  on  Duvall's  estate.  He  then 
removed  across  the  river  to  Prince  George's  County,  where  he 
became  a  merchant.  .'^His  will,  written  in  1705,  with  codicils,  was 
probated  in  1710.  It  reads:  "I  give  to  my  wife  Mary,  my  home, 
plantation,  'Cotton';  'Mary's  Delight'  and  'Larkin's  Folly,'  which 
I  bought  of  Thomas  Larkin,  to  an  unborn  child.  To  son  Charles 
Ridgely,  all  that  plantation  called  'Hogg  Neck,'  and  300  acres  of 
'Ridgely's  Lot,'  lying  at  'Huntington,  A.  A.',  excepting  lands  sold 
to  Thomas  Reynolds  and  Neale  Clarke,  near  Wm.  Griffiths.  I  give 
also,  to  son  Charles,  300  acres  of  '  Wardridge,'  adjoining  '  Hogg  Neck.' 
My  wearing  apparel  to  my  brother,  William,  and  my  son,  Charles. 
'Larkin  Forrest,'  if  there  be  no  heir,  to  be  divided  between  Henry 
Ridgely  and  Nicholas  Ridgely,  sons  of  his  deceased  son,  Henry, 
and  Henry,  son  of  his  son,  Charles  Ridgely.  The  remaining  part  of 
'Wardridge,'  to  go  to  grandson,  Henry  Ridgely,  son  of  Henry, 
deceased,  after  Charles  had  300  acres  out  of  it.  If  'Mary's  Delight' 
is  not  possessed  by  an  heir,  it  is  to  be  divided  between  John  Brewer, 
Joseph  Brewer,  Thomas  Odall  and  Henry  Odall,  sons  of  Thomas 
Odall,  (elsewhere  written  Odell).  I  give  to  my  daughter,  Sarah 
Odall,  wife  of  Thomas,  a  negroe  girl;  to  all  my  grandchildren,  ^10; 
to  my  god-daughter,  Martha  Duvall,  ^51,  and  a  cow  and  calf.  To 
St.  Barnabas  Church,  Queen  Parish,  Prince  George,  ^20.  Grandsons, 
Henry  and  Nicholas  Ridgely,  to  be  under  the  care  of  Thomas  Odall 
and  Charles  Greenberry,  until  of  age.  The  remaining  part,  whether 
here  or  in  England,  to  go  to  my  wife  and  executrix."  Witnesses 
were  Louis  Duvall  and  Thomas  Reynolds. 

The  will  of  John  Brewer  mentions  his  wife,  Sarah,  his  sons,  John 
and  Joseph,  and  his  father,  Henry  Ridgely,  whom  he  made  his 
executor,  with  his  wife  Sarah. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        79 

"Wardridge,"  or  "Waldridge,"  and  "Broome  "  the  inheritance 
of  Henry  Ridgely,  the  second,  lay  southwest  of  "  Hockley,"  on  the 
road  leading  to  the  head  of  South  River.  In  its  old  graveyard, 
which  had  been  reserved,  stood  the  following  tablet: 

"  Here  lyeth  the  body  of  Mr.  Henry 
Ridgely,  who  was  born  the  3rd  of 
Oct.,  1669,  and  departed  this  life  on 
ye  19th  day  of  March,  1700." 

Having  been  fractured  by  the  encroachment  of  a  neighboring 
settler,  the  "  Peggy  Stewart  Chapter  of  the  Colonial  Dames,"  ordered 
its  removal  to  the  grounds  of  St.  Ann's  Church,  Annapolis.  His 
widow,  Katherine  (Greenberry)  Ridgely,  his  executrix,  later  married 
Captain  John  Howard,  who  named  in  his  will,  1704,  "the  five 
orphans  of  Henry  Ridgely,"  and  requested  his  executors  to  grant 
them  their  portions,  as  expressed  in  the  will  of  their  father.  They 
were:  Henry  Ridgely,  the  third,  later  known  as  Colonel  Henry 
Ridgely,  of  Howard  County;  Judge  Nicholas  Ridgely,  of  Delaware; 
Charles  Ridgely,  who  inherited  "Howard  Luck"  from  Captain  John 
Howard,  and  died  soon  after;  Ann  Ridgely,  wife  of  Joshua  Dorsey, 
and  Elizabeth,  wife  of  Thomas  Worthington;  Nicholas  Ridgely,  of 
Henry  and  Katherine,  married  Sarah  Worthington;  lived,  after 
marriage,  on  "Wyatt's  Ridge."  Uppn  a,  portion  of  this  stands 
"Belvoir,"  in  sight  of  Round  Bay.  He  also  inherited  a  portion  of 
"Ridgely's  Forrest,"  near  Guilford,  Howard  County.  Upon  remov- 
ing first  to  Cecil  County,  he  sold  the  former  tract  to  his  brother- 
in-law,  John  Worthington,  Jr.,  and  his  wife's  inheritance  on  the 
Severn,  to  her  mother,  Mrs.  Sarah  Brice.  The  heirs  of  Nicholas  and 
Sarah,  all  named  in  his  bible  record,  were,  Sarah,  Rebecca,  Rachel, 
Ruth  and  Ann.  His  wife  died  in  1721.  His  daughter,  Rebecca,  was 
married  "Where  I  lived  in  Cecil  Co.,  Md.,  on  Wed.,  October,  1731,  to 
Benjamin  Warfield,  son  of  Mr.  John  Warfield,  of  Anne  Arundel,  Md. 
by  the  Rev.  Richard  Sewell,  Rector  of  Shrewsberry  Parrish,  Kent 
Co.,  Md." 

The  will  of  Mrs.  Brice,  in  1725,  named  her  granddaughter, 
Rebecca  Ridgely,  to  whom  she  left,  "one  quart  silver  tankard,  one 
dozen  silver  spoons,  and  ^50,  in  money."  Similar  legacies  were 
given  to  her  sisters.  In  1727,  Mr.  Nicholas  Ridgely's  wife  was  Ann 
French  Gordon,  daughter  of  Robert  French,  and  widow  of  James  Gor- 
don. She  bore  him  one  daughter,  Mary,  who,  became  Mrs,  Patrick 
Martain.  In  1727,  Nicholas  and  Ann  Ridgely'  of  Cecil  County,  sold 
to  John  Brown,  his  inheritance  "Ridgely's  Forrest,'  which  was  re- 
surveyed  into  "Browne's  Purchase."  His  daughter  Rachel,  became 
the  wife  of  John  Vining,  Speaker  of  Delaware  Assembly,  who  owned 
a  large  estate  in  New  Jersey.  On  one  of  his  visits  there,  he  was 
taken  sick,  died,  and  was  buried  at  St.  John's  Church,  Salem, 
Under  the  aisle,  a  stone  with  an  inscription,  marks  the  sepulcher. 
Mrs.  Rachel  Vining  died  in  1753,  and  was  buried  under  the  pew  of 
her  father.  Judge  Ridgely,  in  Christ  Church,  Dover. 


80        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

In  1741,  Governor  George  Thomas,  commissioned  Nicholas 
Ridgely  as  follows:  "Reposing  a  special  trust  in  your  loyalty  and 
courage,  I  have  nominated  you  to  be  Captain  of  the  Militia  Foote, 
in  the  upper  part  of  the  county  of  Kent.  You  are,  therefore,  to 
take  said  Company  into  your  charge,  as  Captain,  and  duly  exercise 
both  the  officers  and  soldiers  in  arms,  and  for  so  doing,  this  is 
your  commission.  Given  under  my  hand  and  seal  as  arms,  at  the 
town  of  New  Castle,  on  the  Delaware,  3rd  Feb.,  1741, 

Geoege  Thomas." 

Governor  Warfield,  a  descendant,  has  the  original  commission 
in  his  possession. 

In  1745,  Judge  Ridgely  became  the  guardian  of  Caesar  Rodney, 
who  later  became  the  most  distinguished  patriot  of  the  state.  To 
his  training,  also,  was  due  the  successful  careers  of  his  son.  Dr. 
Charles  Ridgely,  and  of  the  brilliant  John  Vining,  his  wife's  grand- 
son. 

Quoting  again  from  the  Ridgely  manuscript:  "  Nicholas  Ridgely 
second  son  of  Henry  Ridgely,  was  born  at  'Wardridge,'  in  1694. 
He  was  thirty-eight  years  of  age  when  he  moved  to  'Eden  Hill,'  a 
handsome  plantation  near  Dover.  Mr.  Ridgely  at  once  took  his 
place  among  the  leading  citizens  of  his  adopted  state,  filling,  with 
honor,  the  offices  of  Kent  County,  Clerk  of  the  Peace,  Justice  of 
the  Peace,  Prothonatory,  Register  in  Chancery,  Judge  of  the  Supreme 
Com-t  of  New  Castle,  Kent  and  Sussex  Counties;  enjoying  the  honor 
until  his  death,  in  1755.  In  1735,  as  foreman  of  the  Grand  Jury 
he  signed  a  petition  to  King  George  II,  against  granting  a  charter 
to  Lord  Baltimore,  in  abrogation  of  the  rights  of  the  Penn  family, 
in  the  three  lower  counties." 

In  1743,  his  daughters,  Sarah  and  Rachel,  granted  a  power  of 
attorney,  attested  by  Nicholas  Ridgely  and  Rebecca_  Warfield,  to 
their  uncle,  Henry  Ridgely,  to  receive  legacies  from"  their  grand- 
mother's estate.  They  were  then  located,  "in  Kent  Co.,  on  the 
Delaware,  in  Territories  of  Pennsylvania."  Judge  Ridgely's  third 
wife  was  Mary  Middleton  Vining,  widow  of  Captain  Benjamin 
Vining,  a  lady  who  held  a  large  estate.  Her  son.  Judge  John  Vining, 
married  Phoebe  Wyncoop.  Their  son,  John,  was  "the  Patrick 
Henry  of  Delaware,"  of  brilliant  wit,  lawyer,  member  of  the  first 
Continental  Congress,  and  "the  pet  of  Delaware."  His  sister,  the 
beautiful  Mary  Vining,  the  admiration  of  General  LaFayette, 
became  the  bethrothed  wife  of  General  Anthony  Wayne,  who  died 
before  the  wedding  day.  Judge  Ridgely's  daughter,  Elizabeth, 
became  the  second  wife  of  Col.  Thomas  Dorsey,  of  Elk  Ridge. 

Dr.  Charles  Ridgely,  of  Judge  Nicholas  and  Mary,  was  born  in 
1738.  He  became  an  eminent  physician,  residing  at  "Eden  Hill," 
but  later  in  the  house  upon  "The  Green,"  purchased  by  Judge 
Ridgely,  in  Dover.  His  son,  Nicholas,  by  his  first  wife,  Mary 
Wyncoop,  was  the  first  chancellor  of  Delaware,  universally  respected 
as  an  able  jurist,  a  courteous  gentleman  of  the  old  school,  in  dress 
and  demeanor,  holding  to  provincial  customs. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        81 

Dr.  Charles  Ridgely's  second  wife,  Ann  Moore,  bore  him  five 
children.  Henry  Moore  Ridgely,  his  oldest  son,  succeeded  to  the 
homestead,  in  1735;  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar,  in  1802;  was  in 
Congress,  in  1811;  Secretary  of  State,  1817,  and  again  in  1820  He 
there  collected  the  scattered  archives  of  the  State.  Repeatedly 
elected  to  the  Legislature,  he  framed  the  most  important  laws  of 
the  State.  In  1827,  he  was  sent  to  the  United  States  Senate,  where 
he  advocated  a  high  protective  tariff.  He  died  in  the  old  house 
on  "The  Green,"  upon  his  eighty-second  birthday,  1847.  He  left 
five  children.  His  oldest  son,  Henry  (V.)  Ridgely,  in  1889,  was  in 
serene  old  age,  an  honored  resident  of  Dover,  and  "Eden  Hill." 
His  brother,  Henry  Ridgely,  was  the  father  of  Henry  Ridgely  (V), 
a  prominent  lawyer,  of  Dover.  He  married  Matilda  Lloyd,  a 
descendant  of  the  distinguished  Maryland  family,  a  notice  of  whom 
will  be  found  in  the  list  of  governors.  They  occupy  the  family 
homestead,  the  exterior  of  which  is  severely  plain.  The  interior  is 
captivating.  The  floral  designs  of  the  low  ceilings,  are  the  work  of 
a  Dover  artist.  The  delicate  tints  of  the  drawing  room  walls,  and 
the  artistic  hangings  of  the  guest  chamber,  contrast  harmoniously 
with  the  dark  panelings  of  the  wide  hall,  which  is  also  the  library, 
in  which  is  a  chair  known  as  William  Penn's.  In  the  garden,  where 
the  box  bushes  have  grown  in  a  century  or  more,  into  great  trees 
and  hedges,  on  the  top  of  which  one  may  walk  fearlessly,  as  upon 
a  wall.  Judge  Nicholas  Ridgely  and  his  family  liked  to  take  tea,  all 
summer  long.  A  rear  view  of  the  Ridgely  house  reveals  a  cluster 
of  ivy." — Marion  Harland. 

Henry  Ridgely,  of  Henry  and  Katherine,  of  "Wardridge,"  on 
coming  to  manhood,  in  1711,  sold  his  homestead  to  his  brother-in- 
law,  Thomas  Worthington,  and  removed  to  his  grand-father's 
extensive  survey,  at  Huntington.  His  biography  will  be  found  in 
the  history  of  Howard  Coimty. 

Sarah  Ridgely,  only  daughter  of  Colonel  Henry,  first  became 
the  wife  of  John  Brewer,  and  after  his  death,  she  married  Thomas 
Odell.     A  sketch  of  the  Brewer  family  will  be  found  elsewhere. 

'^  WILLIAM  RIDGELY,  OF  SOUTH  RIVER. 

William  Ridgely  came  to  this  province  of  Maryland,  in  1672. 
Colonel  Henry's  will  shows  him  to  be  his  brother.  His  first  survey, 
in  1697,  was  "  Ridgely's  Beginning,"  northside  of  South  River.  In 
1690,  he  bought,  of  James  Finley,  a  portion  of  "  Abbington,"  at  the 
head  of  South  River,  and  made  it  his  homestead. 

William  and  Ehzabeth  Ridgely,  his  wife,  sold  in  1710,  "Ridge- 
ly's Beginning,"  to  Amos  Garrett,  the  Annapolis  merchant.  Only 
one  son,  WilHam  Ridgely,  Jr.,  was  named  by  them.  Upon  his 
marriage  to  Jane  Westall,  daughter  of  George  Westall,  of  South 
River,  in  1702,  WilHam  Ridgely,  Sr.,  and  Elizabeth,  his  wife,  deeded 
to  WilHam  Ridgely,  Jr.,  and  Jane,  his  wife,  their  homestead  tract, 
"Abington."     During  that  same  year,  another  deed  for  a  portion 


82        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties, 

of  the  home  tract  was  made  by  WilHam  Ridgely,  Sr.,  and  Ehzabeth, 
his  wife,  and  WilHam  Ridgely,  Jr.,  and  Jane,  his  wife,  to  Mrs.  Mary 
Ridgely,  late  widow  of  Colonel  Henry. 

William  Ridgely,  Sr.,  died  in  1716,  as  shown  by  his  testamentary 
record,  intestate,  William  Ridgely,  Jr.,  also  died  intestate.  His 
widow,  Jane  (Westall)  Ridgely,  left  a  will  in  1748. 

Upon  a  twelve  hundred  acre  tract  of  her  father's  estate,  Colonel 
Wm.  Burgess  located  the  once  flourishing  town  of  London.  In  his 
will  of  1686,  he  named  this  tract  as  once  the  property,  of  "Mr.  George 
Westall,  upon  a  portion  of  which  is  a  town  laid  out,  called  London- 
town." 

Mrs.  Jane  (Westall)  Ridgely  named  her  heirs,  William,  Westall, 
Sarah,  John,  Martha  Maccubbin  and  Alice  Woodward. 

John  Ridgely  was  made  executor,  and  heired  the  homestead, 
"Abington."  He  married  Elizabeth  Mayo,  of  South  River,  and 
bought  of  "Edward  Gaither,  of  'Edward,'  the  whole  of  'Gaithers 
Collection.'  " 

Westall  Ridgely  inherited  "Ridgely's  Chance,"  in  Frederick 
County,  and  in  his  will  of  1772,  named  his  heirs,  Sarah,  William, 
Jane,  Deverella,  Isaac,  Jacob,  Ahce,  Martha,  Richard  and  Jemima. 

William  Ridgely,  the  third,  in  1726,  married  Mary  Orrick, 
daughter  of  James  and  Priscilla  (Ruley)  Orrick.  By  the  will  of 
Anthony  Ruley,  of  South  River,  1710,  his  daughter,  Priscilla  Orrick, 
came  into  possession  of  "Beetenson's  Adventure,"  on  South  River. 
This  tract  was  taken  up  by  Edward  Beetenson  and  Lydia  Watkins, 
his  wife.  By  the  will  of  James  Orrick,  his  daughter  Mary  Orrick 
inherited  one-third  of  his  estate.  Her  mother,  inheriting  one-third, 
became  the  wife  of  Abraham  Woodward,  son  of  William  Woodward,  of 
London.  William  Woodward  (of  Abraham),  married  Alice  Ridgely, 
daughter  of  William  and  Jane  (Westall)  Ridgely.  William  Wood- 
ward, Jr., — Jane,  daughter  of  William  and  Mary  (Orrick)  Ridgely. 
Their  son  Henry,  born  1770,  married  Eleanor,  widow  of  Philip 
Turner,  and  daughter  of  Colonel  Thomas  Williams  by  his  wife, 
Rachel  Duckett.  Their  daughter,  Jane  Maria,  became  the  wife  of 
Judge  William  Henry  Baldwin,  of  Anne  Arundel,  and  the  mother 
of  a  distinguished  family  of  merchants. 

William  and  Mary  (Orrick)  Ridgely,  had  issue  William,  Nicholas, 
John,  Henr}^,  Greenberry,  Priscilla  Griffith,  Jane  Woodward,  Mary 
Pumphrey,  Sophia  Pumphrey  and  Ann  Rigby.  William  Ridgely's 
will,  of  1768,  probated  in  1780,  granted  to  sons  John,  Henry  and 
Greenberry,  four  tracts  of  land,  "Ridgely's  Chance,"  "Spanish  Oak," 
"Good  Luck"  and  "Piney  Grove."  One-third  of  his  estate  was 
left  to  his  wife  Mary. 

Greenberry  Ridgely,  youngest  son  of  William  and  Mary  (Orrick) 
Ridgely,  born  1745,  married  Rachel  Ryan,  daughter  of  John 
Ryan,  who  held  an  estate  on  Elk  Ridge.  She  joined  him  in  deed- 
ing his  estate  upon  South  River,  and  with  him  removed  to  Elk  Ridge, 
where  Rev.  Greenberry  Ridgely  took  charge  of  a  Methodist  Church. 
About  1800,  he  moved  to  Baltimore  and  became  a  merchant.     His 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        83 

9 

sons  were  Lloyd,  Lot,  Noah,  Silas,  Greenberry,  Isaac,  James  and 
Nicholas,  born  1800.  This  last  son  removed  to  Springfield,  Illinois, 
where  he  acquired  a  large  estate.  His  son  and  successor,  Mr.  Charles 
Ridgely,  of  the  Springfield  ironworks,  and  president  of  a  bank,  mar- 
ried Miss  Barret,  daughter  of  James  Winston  Barret,  son  of  Captain 
William  and  Dorothy  (Winston)  Barret.  Their  son  Hon.  James 
Barret  Ridgely,  is  now  Comptroller  of  the  Currency. 

Greenberry  Ridgely,  Jr.,  in  1814,  married  Harriet  Talbott, 
descendant  of  Richard  and  Elizabeth  (Ewen)  Talbott,  daughter  of 
Maj.  Richard  Ewen.  Harriet  Talbott's  father  was  Benjamin  Talbott. 
whose  wife  was  Sarah  Willmot — son  of  Edward  Talbott  and  Tem- 
perance Merryman,  his  wife,  son  of  Edward  Talbott  and  Mary 
Waters,  his  wife,  son  of  Edward  Talbott  and  Elizabeth  (Thomas) 
Coale,  his  wife,  son  of  Richard  Talbott,  the  immigrant. 

Greenberry  and  Harriet  Ridgely  had  issue:  Charles  W.  Ridgely, 
of  Lutherville;  James  H.  Ridgely,  the  "Odd  Fellow,"  grandfather 
of  Mrs.  Frank  Brown  ft  Dr.  Benjamin  Rush  Ridgely,  of  Warren, 
Baltimore  County,  now  over  three-quarters  of  a  century  old,  yet  a 
vigorous  writer  and  able  genealogist. 

Alice  Ridgely,  of  William  and  Jane  (Westall)  Ridgely,  will  be 
found  in  the  Woodward  sketch;  so  will  Jane  Ridgely,  of  Mrs.  Mary 
(Orrick)  Ridgely. 

RICHARD  WARFIELD,  FIRST  VESTRYMAN  OF  ST, 
ANN'S  CHURCH. 

A  Warfield  record,  one  hundred  years  old,  states  that  "  Richard 
Warfield  settled  near  Annapolis,  in  1639."  There  was  no  settle- 
ment there  until  1649,  and  Richard  Warfield  was  not  one  of  those 
settlers.  He  came  among  them,  however,  in  1662,  and  located 
west  of  Crownsville,  Anne  Arundel,  "in  the  woods."  His  estate 
reached  back  to  the  beautiful  sheet  of  water, — Round  Bay,  of  the 
Severn.  Our  Rent  Rolls  show  that  he  held,  during  his  life,  "  Way- 
field,"  "  Warfield's  Right,"  "  Hope,"  "  Increase,"  "  Warfield's  Plains," 
"  Warfield's  Forest,"  "Warfield's  Addition,"  "Brandy,"  "and  "War- 
field's  Range." 

In  1670,  he  married  Elinor,  heiress  of  Captain  John  Browne, 
of  London,  who,  with  his  brother.  Captain  Peregrine  Browne,  ran 
two  of  the  best  equipped  merchant  transports  between  London  and 
Annapolis. 

Richard  Warfield's  wife  inherited  "Hope"  and  "Increase." 
two  adjoining  tracts,  the  history  of  which  is  as  follows: 

They  were  taken  up  by  Henry  Sewell;  transferred  by  him  to 
John  Minter;  willed  by  him  to  his  daughter,  Elizabeth,  wife  of 
Henry  Winchester.  These  two  joined  in  deeding  them,  in  1673,  to 
Captain  John  Browne,  mariner,  of  London.  No  further  transfers 
are  to  be  found,  but  in  1705,  Richard  Warfield  appeared  before 
the  commission,  to  restore  the  burnt  record  of  1704,  and  requested 
a  record  of  the  above  history. 


84        FouNDEES  OF  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

In  1675,  Richard  and  Elinor  Warfield  were  summoned  as 
witnesses  to  the  chancery  contest  over  the  will  of  their  immediate 
neighbor,  Nicholas  Wyatt.  In  1689,  Richard  Warfield  signed,  as  a 
military  officer,  the  address  to  King  William.  In  1696,  Richard 
Warfield's  name  was  returned  as  one  of  the  Vestry  of  St.  Ann's 
Church.  This  was  before  the  first  building  was  completed.  Dying 
at  an  advanced  age,  in  1703-04,  he  left  an  intelligent  will,  in 
which  he  named  his  heirs,  John,  Richard,  Alexander,  Benjamin, 
(Mary,  late  wife  of  Captain  John  Howard),  Rachel,  then  wife  of 
George  Yates;  Elinor,  the  prospective  bride  of  Caleb  Dorsey,  of 
"Hockley." 

In  his  old  age,  he  began  the  first  westward  movement  of  the 
early  settlements  to  the  unexplored  frontier  of  Howard.  His  sons 
and  executors,  in  1704,  resurveyed  "Warfield's  Range,"  and  in- 
creased it  to  fifteen  hundred  acres.  John,  his  oldest  son,  lived  upon 
"Warfield's  Plains,"  the  homestead  of  which  still  stands  just 
opposite  Baldwin  Memorial  Church,  half-way  between  Waterbury 
and  Indian  Landing.  "Warfield's  Plains"  extended  up  to  Millers- 
ville,  and  "Warfield's  Forest"  was  near  Indian  Landing.  In  1696, 
John  married  Ruth  Gaither,  oldest  daughter  of  John  Gaither,  of 
South  River.  Their  sons  were  Richard,  John,  Benjamin,  Alexander, 
Edward  and  Philip,  all  of  whom  located  upon  the  frontier  out-posts, 
in  Howard.  John  Warfield's  daughters  were  Ruth,  wife  of  Richard 
Davis;  Mary,  wife  of  Augustine  Marriott  and  Elinor  who  died  a 
maiden.  John  Warfield,  like  his  father,  passed  his  life  in  develop- 
ing his  estate,  but  died  in  early  manhood,  1718,  before  completing 
his  surveys  and  transfers.  His  son,  Richard,  as  heir-at-law,  deeded 
his  estate  to  his  brothers.  Returning  to  the  homestead,  he  married 
Marion  Caldwell,  and  had  issue,  John,  Seth,  Richard  and  Luke  War- 
field.  The  first  two  were  located  upon  "  Warfield's  Range."  Richard 
and  Luke  remained  upon  the  Severn. 

Richard  Warfield,  by  his  second  marriage  to  Sarah  Gambrill, 
of  Augustine,  had  Joseph  and  Rachel  who  became  the  wife  of  Philip 
Turner.  Their  son,  Richard  Warfield  Turner,  heired  the  homestead 
from  Joseph  Warfield,  his  uncle,  who  died  a  bachelor. 

Richard  Warfield,  Jr.  was  a  vestryman  of  St.  Ann's  Church, 
in  1751.  His  estate  was  "  Warfield's  Forest."  By  his  wife,  Hamutel 
Marriott,  he  had  Richard,  Luke,  Silvanus  and  John,  none  of  whom 
left  any  descendants  of  their  name.  The  homestead  was  willed  to 
Joshua  Gambrill. 

Ruth  Warfield,  of  John  and  Ruth,  married  Richard  Davis, 
from  whom  descended  Captain  Richard  Davis,  Caleb,  Thomas,  Ruth 
and  Elizabeth,  wife  of  John  Marriott. 

Mary  Warfield,  of  John  and  Ruth,  married  Augustine  Marriott. 
Their  son  John  married  Nancy  Warfield,  of  Alexander,  and  Dinah 
(Davidge)  Warfield:  Achsah  Marriott— John  Hall,  of  "White  Hall," 
whose  daughter,  Sarah  Hall,  became  Mrs.  Francis  Rawlings,  and 
second  wife  of  Captain  Harry  Baldwin. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        85 

Marj'  Marriott  married  John  Sewell  whose  descendants  are 
noted  in  the  Sewells. 

Sarah  Marriott,  youngest  daughter  of  Augustine,  married  Wil- 
liam Yealdhall,  leaving  no  heirs.  Their  estate  was  left  to  Thomas 
Furlong. 


l^  RICHARD  WARFIELD,  THE  SECOND, 

By  the  will  of  Richard  Warfield,  Sr.,  his  son  Richard,  after  the 
marriage  of  his  sister,  Elinor,  came  to  the  homestead. 

In  1723,  he  was  one  of  the  first  organizers  of  the  public  school 
system  of  the  county.  He  was  for  many  years  "one  of  his  lord- 
ship's justices."  He  was  also,  in  the  Vestry  of  St.  Ann's,  from  1710 
to  1729.  He  married,  about  1700,  Ruth,  daughter  of  Thomas  Cruch- 
ley,  an  attorney  of  Annapolis.  Her  mother  was  Margaret  Baldwin, 
daughter  of  John  and  Elizabeth  Baldwin.  Richard  and  Ruth  had 
one  son,  Alexander  Warfield.  Their  daughter,  Ruth,  became  Mrs. 
Jos.  Hall.  Rachel  became  Mrs.  Robert  Davidge,  and  Lydia  became 
the  wife  of  Dr.  Samuel  Stringer,  and  of  Colonel  Charles  Ridgely,  of 
Hampton.  "  Warfield's  Contrivance,"  in  Howard  County,  adjoining 
tract  to  "Warfield's  Range,"  was  heired  by  these  daughters. 
Richard  Warfield  out-lived  all  his  brothers  and  sisters,  dying  at  an 
advanced  age,  in  1755.  The  Maryland  Gazette,  of  that  year,  thus 
records  his  death:  "Sunday  last,  died  of  Pleurisy,  at  his  plantation, 
about  nine  miles  from  Town,  on  the  Patapsco  road,  Mr.  Richard 
Warfield,  in  the  79th  year  of  his  age,  who  formally  was  one  of  the 
Representatives  in  many  Assemblies  of  the  County,  and  for  many 
years,  one  of  our  Magistrates.  A  gentleman  of  an  upright  and 
unblemished  character." 

Alexander  Warfield,  his  only  son,  inherited  the  homestead  and 
became  a  member  of  the  vestry  of  St,  Ann's.  He  had  located, 
during  his  father's  life-time,  upon  "Warfield's  Contrivance"  and 
"  Wincopin  Neck,"  during  which  time  he  extended  his  surveys  along 
the  Frederick  turnpike  from  Cooksville  to  Lisbon.  He  married 
Dinah  Davidge,  and  had  twelve  children.  They  were  Dr.  Joshua 
Warfield,  of  Simpsonville;  Azel  Warfield,  near  Snell's  Bridge;  Basil 
Warfield,  the  surveyor,  removed  to  the  Eastern  Shore;  Davidge 
Warfield  adjoined  his  brother  Azel;  Rezin  Warfield,  of  "Warfield's 
Contrivance."  Captain  Philemon  Warfield  inherited  the  homestead 
in  Anne  Arundel,  and  Colonel  Charles  Warfield,  went  to  Sams  Creek, 
now  Carroll  County. 

Alexander  Warfield's  daughters  were  Mrs.  Sophia  Simpson,  Mrs. 
Dinah  Woodward,  Mrs.  Sarah  Price  and  Mrs.  Ann  Marriott,  after- 
wards Mrs.  Richard  Coale. 

Voa  These  sons  settled  elsewhere.  Captain  Philemon  alone  remained 
in  Anne  Arundel.  He  was  in  command  of  the  Severn  Militia  Com- 
pany, which  conveyed  the  Tories  to  Queen  Anne  County.  He 
married  Assantha  Waters,  and  had  two  daughters,  Mary  and  Ann 


86        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Warfield.     Mary  became  the  wife  of  her  cousin  Lancelot  Warfield, 
of  "Brandy."     Ann  married  Richard  Dorsey,  of  "Hockley." 

The  old  Warfield  homestead  was  divided  between  them,  and, 
in  1845,  then  known  as  "The  Black-Horse  Tavern,"  was  sold  to  Mr. 
Gott. 

During  the  construction  of  the  Elk  Ridge  and  Annapolis  rail- 
road at  that  time,  the  old  building  was  used  for  the  engineer  corps. 
It  was  later  destroyed  by  fire,  and  now  only  an  out  building  marks 
the  spot,  at  Gott's  station.  It  was  a  long  building,  sixty  feet  in 
length,  forty  feet  wide,  with  dormer  windows. 

Many  descendants  of  Richard  Warfield,  will  be  found  in  the 
history  of  Howard  County. 

"^  ALEXANDER  WARFIELD,  OF  ^'BRANDY/' 

One  mile  south  of  Millersville,  is  the  only  remaining  survey  of 
Richard  Warfield,  stil  held  by  a  descendant.  It  was  granted  to  his 
third  son,  Alexander,  the  surveyor. 

Alexander  was  upon  the  committee  for  extending  Annapolis. 
He  was,  also,  one  of  the  executors  of  his  brothers-in-law.  Captain 
John  Howard  and  Amos  Peirpoint.  The  latter  made  him  sole  heir 
of  his  estate.  From  Amos  Peirpoint's  will  it  is  shown  that  Sarah, 
wife  of  Alexander  Warfield,  was  a  daughter  of  Francis  Peirpoint 
and  Elizabeth,  his  wife,  who  held  an  estate  upon  South  River. 
Alexander  Warfield's  children  were  all  baptised  at  "All  Hallows." 
He  surveved  a  thirteen  hundred  acre  tract  near  Savage,  known  as 
"Venison  Park,"  in  1720. 

His  will,  of  1740,  granted  "Benjamin's  Discovery"  to  his  son, 
Samuel,  and  also,  "Warfield's  Addition."  "Venison  Park"  was 
divided  between  his  sons,  Alexander  and  Absolute.  The  home- 
stead, "  Brandy,"  was  left  to  his  youngest  son,  Richard.  His  three 
daughters  inherited  slaves  and  money.  They  were  Rachel,  Eliza- 
beth and  Catherine. 

Samuel,  of  Alexander,  married  Sarah  Welsh,  daughter  of  Cap- 
tain John,  by  his  first  wife,  Thomasin  Hopkins,  of  Gerard.  Issue, 
John,  Samuel,  Gerard,  Vachel,  Richard  and  Welsh  Warfield.  All 
except  Samuel  and  Gerard  remained  in  Anne  Arundel  County. 
Samuel  removed  to  Pennsylvania.  Gerard  married  Susanna  Ryan, 
of  John,  who  inherited  "Duvall's  Delight."  They  lived  in  Augusta 
County,  Virginia. 

John,  of  Samuel,  married  Mary  Chaney,  in  1761.  Issue,  Samuel 
— Susannah  Donaldson;  Richard — first  Nancy  Benson,  second  Eliza- 
beth Lucas;  Eenjaaxun— Rebecca  Spurier;  John — Miss  Mewshaw; 
Nancy — Edward  Smith;  Betsy — Charles  Carroll;  Nelly — William 
Westley;    Polly — Thomas  Forsythe;    Rachel — David  Clarke. 

Richard,  of  Samuel,  married  a  daughter  of  Thomas  Welsh,  and 
resided  near  Annapolis  Junction.  His  children  all  removed  to  the 
west.  Mr.  John  Hollister  Warfield,  of  Salem,  Oregon,  who  married 
a  daughter  of  Wm.  J.  Brent,  of  Virginia,  is  one  of  their  decendants. 


Founders  of  Anxe  Arundel  and  PIoward  Counties.        87 

He  holds  lands  in  the  Red  River  Valley.  Another  decendant  was 
Rev.  James  Welsh  Warfield,  who  married  Hannah  McCoy,  a  cousin 
of  Jas.  G.  Blaine. 

Vachel,  of  Samuel,  resided  at  Portland,  Anne  Arundel  County. 
His  wife  was  Eleanor  Griffith,  daughter  of  Charles  and  Ann  Davidge. 
Their  issue  were  Charles  Griffith  Warfield,  Vachel,  Jr.,  William, 
Allen  and  Henrietta.  The  latter  became  Mrs.  Joshua  Marriott. 
Charles  Griffith  and  Allen,  her  brothers,  were  bachelors.  Vachel, 
Jr. — Achsah  Marriott.  Issue,  George  Warfield,  of  Jessups,  a  promi- 
nent man  in  both  political  and  church  circles,  during  the  war  of 
States.  His  issue  are:  Achsah,  Joseph,  Mordecai,  John,  George, 
Jr.,  Evamina  and  Fannie  Warfield. 

Mr.  Joseph  Warfield  is  in  charge  of  the  courthouse  in  Annapolis, 
and  George  T.,  Jr.,  is  a  prominent  lawyer  of  Baltimore. 

William,  of  Vachel,  removed  to  Baltimore  City,  and  became  a 
real  estate  broker.  He  married  Sarah  Ann  Merryman.  Issue,  Oliver 
Charles  Warfield — Adah  Gartrell;  Wm.  Vachel,  bachelor,  and  Adah 
Warfield.  The  firm  is  now  known  as  Wm.  Warfield  &  Sons,  on  St. 
Paul  Street. 

Richard,  of  Alexander,  inherited  "  Brandy."  His  wife  was  Sarah 
Gaither,  daughter  of  John  and  Agnes  (Rogers)  Gaither.  "Brandy" 
was  left  to  their  two  sons,  Lancelot  and  Richard,  Jr.  The  former 
bought  out  his  brother,  who  removed  to  Frederick  County. 

Lancelot  became  an  officer  in  the  militia,  and  was  upon  the  com- 
mittee of  the  present  courthouse  of  Annapolis.  He  married,  first 
Mary,  sister  of  Major  Robosson.  Issue,  Charles,  Lemuel,  Lancelot. 
Charles,  of  Lancelot, — Miss  Sewell;  dying  he  left  an  infant,  George 
Warfield.  The  widow,  removing  to  Baltimore,  became  the  wife  of 
Rev.  Mr.  Gambrall,  grandfather  of  Dean  Gambrall. 

George  Warfield,  of  Charles, — Ellen  Schekels.  Issue,  William, 
Elizabeth,  Sarah,  Margaret,  Achsah  S.,  Richard,  Joseph,  Washing- 
ton, Ellen,  Maria  and  George.  The  last  was  president  of  the^Chester 
River  Steamboat  Co. ;  director  of  the  Fidelity  &  Deposit  Co. ;  sheriff 
of  Baltimore,  and  now  a  member  of  the  City  Council.  He  married 
Ellen  Fryer.  His  father  was  in  the  war  of  1812,  and  his  brother, 
Richard,  was  in  the  Civil  War,  after  which  he  removed  to  Florida, 
and  married  Ellen  Williard.  His  older  brother,  William — Sarah 
Brushwood,  of  Virginia.  The  daughters  of  Mr.  George  Warfield, 
Sr.,  became  Mrs.  Wm.  H.  Sheets,  Mrs.  E.  C.  Chickering,  Mrs.  Mat- 
thias Hammond,  of  Nebraska. 

Lemuel  Warfield  was  a  shipping  merchant,  of  Baltimore;  lost 
three  ships  laden  with  flour  for  the  West  Indian  ports;  became  a 
British  subject,  and  died  a  bachelor,  1820,  at  St.  Bartholomew. 

Lancelot  Warfield,  Jr.,  inherited  the  entire  estate  of  his  father, 
whose  will  required  him  to  pay  $1,000  each,  to  his  half  brothers, 
Captain  Allen  and  John  Warfield,  sons  of  Rachel  Marriott,  second 
wife.  Captain  Allen  commanded  the  militia  at  the  reception  of 
LaFayette,  in  1825. 


88        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Lancelot  Warfield,  the  second,  married  Mary  Warjfield,  daughter 
of  Captain  Philemon — thus  inheriting  the  homestead  of  Richard 
Warfield,  the  immigrant.  Issue,  Philemon,  Lancelot,  third,  and  Ann 
Maria,  wife  of  Thomas  Owings,  of  Richard  and  Ruth  (Warfield) 
Owings. 

To  Philemon  was  granted,  "  Hammond's  Inclosure,"  "  Ham- 
mond's Connection,"  and  "  Friendship,"  lying  upon  the  Millers- 
ville  and  Annapolis  road.  He  married  Ann  Wright,  and  left  Mary 
Ann  Turner,  Camilla  Howell,  later  Mrs.  Young  and  afterwards  Mrs. 
Hartwick,  of  Minneapolis,  whose  daughter  married  Earl  M.  Golds- 
borough,  son  of  S.  Brice  Goldsborough. 

Captain  Lemuel  Warfield,  of  Philemon,  was  upon  the  staff  of 
General  O.  M.  Mitchell,  U.  S.  Army;  married  Miss  Miller,  of  Tria- 
delphia;  died  of  yellow  fever  at  Beaufort,  S.  C,  1862.  She  removed 
West  and  died  recently,  leaving  a  son,  Lemuel  Warfield,  of  Kansas 
City;  Mrs.  George  T.  Webb,  Mrs.  Eben  D.  Marr,  and  Mrs.  Chas. 
G.  Gaither,  of  Kansas  City. 

P» Lancelot  Warfield,  third,  held  "Brandy";  sold  the  old  home- 
stead of  Richard  Warfield,  to  Mr.  Gott;  married  Elizabeth  Sarah 
Hodges,  (of  Thomas).  Issue,  Lancelot,  Charles,  Elizabeth,  Sarah — 
Dr.  William  Edwin  Hodges. 

Lancelot,  fourth,  came  into  possession  of  "Brandy,"  in  1882; 
married  Margaret  E.  Beard,  descendant  of  Major  Richard,  the  sur- 
veyor of  South  River.  Issue,  Lancelot,  fifth,  died  in  infancy;  Dr. 
Clarence  Warfield,  formerly  of  Galveston,  now,  after  a  tour  of  the 
globe,  residing  in  San  Antonia,  Texas;  John  Warfield,  of  Australia, 
and;the  late  Victor  Warfield,  who  died  in  New  Mexico,  and  lies 
buried  beside  his  father  at  "Brandy."  In  a  well-preserved  garden 
graveyard,  of  this  homestead,  are  the  remains  of  Richard,  of  Alex- 
ander, four  Lancelot  Warfields,  and  other  members  of  their  lines. 

The  recent  death  of  the  last  owner,  and  the  absence  of  his  sons, 
may  soon  result  in  the  sale  of  "Brandy."  Mrs.  Warfield  resides  in 
Baltimore. 

Richard  Warfield,  of  Richard  and  Sarah  Gaither,  lived  at 
"Brandy"  during  the  life  of  his  first  wife,  Nancy  Gassaway  of 
Thomas.  Their  only  daughter,  Sarah,  became  the  wife  of  Amos 
Warfield,  of  "Warfield's  Range."  Removing  to  Frederick  County, 
Richard  Warfield  married  again,  Anna  Delashmutt,  daughter  of 
Elias  and  Betsy  (Nelson)  Delashmutt,  daughter  of  John  Nelson, 
and  sister  of  Dr.  Arthur  Nelson.  Issue,  Lindsey  Warfield  and  Eliza- 
beth Warfield. 

Lindsey  Warfield  entered  the  war  of  1812,  and  was  stationed 
in  the  Genessee  Valley.  He  was  engaged  in  the  battle  of  Lundy's 
Lane.  Pleased  with  the  country  of  that  valley,  he  returned  after 
the  war,  and  settled  there.  He  married  Elizabeth  L'amoreaux. 
Issue,  Richard  Nelson  Warfield,  of  Rochester,  Delashmutt  Warfield, 
Andrew  Walker,  Charles  Henry,  Myron  Franklin,  Rowena,  Hester, 
Jane  and  Sarah  Warfield,  all  of  Rushville,  New  York. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        89 

Richard  Nelson  Warfield  married  Rachel  Elone  Hill,  daughter 
of  Whitney  Hill,  who  was  one  of  "The  Minute  Men,  of  Lexington." 
Issue,  General  Richard  Henry  Warfield,  of  San  Francisco,  Cal.; 
Emma  Elizabeth  Warfield,  wife  of  Colonel  Samuel  B.  Williams,  City 
Treasurer,  of  Rochester;  and  Luella  A.  Warfield,  wife  of  W.  A. 
Gracy,  of  Geneva,  New  York.  A  few  years  before  his  death,  Mr. 
Richard  Nelson  Warfield  visited  Maryland  in  search  of  information 
of  his  family,  and  by  correspondence  through  many  states,  accumu- 
lated much  data,  all  showing  that  Anne  Arundel  was  the  family 
starting  point. 

His  son,  Brigadier-General  Richard  Henry  Warfield,  is  thus 
mentioned:  "General  Warfield  is  of  the  Warfields  of  Maryland, 
who  still  hold  lands  granted  by  the  Crown  of  England.  His  grand- 
father figured  gallantly  in  the  battle  of  Lundy's  Lane,  while  his 
great-grandfather,  on  the  distaff  side,  Whitney  Hill,  was  one  of  the 
Men  of  Lexington.  General  Warfield  was  studying  at  the  Univer- 
sity of  Rochester,  when  the  Civil  War  broke  out.  In  1862,  he  joined 
the  Fiftieth  N.  Y.  Engineers,  rising  to  first  lieutenant.  In  1876,  he 
went  to  Healdsburg,  California,  as  cashier  of  the  Farmers'  and 
Mechanics'  Bank.  He  is  now  in  charge  of  two  of  the  leading  hotels 
of  California.  In  1894,  he  was  made  Brigadier-General,  command- 
ing the  Second  Brigade  of  the  National  Guards  of  California.  When 
the  national  encampment  of  the  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic  was 
held,  in  Washington,  in  1892,  he  was  elected  Senior  Vice  Com- 
mander-in-Chief, an  honor  seldom  conferred  upon  a  comrade  in  any 
other  city  than  the  one  in  which  the  comrade  lives.  He  is  a  mem- 
ber of  the  "Sons  of  the  American  Revolution,"  of  the  "Loyal 
Legion,"  a  "Shriner,"  a  "Knight  Templar,"  and  32nd  Degree  of 
the  A.  &  A.  Rite. 

"General  Warfield  has  two  sons,  George  H.  and  Richard  Emer- 
son Warfield.  The  first  is  cashier  of  the  Farmers'  and  Mechanics' 
Bank,  of  Healdsburg,  California;  the  second  was  a  student  in  Stan- 
ford IJniversity. 

General  Warfield  has  been  twice  married.  His  present  wife  was 
Lula  Emerson,  eldest  daughter  of  Colonel  William  Emerson,  who 
was  Colonel  of  the  151st  New  York  Volunteers,  and,  for  a  time,  in 
command  of  one  of  the  Brigades  of  the  Third  Division  of  the  Sixth 
Army  Corps. 

"At  the  outbreak  of  the  Spanish  War,  in  1898,  General  Warfield 
personally  mobilized  his  Brigade  of  the  National  Guard  as  United 
States  Volunteers  of  California;  and  the  First  Calif ornian,  of  his 
brigade,  was  the  first  twelve-company  regiment  of  the  United  States 
Volunteers  mustered  out,  in  the  United  States  service  from  any 
state.  General  Warfield  was  later  in  charge  of  the  whole  Militia 
of  California,  but  after  promotion  resigned." 

The  farm  of  four  hundred  acres,  of  Lindsey  Warfield,  in  Yates 
County,  New  York,  is  still  held  by  Walter  Walker  Warfield  and  his 
wife,  Sarah.  Myron  Franklyn  Warfield,  youngest  son  of  Lindsey, 
born    1836,    married   Francis   Helena   Green,   October  25th,    1866. 


90        Founders  of  Axne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Issue,  Charles  Henry  Warfield,  born  1867,  Carrie  Isabelle  Warfield, 
Anna  Delashmutt,  Richard  Nelson,  Frederick  Parkman,  Augustus 
Bennett,  born  July  24th,  1878. 

Charles  Henry  Warfield  was  principal  of  Little  Falls  High  School, 
New  York.  On  June  28th,  1900,  he  married  Janet  Cook  Jessup,  to 
whom  was  born,  May  1st,  1901,  Janet  MacDonald  Warfield.  Mr. 
C.  H.  Warfield  in  now  a  resident  of  New  York  City.  Frederick 
Parkman  Warfield  is  of  Duell,  Megrath  and  Warfield,  Patent  law- 
yers, of  New  York. 

Carrie  Warfield  married  Charles  H.  Barton,  and  has  a  daughter, 
Francis  Green  Barton.  Augustus  Bennett  Warfield  is  now  First 
Lieutenant,  Artillery  Corps  of  U.  S.  A. 

Dr.  Andrew  Walker  Warfield  married  Delight  Weir.  Charles 
Henry  Warfield  was  a  druggist  of  Rushville.  Hester  Jane  Warfield 
married  Alvin  Chamberlain.  Rowena  Warfield  married  Dr.  Jas.  A. 
Bennett. 

'"  BENJAMIN  WARFIELD,  OF  "LUGG  OX/* 

The  youngest  son  of  Richard  and  Elinor  (Browne)  Warfield, 
was  Benjamin,  who  joined  his  brother,  Richard,  in  surveying  "  Win- 
copin  Neck,"  in  the  forks  of  Savage  and  Middle  River,  immediately 
at  Savage  Factory.  This  was  willed  to  his  daughter,  Elizabeth 
Ridgely,  by  both  himself  and  his  brother  Richard. 

Benjamin  Warfield's  inheritance  in  "Warfield's  Range"  was 
never  occupied  by  him.  He  surveyed  "Benjamin's  Discovery,"  in 
Anne  Arundel.  He  married  Elizabeth  Duvall,  daughter  of  Captain 
John  and  Elizabeth  (Jones)  Duvall.  Her  marriage  dower  was  a 
tract  of  780  acres,  known  as  "Lugg-Ox,"  in  the  forks  of  the  Patuxent. 
This  adjoined  his  own  survey.  One  son,  Joshua,  and  a  daughter, 
Elizabeth,  were  their  issue.  Benjamin  Warfield  died  in  early  man- 
hood, in  1717,  leaving  his  children  minors.  His  widow  married  John 
Gaither,  the  second,  who  administered. 

Joshua,  of  Benjamin,  held  the  homestead.  By  his  wife,  Ruth 
Davis,  of  Thomas,  he  had  Benjamin,  Joshua,  Henry,  Thomas,  Caleb, 
Mary,  Elizabeth  and  Elinor.  ''Lugg-Ox"  was  divided  among  these 
heirs.  Benjamin  removed  to  Frederick  County.  Joshua  left  no 
records.  Henry  was  an  attorney,  and  died  a  bachelor.  Thomas 
and  Caleb  remained  upon  the  homestead  and  left  heirs.  Thomas 
was  executor.  He  was  an  officer  in  the  militia.  He  married,  first, 
Elizabeth  Holliday,  and  second,  Elizabeth  Marriott,  and  had  issue, 
Mary,  Lydia  Ellender,  wife  of  Captain  Francis  Bealmear;  William, 
merchant  of  Annapolis;  Dr.  Anderson,  legislator;  Thomas  Wheeler, 
Singleton — William  Warfield  and  David  Ridgely  were  merchants  of 
Annapolis,  and  loaned  money  on  real  estate.  At  the  time  of  his 
death,  William  Warfield  held  most  of  "  Lugg  Ox."  His  wife  was 
Mary  Tyler  Worthington,  granddaughter  of  Hon.  Brice  Thomas 
Beale  Worthington.  Issue,  Thomas  Henry  Warfield  and  Elizabeth 
Holliday  Warfield,  legatees  of  Mrs.  Mary  Tyler  Warfield;    Thomas 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        91 

Henry  married  Mary  Worthington.  Thomas  Wheeler  Warfield  sold 
his  interest  in  "  Lugg  Ox"  to  William;    his  wife  was  Sarah  White. 

Dr.  Anderson  Warfield,  the  bachelor,  was  a  ready  writer,  in- 
dependent politician,  legislator,  and  closed  his  career  as  a  physician, 
of  Baltimore,  leaving  his  house  and  practice  on  Eutaw  Street,  to 
Dr.  Bealmear,  stepson  of  his  sister.  Caleb  Warfield,  of  Joshua,  sold 
his  interest  in  "Lugg  Ox"  to  Dr.  Anderson  Warfield,  and  resided 
upon  his  wife's  interest  in  the  Sappington  estate.  His  daughters, 
Elizabeth  and  Elinor,  died  maidens.  Thomas  Warfield,  of  Caleb, 
married  Margery  Browne,  daughter  of  Philemon  Browne  and  Mar- 
gery Gaither,  sister  of  Colonel  Edward  Gaither,  Jr.  Their  issue 
were,  Thomas  Warfield,  of  "Good  Hope,"  and  Caleb  Warfield,  who 
removed  to  Kentucky.  ~' 

Thomas  Warfield,  of  "Good  Hope," — Margaret  Foster — issue, 
Abel  Davis  Warfield,  of  Alexandria,  Virginia. — Sarah  Ann  Adams 
issue,  Geo.  Thos.  Warfield,  of  17th  Virginia  Infantry,  killed  in  de- 
fence of  Richmond,  1862.  Edgar  Warfield,  druggist,  of  Alexandria, 
Virginia  and  commander  of  Lee's  Legion  of  Confederate  soldiers — 
Catherine  Virginia  Batcheller — issue,  Edgar  Warfield,  Jr., — Abbia 
Virginia  Belles — issue,  Edgar  Ashley,  George  Elmon — Nellie  J.  Soud- 
son.  Wm.  Ryland — Alice  Down;  Marion  Roberts— Thomas  F. 
Burroughs;  Andrew  Adgate  Warfield — Jane  Elizabeth  Pattie;  Ada 
Francis  Warfield — B.  P.  Kurtz;  Susan  Alice — Walter  Gahan;  Frank 
Warfield — Cora  May  Smith,  Richmond,  Virginia.  Harry  Lee  War- 
field — Lizzie  Allen.  Caleb  Warfield,  of  Thomas  and  Margery  Brown, 
removed  to  Kentucky, — first,  Nancy  Livingstone;  second,  Nancy 
Ray;  third,  Anne  Steel.  Issue  by  second,  Thomas  Brown,  Jphn, 
Louisa,  James,  George;   issue  by  third,  William  Warfield. 

Thomas  Brown  Warfield — first,  Sabra  Ann  Steele — issue,  Sabra 
Steele  Warfield;  second,  Margaret  Rebecca  Campbell — issue,  Charles, 
Thomas,  Myra  Alice,  Clara  Maria,  Nancy  Margaret,  and  William 
Campbell  Warfield,  who  married  Dora  Rawlings.  Issue,  Edwin, 
Herbert,  Theodora  Margaret.  William  Campbell  Warfield  is  Super- 
intendent of  Public  Schools,  and  State  Secretary  of  the  Reading 
Circle,  Mt.  Stering,  Kentucky. 

'^  MAJOR  JOHN  WELSH,  HIGH  SHERIFF,  OF  A.  A.  CO. 

In  1667,  Major  Welsh  was  a  Commissioner  of  Anne  Arundel 
County.  In  1675,  as  the  husband  of  Mrs.  Anne  Grosse,  widow  of 
Hon.  Roger  Grosse,  he  was  executor  of  the  large  Grosse  estate,  and 
summoned  John  Grosse,  Richard  Snowden  and  his  wife,  Elizabeth, 
lately  Elizabeth  Grosse,  Roger  Grosse,  Jr.,  Wm.  Grosse  and  Francis 
Grosse,  in  settlement  of  the  estate. 

Mrs.  Elizabeth  (Grosse)  Welsh  was  the  mother  of  Silvester  and 
John  Welsh,  Jr.  The  latter  was  known  later  as  Major  and  Colonel 
John.  She  died  before  1675,  when  Major  Welsh  married  Mary, 
stepdaughter  of  Nicholas  Wyatt,  and  half-sister  of  Sarah  (Wyatt) 
Dorsey,  wife  of  Colonel  Edward. 


92        FouxDEKS  OF  Anxe  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

In  1679,  Major  Welsh  was  one  of  "The  Quorum,"  and  was 
High  Sheriff  in  1678  and  1679.  In  the  former  year,  he  was  defend- 
ant against  John  Homewood  in  a  suit  against  his  deputy.  In  1683, 
Major  Welsh  was  a  commissioner  for  building  the  courthouse,  and 
in  the  same  year,  a  commissioner  for  the  advancement  of  trade  in 
Anne  Arundel.  In  short,  Major  Welsh  was  continuously  in  the  pub- 
lic service.  His  will,  of  1686,  left  his  South  River  lands,  "  Arnold's 
Grey,"  to  Sjdvester  and  John,  because  they  came  through  his  Grosse 
wife.  Benjamin  Welsh  was  installed  in  the  South  River  homestead. 
The  four  daughters,  Mary,  Elizabeth,  Sarah  and  Damaris  Welsh, 
were  joint  heirs  of  his  lands  upon  the  Gunpowder.  "  Unto  my  wife, 
Mary,  '  Preston's  Enlargement,'  near  River  Dam,  Herring  Creek.  I 
give  to  my  brother,  Henry  Welsh,  my  tobacco  box,  silver  headed 
cane,  broadcloth  suit  and  one  thousand  acres  of  land."  This  brother 
I  could  not  find  in  our  records.  Though  named  an  executor,  the 
estate  was  settled  by  son,  Sylvester,  and  his  widow,  Mary,  then 
wife  of  James  Ellis.  """^^  ^.-^- — 

Sylvester's  wife  was  Elinor.  They  had  issue,  Sylvester,  Jr., 
Elinor  and  Lucia. 

Captain,  or  Colonel  John,  married,  first,  Thomasin  Hopkins, 
daughter  of  Gerard  and  Thomasin  Hopkins,  of  South  River.  Their 
daughter,  Sarah,  became  Mrs.  Samuel  Warfield.  Colonel  John's 
second  wife  was  Rachel,  without  doubt,  daughter  of  John  and  Ann 
(Greenberry)  Hammond.  By  her  were  Ann,  wife  of  Nathan  Ham- 
mond, son  of  Major  Gljarles  and  Hannah  Howard.  (2.)  Rachel; 
(3.)  Captain  John,  who  married  Hannah  Hammond,  daughter  of 
John  and  Ann  (Dorsey)  Hammond;  (4).  Thomas;  (5.)  Benjamin; 
(6.)    EUzabeth;    (7.)    Henry  O'Neale;    (8.)    Comfort. 

The  above  testator  was  a  large  shipping  iron  merchant.  His 
partner  was  his  cousin,  Richard  Snowden,  son  of  Richard  and  Eliza- 
beth (Grosse)  Snowden,  a  half-sister  of  Colonel  John  Welsh.  They 
bought  and  sold  lands  also  as  partners.  His  will  of  1733-34,  reads: 
"I  give  to  my  son,  John  Welsh,  my  lands,  'Arnold's  Grey'  and 
'Neglect.'  To  my  sons,  Thomas  and  Benjamin,  I  give  'Welsh's 
Discovery.'  I  give  to  William  Davis,  '  WiUiam's  Delight.'  "  Lands 
and  monej'  were  left  to  wife,  Rachel,  and  daughters,  Rachel  and 
Comfort.  The  married  daughters  also  named  were  Sarah,  wife  of 
Samuel  Warfield,  and  Sophia  Hall.  "To  my  brother,  Robert,  my 
wearing  apparel,  my  watch,  and  my  gold  ring.  My  cousin,  Richard 
Snowden,  my  brother,  Robert,  and  my  wife,  Rachel,  to  administer." 

Benjamin  Welsh,  his  brother,  married  Elizabeth  Nicholson. 
The  daughters  of  Major  John  Welsh  were:  ^  Mary,  wife  of 
Josias  Toogood;  Sarah — John  Giles;  Elizabeth — Dailiel  Richardson; 
Damaris — Thos.  Stockett.  A  thousand  acre  tract  in  Baltimore 
County,  known  as  "Three  Sisters,"  was  sold  by  these  sisters. 

Robert,  the  youngest  child  of  Major  John  Welsh,  born  after  the 
death  of  the  Major,  married  Katherine  Lewisy'  Issue,  James,  Lewis, 
Robert,  Jemima  Edwards,  Elizabeth  Tongue,  Grace  Elliot,  Kath- 
arine Stewart,  John,  and  Benjamin,  inheritor  of  "Preston's  En- 
largement." 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        93 

John  Welsh,  the  third — known  also  as  Captain — inherited  the 
homestead,  but  married  in  Howard  County,  Hannah,  daughter  of 
John  and  Ann  Dorsey  Hammond,  whose  residence  was  adjoining 
the  "Old  Brick  Church."  John  Welsh  took  up  an  immense  tract 
in  Northern  Howard,  and  on  it  placed  his  sons,  John,  PhiHp,  Henry 
and  Samuel. 

These  sons  married  kindred  wives.  The  fourth  John  Welsh, 
married  both  a  Hammond  and  a  Dorsey — Lucretia,  daughter  of 
Colonel  Nicholas,  and  Sarah  (Griffith)  Dorsey.  Philip  Welsh — Eliza- 
beth Davis,  daughter  of  Caleb  and  Lucretia  Griffith.  Samuel  Welsh 
— Rachel  Griffith,  daughter  of  Henry  and  Elizabeth  Dorsey — all 
daughters  of  sisters  and  a  brother,  heirs  of  Orlando  Griffith  and  his 
wife,  Katherine  Howard. 

The  grounds  upon  which  St.  Ann's  Church  stands,  and  the  Peggy 
Stewart  house,  in  Annapolis,  were  held  by  Major  John  and  his  heirs. 

Dr.  Welch  and  his  brother,  Robert,  of  Annapolis,  who  thus 
write  their  names,  are  descendants  of  the  High  Sheriff  and  Member 
of  "The  Quorum." 

^  THE  STOCKETT  BROTHERS. 

My  record  of  this  family  is  the  work  of  a  descendant  of  Annap- 
olis, whose  daughter  kindly  presented  a  copy. 

Our  Rent  Rolls  show  surveys  made  near  the  Susquehanna  River, 
in  Harford,  in  the  name  of  Stockett.  In  1658,  four  brothers,  Thomas, 
Lewis,  Henry  and  Francis,  came  to  the  province  and  obtained  grants 
imder  the  Calverts. 

The  family  was  of  the  Church  of  England,  loyal  to  King  Charles. 
After  the  crushing  defeat  of  the  royal  cause  at  Worcester,  in  1651, 
these  worthies  gathered  up  all  they  could  from  the  wreck  of  their 
property  and  came  to  Maryland. 

Captain  Thomas  Stockett,  of  "Bourne,"  had  in  his  family, 
George  Alsop,  who  wrote  the  tract  on  Maryland,  known  as  "  Alsops 
Character  of  Maryland."  Dr.  Francis  Stockett,  was  appointed  Clerk 
for  the  Court  of  Baltimore,  in  1658,  but,  resigning  it,  was  in  the 
Assembly  of  Delegates  at  St.  Maries  in,  1658-59. 

Captain  Thomas  Stockett  was  in  the  Assembly,  1661-66. 

Captain  Thomas  and  Henry  Stockett  were  also  Judges  of  the 
County  Courts  until  1668,  in  which  year  Captain  Thomas  Stockett 
was  appointed  High  Sheriff  of  Anne  Arundel,  to  which  he  had 
removed.  A  commission  was  issued  to  Lewis  Stockett,  of  Baltimore 
County,  from  1636  to  1667,  as  Colonel  and  Commander-in-Chief  of 
all  the  forces  of  Baltimore  County,  on  the  Susquehanna  and  Bay, 
as  well  as  Kent  Island. 

In  1668,  all  three  brothers  removed  to  Anne  Arundel,  and 
located  on  "Stockett's  Run,"  near  Birdsville.  Captain  Thomas 
Stockett  held  "  Obligation,"  664  acres;  Henry  Stockett  held  "  Bridge 
Hill,"  664  acres;  Dr.  Francis  Stockett  held  "Dodon,"  664  acres. 
They  there  lived  and  died. 


94        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Among  their  old  family  papers,  was  a  description  of  the  coat 
of  arms,  and  one  engraving  on  the  silver  tankards,  "or,  a  lion  ram- 
pant, Sa,  on  a  chief  of  the  last,  tower  tripple  toured,  or  between  two 
bezants;  Crest  on  a  stump  of  a  tree,  couped  and  eradicated  or  a 
line  sejant,  Sa." 

Another  interesting  paper  was  that  of  Joseph  Tilly,  the  register 
or  clerk  of  All  Hallows  Parish,  in  Anne  Arundel  County,  in  which 
the  Stocketts  were  located. 

"  About  or  in  ye  year  of  ye  Lord  1667  or  8,  I  became  acquainted 
with  four  gents  ye  were  brothers,  and  then  dwellers  here  in  Mary- 
land. The  elder  of  them  went  by  the  name  Colonel  Lewis  Stockett: 
ye  second  by  the  name  of  Captain  Thomas  Stockett;  ye  third  was 
Doctor  Francis  Stockett,  and  ye  fourth  brother  was  Mr.  Henry 
Stockett. 

"These  men  were  but  newly  seated  or  seating  in  Anne  Arundel 
County,  and  they  had  much  business  with  Lord  Baltimore,  then 
ppetr  of  ye  Province. 

"My  house  standing  convenient,  they  were  often  entertained 
there. 

"They  told  me  they  were  Kentish  men,  or  men  of  Kent,  and 
yet  they  were  concerned  for  King  Charles,  ye  First:  were  out  of 
favor  with  ye  following  government,  they  mortgaged  a  good  estate 
to  follow  King  Charles,  the  Second,  in  his  exile,  and  at  their 
return,  they  had  not  money  to  redeem  their  mortgage,  which  was  ye 
cause  of  their  coming  hither. — (Signed.)     Joseph  Tilly." 

Captain  Thomas  Stockett  married  Mary  Wells,  daughter  of 
Richard  Wells,  of  Herring  Creek,  who  was  prominent  in  the  Puri- 
tan colony  of  Virginia.  He  was  one  of  the  Commissioners  appointed 
to  represent  the  parliament  in  1654,  with  Captain  Wm.  Fuller,  and 
others,  and  we  find  him  in  the  Council  of  1658,  after  the  Calverts 
had  regained  the  province.  He  was,  also,  a  Justice  of  the  Peace, 
owning  a  considerable  estate. 

Captain  Thomas  and  Mary  (Wells)  Stockett  left  one  son,  Thomas 
Stockett.  After  Captain  Stockett's  death,  in  1671,  his  widow  mar- 
ried George  Yate,  the  surveyor,  and  had  issue,  George  Yates,  John 
Yates  and  Ann  Yates — sometimes  written  Yeates.  She  survived 
her  second  husband,  whose  will,  of  1691,  left  his  seal  and  silver 
marked  with  his  coat  of  arms  to  his  son  George.  The  latter  married 
Rachel  Warfield,  of  Richard.  Mrs.  Yate's  will,  of  1699,  left  her 
daughter  Frances,  wife  of  Marius  (Mareen)  Duvall,  her  silver  seal 
in  a  lozenge  shield;  and  to  her  son,  Thomas  Stocket,  "  a  black  walnut 
box  which  hath  his  father's  coat  of  arms  engraved  in  ye  bottom 
thereof." 

Thomas  Stockett  married  Mary  Sprigg,  daughter  of  Thomas, 
of  West  River,  who  owned,  also,  a  large  tract  in  Prince  George. 
Upon  portions  of  this  were  located  the  descendants  of  Colonel  John 
Francis  Mercer  and  the  Stewart  family,  connected  with,  and  des- 
cended from,  the  Sprigg  family.  Thomas  Stockett,  Jr.,  surveyed 
many  disputed  tracts  of  land — leaving  b}^  his  first  wife,  Thomas 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        95 

and  Eleanor.  The  latter  married  Richard  Williams.  His  second 
wife  was  Damaris  Welsh,  (or  Welch),  daughter  of  Major  John  and 
Mary  Welsh,  of  South  River,  and  of  Annapolis.  Issue,  Benjamin, 
Lewis,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Beale,  Mrs.  Beard,  Mrs.  Brewer,  Mrs  Mayo, 
Mrs.  Rollins,  or  Larkin. 

Thomas  Stockett,  the  third,  built  the  brick  dwelling  near  Bird- 
ville,  in  1743,  and  planted  choice  selections  of  fruit  brought  by  him 
from  England.  He  made  an  attractive  home.  He  married  Eliza- 
beth, daughter  of  Joseph  and  Mary  Noble,  of  Piscataway,  Prince 
George  County.  Issue,  Thomas,  Mary  Elizabeth  and  Thomas  Noble 
Stockett.  Mary  Elizabeth — Samuel  Harwood,  son  of  Captain  Rich- 
ard, and  Ann  Watkins  Harwood.  They  removed  to  Montgomery 
County,  Maryland.  Their  daughter,  Mary  Stockett,  married  Alex- 
ander Warfield,  son  of  John  Worthington  Warfield,  of  the  Big  Seneca, 
from  whom  descends  Captain  Noble  Creager,  of  the  United  States 
Army,  and  his  sister.  Miss  Virginia  Creager,  of  Baltimore. 

Thomas  Noble  Stockett,  born  1747,  married  Mary  Harwood, 
daughter  of  Captain  Richard  Harwood  and  Ann  Watkins.  Mary 
Harwood  was  the  only  daughter. 

Dr.  Thomas  Noble  Stockett  took  an  active  part  in  the  war  of 
the  Revolution,  and  was  a  member  of  the  Sons  of  Freedom. 

He  was  appointed  by  commission,  a  copy  of  which  is  now  in 
possession  of  his  descendants  in  Annapolis,  as  surgeon— assistant  to 
Colonel  Thomas  Ewing's  Battalion  of  Militia,  for  the  Flying  Camp. 
He  soon  after  was  commissioned  Surgeon,  and  joined  the  arm}^  under 
General  Smallwood,  of  the  Maryland  Line,  then  in  the  North.  The 
Valley  Forge  hardships  so  impared  his  health  that  he  had  to  return 
home,  and  was  employed  afterwards  in  the  recruiting  service.  He 
was  large,  robust,  florid  complexion,  over  six  feet  in  height.  The 
issue  of  Dr.  Thomas  Noble,  and  Mary  (Harwood)  Stockett  were: 
Mary — Wm.  Alexander,  merchant  of  Annapolis;  Richard  Galen 
Stockett,  M.  D.,  of  Stockwood,  Howard  County — Margaret  Hall, 
daughter  of  Major  Henry  Hall  and  Margery  Howard,  of  Joseph. 

Thomas  Mifflin  Stockett  was  second  in  command  of  a  ship,  and 
was  killed,  in  1799,  in  an  engagement  with  a  French  privateer. 
Joseph  Noble  Stockett — first,  Ann  Caroline  Battee,  and  left  no  issue. 
Second,  Ann  Sellman,  daughter  of  General  Jonathan  Sellman,  whose 
handsome  portrait  now  hangs  in  the  Stockett  house  in  Annapolis. 
Her  mother  was  Ann  Elizabeth  Harwood,  daughter  of  Colonel  Rich- 
ard and  Margaret  (Hall)  Harwood.  Their  only  issue  was  the  late 
Francis  H.  Stockett,  of  Annapolis,  whose  record  of  the  Stockett 
family  was  published  in  1892,  from  which  I  quote. 

The  third  wife  of  Joseph  Noble  Stockett  was  Sophia  Watkins, 
daughter  of  Major  Joseph  Watkins  and  Ann  Gray.  Their  issue  were, 
John  Shaaff  Stockett — Georgetta  Stockett;  Thos.  Richard — Jemima 
Edmunds,  of  England.  Dr.  Charles  William — Maria  L.  Duvall, 
only  child  of  Dr.  Howard  M.  Duvall;  Mary  Sophia — first  Dr.  Richard 
Harwood  Cowman,  Surgeon  in  the  United  States  Navy;  second, 
John  Thomas  Stcckett,  only  son  of  George  Lee  Stockett,  son  of  Dr. 


96        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Richard  Galen  Stockett,  of  Howard  County,  who  was  a  celebrated 
civil  service  engineer  and  Past  Master  of  the  Masons.  Ann  Stockett, 
of  Dr.  Thomas  Noble — Rhoderick  Warfield,  of  "  Warfield's  Range," 
Howard  County,  and  with  him  removed  to  Kentucky,  where  they 
raised  a  large  family.  Eleanor,  daughter  of  Dr.  Thomas  Noble 
Stockett — Turenne  Watkins,  son  of  Colonel  Gassaway  Watkins  and 
Ruth  Dorsey,  and  with  him  removed  to  Kentucky. 

Mr.  Joseph  Noble  Stockett,  who  inherited  the  old  Stockett  home- 
stead, was  an  ardent  member  of  the  ancient  South  River  Club,  as 
his  ancestors  had  been,  and  would  there  spend  the  entire  day. 

HARWOOD  FAMILY. 

One  of  the  earliest  surveys  of  1651  upon  Rhode  River  was 
"Harwood,"  in  the  name  of  Robert  Harwood.  This  tract  was  later 
in  litigation,  but  Abell  Browne,  the  Justice  and  High  Sheriff  of 
Anne  Arundel,  held  it  and  willed  it  to  his  son,  Robert  Browne.  Whilst 
I  have  not  found  the  fact,  the  inference  is  good  that  said  Robert  was 
named  for  Robert  Harwood,  the  original  surveyor. 

The  most  remarkable  courtship  on  record  was  that  of  a  Robert 
Harwood,  a  relative  of  Dr.  Peter  Sharpe,  the  Quaker  of  Calvert. 
In  his  will,  of  1672,  Dr  Sharpe  left  a  personal  memorial  to  "  Robert 
and  Elizabeth  Harwood,  their  children  and  friends  in  the  ministry." 

The  succeeding  Harwood  family  seems  to  have  come  from  both 
Robert  and  a  certain  Thomas  Harwood  D.  D.,  of  "Streatley,"  Rector 
of  Littlelor,  in  Middlesex.  He  founded  a  school  for  the  poor,  and 
was  succeeded  by  several  successive  rectors.  One  of  the  earliest 
deeds  is  that  of  Thomas  Harwood,  of  Streatley,  Berks  County,  Eng- 
land, to  his  son,  Richard  Harwood,  for  "  Hookers  Purchase,"  at 
the  head  of  Muddy  Creek,  Anne  Arundel  County,  Maryland. 

The  above  Richard  lived  upon  it,  and  by  his  wife,  Mary,  had 
Thomas  Harwood,  born  1698,  who  married  Sarah  Belt;  Pachard 
Harwood — Anne  Watkins. 

Thomas  and  Sarah  Belt  were  the  parents  of  Captain  Thomas 
Harwood,  of  Prince  George  County,  under  General  Smallwood.  His 
wife  was  Rachel  Sprigg,  of  Osborne,  of  Prince  George  County.  Issue, 
Thomas,  ancestor  of  James  Kemp  Harwood,  of  Baltimore.  (2.) 
Osborne  Sprigg — Elizabeth  Ann  Harwood,  daughter  of  Colonel 
Richard  and  Margaret  Hall,  his  wife.  (3.)  Margaret — Wm.  Hall; 
(4.)  Rachel — Major  Harry  Hall,  from  whom  comes  Dr.  Julius  Hall, 
of  Baltimore.  (5.)  Lucy — John  Battle;  second.  Colonel  Richard 
Harwood. 

Richard  Harwood,  second  son  of  Richard  and  Mary,  the  settlers, 
married  Anne  Watkins,  born  1737,  and  had  nine  sons  and  two  daugh- 
ters, twins.  Their  first  son  was  Colonel  Richard  Harwood,  of  "  South 
River  Battalion"  (militia).  His  wife  was  Margaret  Hall,  daughter 
of  Major  Henry,  and  granddaughter  of  Rev.  Henry,  of  St.  James. 

Thomas  Harwood,  fourth  son  of  Richard  and  Anne,  was  the 
first  Treasurer  of  the  Western  Shore  of  Maryland,  under  the  Council 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howaed  Counties.        97 

of  Safety,  about  1776,  and  continued  in  that  office  until  his  death, 
when  he  was  succeeded  by  his  brother,  Benjamin.  From  Treasurer 
Thomas,  came  Richard — Miss  Callahan,  whose  son,  William — Hester 
Ann  Lockerman.  Their  descendants  hold  the  Harwood  House,  of 
Annapolis. 

John,  fifth  son  of  Richard  and  Ann  Watkins — Mary  Hall, 
daughter  of  Major  Henry  Hall. 

Samuel,  sixth  son  of  Richard  and  Ann — Elizabeth,  daughter  of 
Thos.  Stockett  and  Elizabeth  Noble,  his  wife.  They  removed  to 
Montgomery  County.  Their  daughter  became  the  wife  of  Alex- 
ander Warfield,  of  the  Seneca. 

From  Nicholas,  seventh  son  of  Richard  and  Ann  Watkins, 
through  his  daughter,  Sarah  Duvall,  is  descended  Dr.  Marius  Duvall, 
United  States  Navy,  From  Mary,  second  daughter,  wife  of  Wm. 
S.  Green,  came  Eliza — James  Henly  Iglehart.  Matilda,  wife  of 
John  Nicholas  Watkins  and  Nicholas — his  cousin,  Mary  Augusta 
Harwood. 

Benjamin  Harwood,  the  Treasurer,  was  immarried.  The  mina- 
ture  and  trinkets  foimd  in  the  treasury  some  years  ago,  belonged 
to  him. 

The  issue  of  Colonel  Richard  and  Margaret  Hall,  his  wife,  were, 
Anne  Elizabeth — Major  Jonathan  Sellman;  (2.)  Elizabeth  Anne 
— Osborn  Sprigg  Harwood;  (3.)  Richard  Hall  Harwood,  Judge  of 
the  Circuit  Court  of  Anne  Arundel — Annie  Green.  Issue,  (1.)  Eliza 
— George  Wells,  of  Annapolis;  (2.)  Mary  Augusta — Nicholas  Green, 
her  cousin;  (3.)  Matilda — David  McCulloh  Brogden;  (4.)  Rebecca 
— N.  L.  Coulter. 

(4.)  Henry  Hall,  of  Richard  and  Margaret — Elizabeth,  daugh- 
ter of  Colonel  Edward  Lloyd,  of  "Wye,"  in  1805.  Issue,  (1.)  Betty 
Francis  Scott  Key;  (2.)  Mary — Dr.  William  Ghiselin;  (3.)  Josephine 
— Edward  G.  Tilton,  United  States  Navy. 

(5.)  Joseph,  of  Richard  and  Margaret — Anne  Chapman,  and 
second,  Mitilda  Sparrow.  Issue,  (3.)  Ann  Matilda — Charles  Hoops; 
(4.)  James — Ann  Mackall;  (5.)  Chapman — Elizabeth  Claude;  (7.) 
Margaret — Dr.  William  Watkins,  of  Howard.  Their  son,  Harwood 
Watkins,  editor  of  the  Ellicott"  City  Times,  and  a  popular  young 
lawyer,  died  unmarried  in  early  manhood. 

(6.)    Thomas  was  a  lawyer  of  Baltimore,  and  died  unmarried. 

(7.)    Mary — Thos.  Noble  Harwood,  her  cousin, 

(8.)  Henrietta — Thos.  Cowman.  Issue,  (1.)  Thomas — Matilda 
Battle;  (2.)  Richard — Harriet  Green,  later  wife  of  Thomas  Hall, 
whose  daughter,  Henrietta — Wilham  Hall,  of  Annapolis. 

(9.)  Benjamin,  born  1783 — Henrietta  Maria  Battle.  Issue,  (1.) 
Lucinda  Margaret — Dr,  John  Henry  Sellman,  her  first  cousin;  (3.) 
Ann  Caroline — Benjamin  Harrison,  of  Baltimore;  (4.)  Henrietta 
Eliza — George  Johnson,  son  of  Chancellor  John  Johnson.  The 
second  wife  of  Benjamin  Harwood  was  Margaret  Hall,  of  William, 
third,  his  cousin.  Issue,  (1.)  Benjamin,  of  Mississippi;  (4.)  Mary 
Dryden — Thos  Kent;  (10.)  Priscilla — John  B.  Weems,  who  had, 
(1.)  Ann  Bell;    (2.)  Mary  Dorsey. 


98        Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Osborne  Sprigg  Harwood,  son  of  Thos.  and  Rachel  Sprigg,  his 
wife, — Ehzabeth  Anne,  daughter  of  Colonel  Richard  Harwood  and 
Margaret,  his  wife.  Their  second  daughter,  Margaret, — Wm.  John 
Hall,  her  first  cousin,  and  had  issue,  Mary  Priscilla.  Fourth  daughter 
— Francis  Henry  Stockett,  of  Annapolis;  fifth,  Harriet  Kent, — 
Philip  G.  Schurar,  of  Annapolis;  sixth,  William  Sprigg — Elizabeth 
Sellman,  daughter  of  Thos.  Welsh  and  Elizabeth  Sellman,  his  wife. 

Third,  Rachel  Ann,  third  daughter  of  Osborne  and  Sprigg — 
James  Iglehart;  issue,  Anne  Sellman — Jas.  X  Waddell.  Second, 
Harwood — A.  Owen  Kent.  Third,  James — Sallie  Waddell;  killed 
at  Battle  of  Gettysburg,  1863.  Fourth,  Wm.  Thomas — Catherine 
Spottswood  Berkeley.  Fifth,  Thos.  Richard  Sprigg,  youngest  of 
Osborne  Sprigg  and  Elizabeth — Elizabeth  Ann,  daughter  of  Wm.  P, 
Mills,  of  Baltimore. 

The  deed  from  Thomas  Harwood,  of  Streatley,  to  his  son,  Rich- 
ard, closes  as  follows:  "And  from  and  immediately  after  his  decease, 
to  the  use  of  Thomas  Harwood,  son  of  said  Richard  Harwood,  and 
his  heirs." 

Richard,  of  this  last  Thomas,  left  his  dwelling,  "  Hooker's  Pur- 
chase," to  his  niece,  Lucy  Battle,  and  to  his  sister-in-law,  Rachel 
Harwood,  during  life.  "Anthony's  Purchase,"  being  the  dwelling 
of  his  late  brother,  Thomas  Harwood,  and  after  his  death,  to  my 
nephew,  Osborne  Sprigg  Harwood. 

Thomas  Harwood,  of  Richard,  the  settler,  left  "  Brazen  Harpe 
Hall"  to  his  son,  Benjamin;  and  Benjamin  left  it  to  his  two  children. 
It  was  afterward  divided  and  part  of  it  is  called  "  Harwood  Hall," 
and  is  now  owned  by  Mr.  Beale  D.  Mullikin,  a  descendant  of  Benja- 
min Harwood.  The  old  Harwood  burying  ground  is  on  that  part 
of  the  estate,  but  there  is  hardly  a  trace  of  it  left.  "  Harwood  Hall" 
is  about  ten  miles  from  Marlboro,  Prince  George  County.  Sarah 
(Belt)  Harwood,  widow  of  Thos.  Harwood,  did  not  "  chuse"  to  accept, 
and  wrote  to  "certifi"  that  she  preferred  her  third  part. 

Major  Sprigg  Harwood  was  one  of  "the  glorious  nineteen  electors." 
In  1886,  when  seventy-eight  years  of  age,  he  gave  his  view  of  that 
memorable  fight  for  constitutional  reform,  said  he:  "We  had  a 
caucus  in  Baltimore,  and  agreed  to  assemble  in  Annapolis,  and  to 
send  an  address  to  the  twenty-one  Whigs  already  qualified  in  the 
Senate  chamber,  waiting  for  three  more  to  make  a  quorum.  But 
they  would  hold  no  communication  with  us  until  we  qualified.  I 
consulted  my  people  here  for  instructions.  They  said, /Go;  the 
principle  is  right  and  we  will  stand  by  you' — for  the  people  generally 
thought  the  country  was  gone.  John  S.  Sellman  wrote  to  us  to 
meet  at  Annapolis;  and,  after  some  delay,  three  of  the  nineteen 
concluded  to  go  into  the  College.  The  Whigs,  in  return,  gave  us 
what  we  were  demanding — the  election  of  the  Governor  by  the  people. 
We  were  satisfied." 

Major  Sprigg  Harwood  was  one  of  the  county  delegates  to  the 
Congressional  Convention,  in  favor  of  the  dissolution  of  the  Union, 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.        99 

and  recognizing  the  Southern  Confederacy.  In  1864,  he  was  a  dele- 
gate to  the  State  Convention  called  by  the  people.  He  was  also, 
long  Clerk  of  the  Court  for  Anne  Arundel. 

^  THE  HALL  FAMILY. 

All  Hallows  and  St.  James  parish  records  give  many  items  of 
interest  concerning  both  Halls  and  Harwoods.  Rev.  Henry  Hall,  the 
first  to  come  over,  was  a  priest  of  the  Church  of  England.  He  was 
sent  by  Henry  Lord  Bishop,  of  London,  with  letters  to  Hon.  Francis 
Nicholson,  then  Governor  of  the  Province,  who  inducted  Rev.  Henry 
Hall  as  First  Rector  of  St.  James.  This  office  was  held  till  his  death, 
in  1722.  A  stained  glass  window  to  his  memory  is  still  in  St.  James 
Church.  In  1701,  Rev.  Henry  Hall  married  Mary  Duvall,  of  Mareen, 
the  Huguenot.     They  had  five  sons  and  three  daughters. 

From  John  are  descended  the  families  of  Thos.  J.  Hall  and 
William  Hall,  of  St.  James. 

From  Major  Henry,  the  oldest  son,  who  married  Martha  Howard, 
of  Joseph,  grandson  of  Captain  Cornelius,  were  Henry,  born  1727,  and 
John,  born  1729.  This  last  was  Barrister  John  Hall,  a  very  distin- 
guished lawyer,  who  refused  an  admiralty,  but  was  a  member  of  the 
Council  of  Safety,  and  of  the  Continental  Congress.  He  married 
Eleanor  Dorsey,  of  "  Hockley,"  but  left  no  descendants.  He  was 
buried  on  the  farm  called  "The  Vineyard,"  some  seven  miles  from 
Annapolis.  A  portrait  of  him  is  now  in  possession  of  Miss  Nellie 
Ridont,  whose  grandmother  was  a  sister  of  his  wife. 

Henry  Hall,  the  older  brother  of  Barrister  John  Hall,  was  also 
known  as  Major  Henry.  His  wife  was  Elizabeth  Watkins.  Their 
oldest  son  was  Major  Harry  Hall,  who  married  Margery  Howard, 
of  Joseph  and  Martha,  of  "All  Hallows."  Issue  four  children,  else- 
where given.  By  his  second  wife,  Rachel  Harwood,  he  had  five 
children,  viz. :  Mary  Anne — Councilor  Thos.  W.  Hall,  son  of  Edward 
Hall,  Their  only  son,  Julius  Hall,  moved  to  Calvert  County  and 
there  practised  medicine  for  a  number  of  years.  His  wife  was  Jane, 
daughter  of  Governor  Joseph  Kent,  of  Maryland.  His  son  Julius — 
Elizabeth  Claude  Stockett,  daughter  of  Francis  Henry  Stockett  and 
Mary  Priscilla,  his  wife. 

The  issue  of  Major  Henry  Hall,  by  his  second  wife,  Elizabeth, 
Lansdale,  were:  First.  Edward — Martha  Duckett.  Issue,  Eleanor 
W.  Priscilla,  Henrietta,  Richard,  Captain  John,  and  Thomas. 

Second.  Isaac,  from  whom  descended  the  family  of  thiP  late 
Harry  Hall,  of  West  River,  the  father  of  Edward.  Dr.  Estep  Hall 
and  Augustus  Hall. 

Third.     Margaret — Colonel  Richard  Harwood. 

Fourth.  William,  known  as  William,  third.  He  married  Mar- 
garet Harwood,  daughter  of  Captain  Thomas,  of  St.  James  Parish. 
Their  son,  Thomas — Henrietta,  widow  of  Thos.  Cowan.  Their 
daughter,  Henrietta — Wm.  Henry  Hall,  of  Annapolis.  The  second 
wife  of  Thomas,  above,  was  Mary  Watkins,  who  had  John  Thomas 
— Harriet  Barker,  of  Baltimore. 


100      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Second.  Richard,  of  William,  third,  left  descendants  in  Prince 
George  County.,  viz.:  Richard — Miss  Perkins.  Issue,  the  late  John 
Hall,  Treasurer  of  Prince  George;  Turner,  Summerfield  Hall.  The 
daughters  were  Mrs.  Marine,  of  Baltimore,  Mrs.  Beale,  Mrs. 
McDonald,  Miss  MoUie  Hall,  of  Beltsville.  Their  homestead  was 
the  handsome  estate  of  Colonel  Herbert. 

Third.  Margaret,  of  William,  third — Benjamin  Harwood,  of 
Colonel  Richard, 

Fourth.  Rachel — Solomon  Sparrow.  I^^ifth.  Harry — Anne 
Geston.  Sixth.  Mary  Dryden — Alfred  Sellman.  Seven.  Elizabeth 
Watkins,  whose  daughter  Eleanor — Richard  Sellman.  Rachel  Sprigg 
— Dr.  Blake  Hall.  Eight.  Wm.  John — Margaret  Hall  Harwood,  of 
Osborne  Sprigg  Harwood. 

THE  RIDOUT  FAMILY. 

John  Ridout,  secretary  of  Governor  Sharpe,  left  a  distinguished 
family.  He  married  Mary,  daughter  of  Governor  Samuel  Ogle,  and 
his  wife,  Ann  Tasker.     Both  v/ere  buried  at  "White  Hall." 

Obituary  notices  of  them  are  among  the  records  of  St.  Margaret's, 
written  by  their  son,  Horatio  Ridout,  Register  of  that  parish  for  a 
number  of  years.  Horatio  Ridout  married  Rachel  Goldsborough, 
of  Cambridge.  She  bore  him  one  son,  John  Ridout,  whose  issue  by 
a  second  wife  were,  Eliza  N.,  Rachel  S.,  Ann  Ogle,  Horatio  and 
Samuel  Ridout. 

Horatio,  of  John,  married  again,  Ann  Weems.  Issue,  Mary — 
Jacob  Winchester;  Horatio — Jemima  Duvall,  of  Richard;  Rev. 
Samuel  Ridout — Hester  Ann  Chase,  daughter  of  Thomas;  Weems 
Ridout — first,  Elizabeth  Duvall,  second,  Elizabeth  Beeman;  Orlando 
Ridout — Margaret  Atlee;  Elinor  Ridout,  Francis  Hollingsworth 
Ridout  died  single;  Anna  Rebecca — Captain  Thos.  K.  Messick; 
James  Maccubin  Ridout  and  Miliora  Ogle  died  single. 

The  descendants  of  Horatio  and  Jemima  Duvall  are,  Horatio 
Sharpe — Ellen  J.  Rogers;  Zachariah  Duvall  Ridout— Ellen  Messick; 
Francis  Hollingsworth — Eliza  Shepherd;  Weems  Ridout,  the  cour- 
teous merchant  of  Annapolis — Edith  Marden;  Grafton  Duvall — Sallie 
Dashiell;   Charles — Carrie  Conner. 

Samuel  Ridout,  of  John,  of  Horatio,  was  the  friend  and  father- 
in-law  of  Rev.  Walter  Dulany  Addison.  From  him  descends  Dr. 
Wm.  G.  Ridout,  of  Annapoils,  who  possesses  a  handsome  portrait 
of  Mrs.  Mary  (Young,  Woodward)  Hesselius. 

One  of  her  descendants,  upon  seeing  for  the  first  time,  the  above 
portrait  of  Mrs.  Kesselius,  asked.  Dr.  Ridout,  "What  queen  is  that?" 
The  reply  was,  "You  are  not  far  from  right  in  calling  her  a  queen, 
for  she  had  all  the  graces  of  a  queen,  and  to  her  own  family,  she 
was  a  queen  of  hearts." 

There  stands,  to-day,  a  magnificent  colonial  residence  upon  a 
hill  overlooking  the  tragic  battlefield  of  the  Severn.  It  was  built  by 
John  Ridout  and  is  still  held  by  his  descendants,  of  Annapolis. 

Dr.  Ridout,  Jr.,  and  Mrs.  Ligon,  of  Howard,  are  of  his  household. 


'-^m:tmt'' 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundej.  and  Howard  Counties.      101 

THE  BEALE  FAMILY. 

A  Scottish  family,  with  a  ringing  bell  as  its  coat  of  arms,  was 
early  represented  in  our  province. 

The  leader  was  a  famous  officer,  Colonel  Ninian  Beale,  born  in 
Fifeshire,  or  near  Edinburgh,  about  1625.  Having  fought,  in  1650, 
against  Cromwell  at  Dunbar,  he  was  captured  and  transported  to 
Calvert  County,  Maryland. 

This  same  immigrant  was  called  the  "Covenanter,"  whose  zeal 
caused  him  in  some  way,  to  be  mixed  up  with  the  killing  of  a  Bishop 
Montgomery,  in  an  effort  to  keep  Episcopacy  out  of  Scotland. 

He  came,  in  1655,  and  located  in  Calvert  County.  Intelligent, 
and  of  a  strong  character,  he  at  once  became  a  leader  in  the  contests 
of  that  period. 

He  was  with  Colonel  Coursey  and  Colonel  William  Stephens, 
"  When  they  sent  Captain  Beale  before  them  to  find  Captain  Brandt." 
Information  being  delivered  into  his  lordship's  hands  by  Captain 
Ninian  Beal^,  it  was  ordered  to  be  entered  in  the  Council  book; 
and  by  his  lordship's  special  command,  power  be  given  to  Captain 
Ninian  Beale,  of  Calvert  County,  to  press  man  and  horse  anytime, 
upon  urgent  occasion,  to  give  his  lordship  intelligence."  Ordered, 
also,  at  the  same  time,  "  that  six  men  in  arms,  under  Captain  Ninian 
Beale,  be  commanded  out  to  continue  ranging  between  the  head  of 
the  Patuxent,  up  to  the  Susquehanna,  forth  for  discovery  of  the 
Indian  enemy."  Captain  Beale,  in  1689,  signed  the  Declaration  of 
Remonstrance,  in  which  it  was  declared,  that  "All  rumors  of  an 
Indian  invasion,  supported  by  Catholics,  were  found  to  be  false." 

For  Captain  Beale's  services  he  was  granted  an  estate  that 
extended  over  several  counties.  He  surveyed  near  the  National 
Capitol,  and  upon  one  of  his  surveys,  a  number  of  Presbj^terian 
families  were  induced  to  settle.  One  of  his  tracts  was  the  "  Rock  of 
Dumbarton."  Georgetown  stands  upon  this  survey.  There  was 
another  one  at  Bennings,  and  still  another  at  Collington,  Prince 
George  County.  Here  was  located  Ninian  Beale,  Jr.,  the  testator  of 
1710,  who  named  only  two  children,  Mary  and  Samuel.  His  sister, 
Jane,  daughter  of  Colonel  Ninian  and  Ruth  Moore,  married  Colonel 
Archibald  Edmondson,  whose  daughter,  Ruth  Edmondson,  married 
Rev.  John  Orme,  who  married  Elizabeth  Johns,  whose  daughter,  Char- 
lotte Orme,  became  Mrs.  Daniel  Douglass.  Colonel  Ninian  died,  1717, 
age  ninety-three  years. 

Colonel  George  Beall,  youngest  son  of  Colonel  Ninian,  born  at 
Upper  Marlborough,  in  1695,  removed  to  Georgetown,  and  there 
died,  1780.  He  built  a  large  house  upon  N  Street,  and  many  believe 
that  he  gave  name  to  Georgetown.     It  was  upon  his  property. 

Thomas  Beal'^,  of  Colonel  George,  by  a  second  marriage  to  the 
widow  Beal^,  had  twin  daughters,  who  became  the  wives  of  George 
C.  Washington  and  Major  Peter,  and  mothers  of  Lewis  Washington 
and  Colonel  Peter, 


102      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

"The  Cedars,"  of  Bennings,  for  Colonel  Ninian  Beale,  was  the 
homestead  of  another  Ninian  Beale,  whose  family  Bible  reads  as 
follows:  "Rachel  born  1711;  Ninian,  1713;  Charles,  1715;  Elinor, 
1717;  Joshua,  1719."  He  held  "The  Cedars;"  married  Sarah  Green- 
field, and  had  Captain  George  Beale,  whose  wife  was  Ann  Truman 
Greenfield.  Their  daughter,  Ann  Truman  Beale,  married  Fielder 
Magruder;  Susan — Samuel  Sheriff,  and  became  the  mother  of  George 
Beale  Sheriff,  the  last  heir  of  "The  Cedars." 

Another  Ninian  Beal^  is  found  at  Georgetown.  He  signs,  in 
a  bold  hand,  "Ninian  Beale,  of  Ninian."  He  is  thought  to  be  the 
Ninian,  of  Ninian,  who  was  born  at  Bennings,  in  1713.  His  issue 
were  Charles,  Ruth,  Margaret,  Mary,  Rachel,  Elinor  and  Susannah. 
Ruth  became  the  wife  of  Captain  Charles  Gassaway;  Margaret — 
Benjamin  Edwards;  Mary — Dr.  Watkins,  and  left  Gassaway  and 
Thomas  Watkins,  of  Brookeville;  Rachel — Hardidge  Lane,  of  Vir- 
ginia, and  was  the  mother  of  Mrs.  Coleman  and  Mrs.  Vansweringen, 
of  Virginia;  Elinor — Zachariah  Offutt,  of  Montgomery  County, 
Susannah — Alexander  Catlett,  father  of  Grandison  Catlett;  Charles 
Beale — a  daughter  of  Lord  Fairfax. 

In  1719,  two  brothers,  William  and  Charles  Beale,  took  up 
1,200  acres  in  Montgomery  County,  known  as  "The  Brothers."  In 
1720,  they  surveyed  "Beale's  Manor." 

A  still  later  Ninian  Beale,  of  Georgetown,  had  a  son  Robert, 
who  had  a  son  James,  who  had  a  son  Zephaniah,  ensign  in  Captain 
Edward  Burgess  Company  of  Montgomery  Militia.  He  married 
Keesiah  White,  widow  of  Wm.  Pritchett,  of  "  Eleanor  Green,"  near 
Rockville.  Their  son  Rezin  Beale,  took  part  in  the  suppression  of 
the  Indians,  in  1790.  The  father  was  Major  and  the  son  became 
General  Rezin  Beale,  of  Wooster,  Ohio.  He  married  Rebecca, 
daughter  of  Lieutenant  Johnson,  and  had  Nancy  Campbell  Beale, 
wife  of  Cyrus  Spink,  of  Wooster.  Their  daughter  Rebecca  Beale 
Spink — John  Wilson  McMillan,  son  of  Martin  McMillan  and  Nancy 
Clark.  Their  daughter  is  Miss  Kate  Louise  McMillan,  of  Wooster, 
Ohio. 

Another  Ninian  Beale  married  Elizabeth  Gordon,  and  had 
George,  who  married  Ann  Magruder.  Brooke  Beale  was  the  seven- 
teenth son  of  his  father. 

Another  Beale  family  was  in  Annapolis.  Hannah  Beale  became 
^  the  wife  of  Thomas  Randall,  and  the  mother  "oTUrith  (Randall) 
Gwings.  "     -      - 

John  Beale,  whose  coat  of  arms  upon  his  will  at  Annapolis,  does 
not  show  a  "ringing  bell,"  was  a  distinguished  attorney,  connected 
by  marriage,  with  Howards  and  Dorseys  and  Norwoods.  His  name 
was  handed  down  in  many  allied  families.  His  wife  was  Elizabeth, 
daughter  of  Andrew  Norwood,  by  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Captain 
Cornelius  Howard.  Their  daughter,  Elizabeth  Beale,  became  Mrs. 
Wm,  Nicholson,  the  mother  of  Beale  Nicholson,  and  the  wife  of 
Richard  Dorsey,  of  "Hockley."  A  daughter  of  this  marriage 
became  the  wife  of  another  John  Beale. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      103 

The  following  data  was  sent  to  me  by  Mrs.  Dorsey  of  the  Con- 
gressional Library,  Washington. 

Tombstones  of  the  Beale  family,  formerly  in  the  Presbyterian 
Cemetery,  at  Georgetown,  but  transferred  to  "Oakhill"  at  the  same 
place. 

"  Here  lieth  Colonel  George  Beale,  who  departed  this  life  at 
Georgetown,  March  15,  1780;   aged  eighty-five  years. 

"  Here  lieth  the  body  of  Elizabeth,  the  wife  of  Colonel  George 
Beale,  who  departed  this  life  October  the  2nd,  1748;  age  forty-nine 
years." 

"Sacred  to  the  memory  of  George  Beale.  He  was  born  in 
Georgetown,  February  25th,' 1729.  He  died  October  15th,  1807,  in 
the  seventy-ninth  year  of  his  age.  He  lived  respected,  and  died 
lamented." 

Will  of  George  Beale  probated  at  Rockville,  the  17th  of  March, 
1780.  He  married  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Colonel  Thomas  Brooke 
and  his  second  wife,  Barbara  Dent.  Their  children  were,  Mary 
Beale,  under  ten  in  1750,  when  Barbara  Dent  Beale,  her  grandmother, 
made  a  deed  of  a  negro  girl  to  her;  she  died  5^oung.  Esther  died 
young.  Thomas  died  young.  George,  born  1729.  Leevin  died  in 
Martinique;  Patrick,  Rebecca,  Lucy  Magruder;  Thomas  died  young; 
Mary  died  young. 

Will  of  Colonel  George  Beale: 

"In  the  name  of  God,  Amen.  To  son  Thomas  Beale,  'Con- 
juror's Dissappointment;'  also  a  part  of  'Dumbarton,'  to  be  divided 
by  the  main  road,  that  part  that  lies  south  to  belong  to  grandson, 
George  Beale.  To  daughter,  Elizabeth  Evans,  negro  man  to  serve 
four  years,  and  to  be  free  made  15th  March,  1780."  Witnessed 
by  W.  Smith,  Richard  Cheney,  Abraham  Boyd. 

Thomas  Beale  bought  "Conjuror's  Dissappointment"  and 
"Rock  of  Dumbarton."  Married  Anne  Deme.  His  will  made,  14th 
October,  1814;  probated,  October  7th,  1819.  She  died,  1827. 
Their  children  were  Elizabeth,  married  as  first  wife,  G.  C.  Washing- 
ton, and  Harriet  Ann,  married  Peter.  Another  daughter  of  Colonel 
George  Beale  married  Evans.  On  January  18th,  1720,  George 
Beale  received  a  grant  of  1,380  acres,  known  as  "Rock  of  Dum- 
barton."    Liber,  J.  L.,  No.  A.  pp.  55,  Maryland  Land  Records. 

Will  of  George  Beale,  second  son  of  Colonel  George  Beale.  To 
wife,  Elizabeth,  all  real  and  personal  property  I  received  with  her. 
Two  negroes;  cochehee  with  two  horses;  $100  for  mourning  me  and 
right  of  dower  in  estate.  To  son  George  Beale,  i^lOO,  and  to  his 
children,  negroes  named  in  the  bill  of  sale  recorded  in  Montgomery 
County,  after  his  death.  Also  to  children  of  George  Beale,  Patrick 
and  Anna  Beale,  three  negroes  apiece.  To  son  George,  equal  share 
of  personal  property.  To  son  Levin  Beale,  land  he  now  lives  on 
during  his  life  and  that  of  his  present  wife,  remainder  between  his 
two  children  John  and  Anna  Beale,  to  them  three  negroes  apiece. 
To  grandsGi,  Thomas,  son  of  Ninian  Beale,  the  same.  Son  Heze- 
kiah  and  Ctptain  Thomas  B.  Beale,  executors.     To  son  Hezekiah, 


104      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties, 

the  rest  of  the  jClOO.  To  Rev.  Stephen  Balch,  two  negroes  and 
their  increase  for  his  children.  To  Levin  P.  W.  Balch,  $150,  To 
Captain  John  Rose,  negroes,  etc.  Will  made  the  11th  of  June,  1802; 
probated,  the  20th  of  October,  1807,      Washington,  J,  H.  p.  137. 

His  son,  George  Beale,  was  born  1748,  died  1807,  Captain 
Thomas  Brooke,  born  September  20th,  1770,  died  September,  1820. 
Will  made,  November  23rd,  1808;   probated,  October  14th,  1820, 

Anna  married  Captain  John  Rose,  Elizabeth  married  Rev, 
Stephen  Balch, 

I  do  not  know  the  maiden  name  of  Elizabeth,  his  wife,  though 
I  have  tried  to  discover  it,  ,.i,'        „    j^   '^ 


v^  MAREEN  DUVALL,  THE  HUGUENOT. 

No  more  striking  figure  in  colonial  history  is  found  than  the 
personal  achievements  of  this  fleeing  immigrant  from  Nantes,  about 
1650. 

He  came  as  one  of  the  one  hundred  and  fifty  adventurers,  brought 
over  by  Colonel  William  Burgess,  He  settled  near  Colonel  Burgess, 
in  Anne  Arundel  County,  on.  the  south  side  of  South  River  and 
became  one  of  the  most  successful  merchants  and  planters  of  that 
favored  section. 

When  political  influences  were  most  active  during  the  revolu- 
tion of  1689,  Mareen  Duvall  was  among  the  leaders  who  sustained 
the  Lord  Proprietary,  His  name  is  found  in  Colonel  Greenberry's 
letter  to  Governor  Copley,  as  one  of  the  Jacobin  party,  whose 
mysterious  meetings  he  could  not  solve. 

The  land  records  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Prince  George  Counties 
show  that  this  Huguenot  planter  and  merchant  held  a  vast  estate, 
and  left  his  widow  and  third  wife  so  attractive  as  to  become  the 
third  wife  of  Colonel  Henry  Ridgely,  and  later  the  wife  of  Rev.  Mr. 
Henderson,  the  commissary  of  the  Chuch  of  England.  Together 
they  built  old  Trinity,  or  Forest  Chapel,  near  Collington,  in  Prince 
George  County, 

The  will  of  Mareen  Duvall  is  an  intelligent  one.  It  was  pro- 
bated, in  1694;  about  the  time  of  the  removal  of  the  Capitol  from 
St,  Mary's  to  Annapolis. 

It  is  not  known  who  were  his  first  wives.  One  of  them  was 
closely  allied  to  the  celebrated  John  Larkin,  a  neighbor  and  endur- 
ing friend  of  Mareen  Duvall,  Five  of  his  twelve  children  were 
married  during  the  lifetime  of  the  Huguenot,  "  Mareen,  the  Elder," 
also  called  by  his  mother-in-law,  "Marius,"  married  Frances  Stockett, 
daughter  of  Thomas,  He  was  the  ancestor  of  John  P,  Duvall,  a 
member  of  the  Virginia  Legislature, 

Captain  John  Duvall,  who  held  another  large  estate,  married 
Elizabeth  Jones,  daughter  of  William  Jones,  Sr,  of  Anne  Arundel 
County.  She  added  considerably  to  his  estate.  Thvnr  daughter, 
Elizabeth,  became  the  wife  of  Benjamin  Warfield,  the  y  mngest  son  of 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      105 

Richard,  the  immigrant.  Her  wedding  gift  was  780  acres  of  "  Lugg 
Ox,"  in  the  forks  of  the  Patuxent.  Her  sister,  Comfort,  became 
Mrs.  Wilham  Griffith,  of  Frederick  County. 

Eleanor  Duvall,  of  Mareen,  became  Mrs.  John  Roberts,  of  Vir- 
ginia. Samuel  Duvall  married  Elizabeth  Clarke,  in  1687;  Susannah 
became  Mrs.  Robert  Tyler,  and  was  the  ancestress  of  General  Bradley 
T.  Johnson;  Lewis  Duvall  married  Martha  Ridgely,  only  daughter 
of  Hon.  Robert  Ridgely,  of  St.  Inigoes,  in  1699. 

"Mareen  the  Elder,"  and  "Mareen  the  Younger"  are  both 
named  by  the  Huguenot  testator  of  1694.  The  latter  seemed  to  be 
his  favorite.  He  married  Elizabeth  Jacob,  daughter  of  Captain  John 
Jacob.  His  sister  Catherine,  married  William  Orrick,  in  1700. 
And  his  sister,  Mary,  in  1701,  became  the  wife  of  Rev.  Henry  Hall, 
the  English  Rector  of  St.  James  Parish. 

The  Huguenot  names  his  daughter,  Elizabeth  Roberts,  and 
daughter  Johanna,  who  became,  in  1703,  Mrs.  Richard  Poole.  Ben- 
jamin Duvall,  of  the  Huguenot,  married  Sophia  Griffith,  in  1713, 
daughter  of  William  and  Sarah  (Maccubbin)  Griffith.  These  were 
the  ancestors  of  Judge  Gabriel  Duvall,  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the 
United  States.  Benjamin  and  Sophia's  issue  were,  Susanna — Samuel 
Tyler;  Sophia — Thos.  Butt;  Benjamin — Susanna  Tyler.  Issue, 
Gabriel,  (Judge  of  the  United  States  Supreme  Court),  who  was 
twice  married,  first  to  Miss  Bryce,  daughter  of  Captain  Robert,  of 
Annapolis;  second  to  Miss  Jane  Gibbon,  of  Philadelphia. 

Edward  Duvall  and  Isaac  Duvall,  brothers  of  Judge  Gabriel, 
were  lieutenants  in  the  Revolutionary  War,  and  remained  bachelors. 
Isaac  Duvall,  of  Benjamin  and  Jemima  Taylor,  married  Miss  Hard- 
ing, of  Montgomery  County,  and  removed  to  West  Virginia  about 
1812.  He  owned  an  extensive  glass  factory  at  Charlestown,  after- 
wards Wellsburg,  on  the  Ohio.  He  left  three  sons,  among  whom 
was  General  Isaac  Harding  Duvall,  and  four  daughters.  From 
Julia  A.  descends  Mrs.  Anne  O.  Jackson,  of  Parkersburg,  W.  Va. 
and  her  sister  Mrs.  List,  of  Wheeling.  From  William,  brother  of 
Isaac,  by  his  wife,  Harriet  Doodridge,  comes  Mrs.  Kate  Rector 
Thibaut,  of  Washington,  D.  C. 

Mareen  Duvall,  "  The  Younger,"  by  Elizabeth  Jacob,  had 
Mareen  in  1702, — Ruth  Howard;  Susannah — first,  Mr.  Fowler,  and 
second,  Mark  Brown.  Elizabeth — Dr.  Wm.  Denune;  Samuel — 
Elizabeth  MuUikin;  Benjamin — Miss  Wells;  John — Miss  Fowler; 
Jacob — Miss  Bourne,  of  Calvert.  Samuel  and  EHzabeth  (Mullikin) 
Duvall,  daiighter  of  James  Mullikin,  son  of  the  immigrant,  had 
James — Sarah  Duvall,  of  Mareen  and  Ruth  (Howard)  Duvall,  and 
Samuel,  in  1740, — Mary  Higgins.  From  Barton  Duvall,  of  Samuel 
and  Mary,  who  married  Hannah  Isaac,  daughter  of  Richard  and 
^n  (Williams)  Isaac,  came  Richard  Isaacs  Duvall,  Dr.  PhiHp  Barton 
Dtivall  and  Dr.  Joseph  Isaac  Duvall. 

Richard  Isaac  Duvall — first,  Sarah  Ann  Duvall,  of  Tobias,  and 
had  James  M.  Duvall,  of  Baltimore,  Philip  Barton  Duvall,  who 
read  medicine  with  Dr.  Samuel  Chew,  of  Baltimore,  and  graduated, 


106      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

in  1860,  at  the  University  of  Maryland,  and  went  south  in  1861,  and 
joined  the  Confederate  State's  Army  and  was  killed  at  the  battle  of 
Chancellorsville,  Va.  Samuel  F.  Duvall,  of  the  Confederate  Army, 
several  times  wounded;  Daniel  C.  Duvall,  and  Sallie,  and  several 
other  children  who  died  in  infancy.  Richard  Isaac  Duvall — second, 
Rachel  M.  Waring,  of  Francis  and  Elizabeth  (Turner)  Waring,  and 
had  Richard  Mareen  and  Marius  Turner  Duvall,  twins,  born  1856. 

Richard  M.  Duvall,  a  member  of  the  Baltimore  Bar,  married, 
1895,  JuHa  Anna  Webster  Goldsborough,  daughter  of  Dr.  John  Schley 
and  Julia  Anna  Webster  (Strider)  Goldsborough,  of  Frederick,  Md. 

Samuel  and  Elizabeth  (Mullikin)  Duvall  had  a  son,  Isaac,  who 
was  twice  married.  One  of  his  sons  was  Basil  Mullikin  Duvall,  who 
married  Delilah  Duvall,  of  Philemon,  of  Montgomery,  and  had  issue, 
Agrippa,  of  Kentucky, — Miss  Smith,  of  Kentucky;  Mary  A. — Thos. 
J.  Betts,  of  Baltimore;  Miss  Margery  Duvall;  Van  Buren  Duvall, 
of  Texas;  Augusta — Dr.  Thos.  C.  Bussey,  of  Baltimore  County; 
Kate — George  Ellicott,  of  the  family  who  founded  Ellicott  City. 

The  homestead  of  Mr.  Basil  Mullikin  Duvall,  now  held  by  Mrs. 
Elhcott,  is  immediately  upon  the  Cattail,  of  the  Patuxent,  in  upper 
Howard  County. 

The  last  wife  and  widow  of  the  Huguenot  was  Miss  Mary  Stanton. 
Before  1700,  she  became  the  wife  of  Col.  Henry  Ridgely,  the  immi- 
grant, and  with  him,  closed  the  administration  of  the  estate  of  the 
Huguenot.  The  younger  Mareen  objected  to  his  guardian,  Col. 
Ridgely,  but  the  courts  did  not  sustain  him.  After  the  death  of  Col. 
Ridgely,  in  1710,  Mrs.  Mary  Ridgely  bought  a  tract  of  land  from 
Wm.  Ridgely,  Sr.  and  Jr.,  brother  and  nephew  of  her  late  husband. 
Mrs.  Mary  Ridgely  next  appears  as  the  wife  of  Rev.  Jacob  Hender- 
son, the  English  rector  sent  over  to  visit  the  churches  of  the  province. 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Henderson  left  an  enduring  monument  to  their  memory 
by  the  erection,  in  1735,  of  Holy  Trinity  Chapel.  Having  endowed 
the  same,  they  left  it  as  a  memorial  to  the  public,  and  by  act  of  the 
General  Assembly,  it  was  converted  into  a  "  Chapel  of  Ease."  There 
is  a  marble  slab  in  the  vestibule,  stating  the  fact  of  its  erection  at 
the  cost  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Henderson.  There  are  also  a  number  of 
memorial  windows  erected  in  it  to  the  Duvalls,  Mullikins,  Bowies 
and  others. 

The  will  of  Mrs.  Henderson,  at  Upper  Marlborough,  shows  that 
she  had  a  brother  in  Philadelphia,  and  that  her  maiden  name  was 
Mary  Stanton.  She  was  an  intelligent  and  attractive  lady.  It  is 
not  certain  that  she  left  any  children  by  any  of  her  three  husbands. 

RICHARD  BEARD. 

Richard  Beard,  of  South  River,  came  up  from  Virginia  with 
his  brother-in-law.  Colonel  William  Burgess.  His  wife  Rachel,  was 
a  sister  of  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Burgess,  both  daughters  of  Edward  Robins, 
of  Virginia.  He  took  up  "Beard's  Habitation,"  on  Beards  Creek, 
and  built  Beards  Mill.     He  represerted  Anne  Arundel  in  the  Assem- 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      107 

blies  of  1662  and  1663.  In  his  will  of  1675,  he  named  his  sons  Rich- 
ard, (the  deputy-surveyor,  who  made  a  map  of  Annapolis),  and  John 
Beard.  Daughters  Ruth,  Rebecca  (Nicholson),  and  daughter  Rachel 
Clark,  and  her  son,  Neal  Clark,  who  married  Jane,  daughter  of 
Captain  George  Puddington.  Mrs.  Rachel  Clark  next  married 
Thomas  Stimpson,  and  by  him  had  two  daughters,  Rachel  and 
Comfort.  The  former  became  Mrs.  Colonel  Charles  Greenberry;  the 
latter,  wife  of  John  Dorsey,  only  son  of  Joshua. 

Mrs.  Stimpson  next  appeared  as  Mrs.  Rachel  Killburne.  In 
1701,  she  deeded  to  her  daughters,  Rachel  Greenberry  and  Comfort 
Stimpson,  furniture,  lots  in  Annapolis,  large  silver  porring,  small 
silver  tankard,  large  silver  "cordiall"  cup,  silver  punch  cups,  and 
silver  spoons.  To  her  son-in-law,.  Wm.  Killburne,  and  her  daughter- 
in-law,  Elizabeth,  his  wife,  she  gave  several  memorials.  To  Charles 
Carroll  she  gave  twenty  shillings  for  a  ring.  To  her  granddaughter, 
Rachel  Clark,  a  silver  bodkin  and  a  gold  ring.  A  memorial  was  also 
given  to  Henry  Davis,  Sr. 

During  that  same  year,  1701,  she  became  Mrs.  Rachel  Freeborne. 
Her  daughter,  Comfort,  was  now  named  Comfort  Dorsey.  She  gave 
to  Anna  Hammond,  daughter  of  Charles  and  Rachel,  his  wife  (Mrs. 
Greenberry),  a  negro  girl.  In  1716,  Mrs.  Freeborne  sold  to  Charles 
Carroll  a  house  and  lot  adjoining  Henry  Ridgely.  She  deeded 
"Turkey  Quarter"  to  her  son  Neale  Clark. 

Thomas  Freeborne  took  up  "Freeborne's  Progress,"  in  Howard 
County.  It  was  later  held  by  Robert  Ridgely,  of  Elk  Ridge,  through 
his  wife,  Sarah.  This  tract  passed  through  several  transfers,  finally 
deeded  by  Mrs.  Margaret  Gumming  to  Rachel  Hammond. 

Richard  Beard  named,  as  executors,  his  sons,  Richard  and  John 
and  his  "brother-in-law.  Colonel  Wm,  Burgess."  Both  of  his  sons 
left  large  families  in  Anne  Arundel,  from  one  of  whom  descended 
Mrs.  Lancelot  Warfield,  of  "Brandy." 

"^  JOHN  GAITHER,  OF  SOUTH  RIVER. 

The  name  of  John  Gaither  was  sixth  on  the  list  of  the  corpor- 
ation of  James  City. — (Holten.) 

"Came  in  the  Assurance,  1635,  Jo.  Gater  and  Joan  Gater,  aged 
36  and  23  years,  and  John  Gater,  15  years." — (Holten's  List  of  Va.) 

On  a  neck  of  land,  on  the  eastern  branch  of  Elizabeth  River, 
the  Virginia  records,  already  quoted,  show  John  Gater  (Gaither) 
seated  upon  five  hundred  acres  for  the  transportation  of  ten  persons. 
He  was,  also,  a  contributor  to  the  support  of  the  Non-Conformist 
Church. 

In  1662,  the  following  record  was  made  in  Maryland:  "Then 
came  John  Gaither  and  demanded  the  renewment  of  a  warrant  for 
450  acres — renewed."  In  1663,  John  Gaither  and  Robert  Proctor 
surveyed  "Abington,"  at  the  head  of  South  River.  It  adjoined 
"Freeman's  Fancy,"  "Freeman's  Stone"  and  "Freeman's  Landing." 


108      FouNDEEs  OF  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

These  three  settlers  were  sons-in-law  of  Joseph  Morley,  whose 
will,  of  1674,  made  Robert  Proctor  and  John  Gaither  his  executors, 
and  legatees  of  his  whole  estate. 

They  sold  "Morley's  Lot"  and  " Morley 's  Grove"  to  Colonel 
William  Burgess.  Robert  Proctor  and  Elizabeth,  his  wife,  late 
widow  of  John  Freeman,  and  daughter  of  Joseph  Morley,  sold  Free- 
man's lands  to  Captain  George  Puddington,  which  were  later  bought 
by  John  Gaither  from  Captain  Edward  Burgess,  executor  of  Captain 
Puddington. 

Captain  John  Browne,  mariner,  of  London,  sold,  in  1690,  to 
James  Finley,  three  hundred  acres  out  of  "Abington;"  said  land 
laid  out  for  John  Bearing.  And  during  that  same  year,  Captain 
John  Browne  sold  to  John  Gaither,  lands  that  had  been  laid  off  for 
Mr.  Chapman  out  of  "Freeman's  Fancy."  Captain  Browne,  also, 
sold  to  John  Gaither,  lands  in  Abington,  recently  held  by  Robert 
Proctor.  At  the  time  of  his  death,  in  1705,  John  Gaither  held  all 
of  Freeman's  lands  and  all  of  Abington,  except  that  held  by  William 
Ridgely  and  Elizabeth,  his  wife. 

His  widow,  Ruth  (Morley)  Gaither,  married  again,  Francis 
Hardesty.  Dying  intestate,  a  commission  consisting  of  John 
Howard,  John  Hammond  and  John  Duvall,  divided  the  estate. 

His  heirs  were,  John  Gaither,  Jr.,  born  1677;  Ruth,  born  1679 
— John  Warfield  (of  Richard  and  Ehnor  Browne  Warfield);  Ben- 
jamin, born  1681;  Rachel,  born  1687 — Samuel  White;  Mary,  born 
1692;   Rebecca,  born  1695;    Susan,  born  1697. 

John  Gaither  contributed  liberally  to  the  defense  of  the  settlers 
against  Indian  invasions. 

John  Gaither,  Jr.,  as  heir-at-law,  deeded  to  his  brother  Benja- 
min, and  to  Edward  Gaither,  portions  of  his  father's  estate. 

The  issue  of  John  and  Jane  (Buck)  Gaither  were,  Benjamin, 
Alexander,  Richard,  David,  Amos,  Joshua  and  Rezin,  all  inheriting 
"Abington." 

By  a  second  marriage,  to  Elizabeth,  widow  of  Benjamin  War- 
field,  he  had  John,  Edward  and  Samuel  Gaither.  These  inherited 
and  located  upon  "Left  Out,"  near  Dayton,  Howard  County. 

From  these  descended  Mr.  Samuel  Gaither,  the  Commissioner 
of  Howard. 

Benjamin  Gaither  will  be  noted  in  Howard  Coimty. 

Edward  Gaither,  (of  John)  in  1715,  resurveyed  his  father's 
estate  into  "Gaither's  Collections."  This  adjoined  Richard  Snow- 
den's  South  River  estate.  Edward  Gaither  married  Mrs.  Margaret 
Williams,  whose  two  heirs  were  Joseph  and  Margaret  Williams. 
Their  inheritance  was  "Folkland,"  "The  Plains"  and  "Plumbton," 
adjoining. 

The  will  of  Edward  Gaither,  in  1740,  named  his  daughter, 
Rachel  Jacob;  son,  Moses,  inherited  the  surplusage  of  "Freeman's 
Fancy,"  "Freeman's  Stone,"  "Landing,"  "Gaither's  Range," 
and  "Round  About  Hills" — some  three  hundred  acres.  "To  my 
daughter-in-law    (stepdaughter),    Margaret    Williams,    'Folkland,' 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      109 

'The  Plains'  and  'Plumbton/  adjoining;  a  part  of  which  was 
bequeathed  to  my  son-in-law  (stepson) ,  Joseph  Williams."  His  child- 
ren named  were,  daughter  Sarah,  Edward,  Jane,  Leah,  Dinah  and 
Moses,  to  whom  he  left  his  personal  property.  Wife,  Margaret, 
executrix.  In  her  will,  of  1762,  she  confirmed  the  title  to  her 
daughter,  Margaret  Howard,  wife  of  Joseph,  and  named  her  daugh- 
ters heirs. 

Edward  Gaither,  of  Edward,  married  Sarah  Howard,  and  came 
into  possession  of  "Gaither's  Collection,"  and  offered  the  whole 
tract  for  sale,  in  the  Maryland  Gazette,  in  1752.  It  was  bought 
by  John  Ridgely  and  others.  He  left  no  will,  but,  in  1787,  his  son, 
Edward  Gaither,  Jr.,  who  was  a  Colonel  in  the  Revolution,  and 
field  officer  of  the  militia,  a  resident  of  Howard  County,  and  a 
witness  to  the  will  of  Charles  Carroll,  left  the  following  record: 
"To  my  friend  Colonel  Rezin  Hammond,  I  leave  my  Granby  Dim 
horse,  my  saddle,  bridle,  sword  and  gold  mourning  ring.  To  my 
friend,  David  Stewart,  a  gold  mourning  ring  and  silver  spoons.  All 
my  estate  to  my  mother,  Sarah  Gaither,  and  brothers,  Henry,  "^ 
Ephraim,  John  and  Elijah  Gaither,  and  sister  Margery.  To  brother 
Elijah,  my  lands  'Day's  Discovery,'  'Gaither's  Adventure'  and  part 
of  'Rebecca's  Lot,'  bought  of  John  Ellicott,  and  part  of  'Mt.  Etna,' 
bought  of  Dr,  Ephraim  Howard.  He  and  Colonel  Rezin  Hammond 
my  executors.  Witnesses,  Stephen  West,  Jr.,  Samuel  Norwood  and 
John  Railings," 

In  1798,  James  Gaither  named  his  wife.  Patience,  who  was  to 
hold  his  estate,  which  later  descended  to  Dorsey  Jacob,  Jr.,  John 
Hall  and  others,  and  Elizabeth  Stansbury  Gaither. 

Margery  Gaither,  sister  of  Colonel  Edward  Gaither,  married 
Philemon  Browne.  Their  daughter,  Margery  Browne  married, 
Thomas  Warfield,  of  Caleb,  and  removed  to  Kentucky. 

Nancy  Gaither,  of  "  Venison  Park,"  near  Savage,  in  1817,  named 
her  nephew,  Basil  Simpson,  her  sister,  Sarah  Middleton,  brother, 
Basil  Simpson,  son,  Ephraim  Simpson  Gaither  and  nephew,  Ephraim 
Gaither,  of  William. 

CHEW. 

John  Chew,  of  "Chewtown,"  Somersetshire,  England,  came  to 
Virginia  in  the  "  Sea  Flower,"  in  1622,  and  was  gladly  received  there 
by  m.embers  of  his  family,  who  had  preceded  him,  in  1618,  in  the 
ship  "Charitie,"  He  settled  at  James  City,  built  a  house  for  his 
wife,  Sarah,  and  was  a  member  of  the  House  of  Burgesses.  He 
is  there  recorded  as  a  prosperous  merchant. 

He  removed  to  Maryland  with  his  neighbors,  in  1649,  and 
received  a  grant  for  five  hundred  acres,  paid  for  in  Virginia  tobacco. 
With  him  came  his  wife,  Sarah,  and  two  sons,  Samuel  and  Joseph. 
Descendants  of  the  latter,  through  a  daughter  of  John  Larkin,  are 
still  residents  of  Virginia. 

Samuel  Chew  laid  out  "  Herrington,"  on  Herring  Creek.  In 
1650,  a  grant  was  issued  to  him  as  "his  Lordship's  well-beloved 
Samuel  Chew,  Esq."     In  1669,  he  was  sworn  in  as  one  of  the  justices  - 


110      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

of  the  chancery  and  provincial  courts.  His  name  appears  in  both 
Houses  of  the  Assembly  until  his  death,  in  1676.  In  1675,  he  was 
Colonel  Samuel  Chew,  and  was  ordered,  with  Colonel  William  Bur- 
gess, to  go  against  the  Indians  at  the  liead  of  the  Severn.  His  will, 
of  1676,  bequeathed  the  Town  of  Herrington,  negroes,  able-bodied 
Enghshmen,  and  hogsheads  of  tobacco,  to  his  heirs,  and  made  his 
wife,  ■  Ann  (Ayres)  Chew,  his  executrix  She  was  the  Quakeress 
daughter  of  William  Ayres,  thus  recorded  in  Virginia:  "William 
Ayres  received  two  hundred  and  fifty  acres  on  the  main  creek 
of  Nansemond  River,  in  1635,  for  transportai.ing  five  persons." 
Perhaps  this  patentee  was  related  to  Thomas  Ayres,  associated  with 
Edward  Bennett  in  a  plantation  in  this  county."  Lower  Norfolk, 
"records  a  power  of  attorney  from  Samuel  Chew,  of  Herringtown, 
and  Anne,  his  wife,  sole  daughter  and  heiress  of  William  Ayres,  of 
Nansemond  County." 

Colonel  Samuel  and  Ann  Chew  had  a  large  family.  Their 
daughter,  Sarah,  is  recorded  in  the  Chew  records,  as  the  wife  of  "a 
Burges."  She  married  Captain  Edward  Burgess,  oldest  son  of 
Colonel  William.  Samuel  Chew,  Jr.,  was  located  on  "  Poplar  Ridge." 
From  him  descended  Colonel  Samuel  Chew,  of  "  Upper  Bennett,"  a 
member  of  the  "Federation  of  Freemen,"  and  Colonel  of  Militia. 
He  married,  first,  Miss  Weems,  and  second,  Priscilla  Clagett,  daughter 
of  Rev.  Samuel  Clagett.     She  was  a  sister  of  Bishop  Clagett. 

Colonel  John  Hamilton  Chew,  married  his  cousin  Priscilla, 
daughter  of  Bishop  Claggett.  Dr.  Samuel  Chew,  of  Baltimore,  and 
Rev.  John  Chew,  of  the  Protestant  Episcopal  Church,  were  his  heirs. 
Captain  Samuel  Chew,  of  Herring  Bay,  and  Colonel  Philemon 
Lloyd  Chew  were  sons  of  Samuel  Chew  and  Henrietta  Maria  Lloyd, 
his  wife,  v/hose  three  daughters  were,  Henrietta  Maria,  wife  of  Cap- 
tain Edward  Dorsey,  of  the  "Tuesday  Club;"  Mary,  wife  of  Governor 
William  Paca;  Margaret,  wife  of  John  Beale  Bordley.  These  three 
daughters  resided  in  Annapolis. 

The  homestead  of  John  Beale  Bordley  is  now  held  by  the  Ran- 
dall family.  Retiring  to  Joppa,  on  the  Gunpowder,  and  still  later 
to  "  Bordley  Island,"  John  Beale  Bordley  ordered  champagne  by 
the  cask,  and  Madeira  by  the  pipe.  It  was  an  ideal  home  of  an 
age  when  spinning  wheels  and  looms  were  going  incessantly;  when 
brickyards,  windmills  and  rope  walks  were  in  operation;  when  a 
brewery  converted  the  hops  which  Governor  Sharpe  had  imported. 
Colonel  Philemon  Lloyd  Chew  married  Henrietta  Maria,  daughter 
of  Edward  Tilghman. 

Major  Richard  Chew,  of  Calvert,  married  Margaret  Mackall, 
daughter  of  General  James  John  Mackall.  Their  son  married  Anne 
Bowie,  sister  of  Governor  Robert  Bowie. 

Benjamin  Chew,  fifth  son  of  Samuel  and  Anne  Ayres,  married 
Elizabeth  Benson.  Their  son  was  Dr.  Samuel  Chew,  of  "  Maidstone," 
near  Annapolis,  who  married,  first,  Mary  Galloway,  of  Samuel,  of 
"TuHp  Hill,"  and  had  Benjamin  Chew,  of  "Cleveden;"  Elizabeth, 
wife  of  Colonel  Edward  Tilghman,  and  Anne,  wife  of  Samuel  Gallo- 
way. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      Ill 

Dr.  Samuel  Chew  married,  secondly,  Mary,  daughter  of  Aquilla 
Paca,  and  widow  of  Richard  Galloway.  Their  son  was  Judge  Samuel 
Chew,  who  married  Anna  Maria  Frisby,  and  died  at  Chestertown 
without  issue.     He  was  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  Delaware. 

.  Dr.  Samuel  Chew,  of  "Maidstone,"  removed  to  Dover,  and 
became  Judge  of  the  three  lower  counties,  now  Delaware.  He  was 
called  the  fighting  Quaker,  and  was  immortalized  as  follows: 

"Immortal  Chew  first  set  our  Quakers  right; 
He  made  it  plain  they  might  resist  and  fight; 
And  the  gravest  Dons  agreed  to  what  he  said, 
And  freely  gave  their  cast  for  the  King's  aid, 
For  war  successful,  and  for  peace  and  trade." 

For  sustaining  the  law  passed  by  the  Assembly  of  the  three 
lower  counties,  as  a  militia  law,  he  was  expelled  from  the  Quaker 
Society.  In  commenting  upon  it,  he  wrote:  "Their  bills  of  excom- 
munication are  as  full  fraught  with  fire  and  brimstone  and  other 
church  artillery,  as  those  even  of  the  Church  of  Rome." 

The  offense  of  Judge  Chew  was  his  decision  that  "self-defense 
was  not  only  lawful,  but  obligatory  upon  God's  citizens." 

His  son,  Benjamin  Chew,  born  1722,  rose  rapidly  in  law  and 
became  eminent.  He  was  Speaker  of  the  House  of  Delegates  in 
Dover,  and  was  a  neighbor  of  Judge  Nicholas  Ridgely. 

In  1755,  he  was  Attorney-General  of  Pennsylvania.  In  1756, 
he  was  Recorder  of  Philadelphia.  In  1774,  he  was  Chief  Justice  of 
the  Supreme  Court  of  Pennsylvania.  His  definition  of  high  treason 
has  become  historical.  Said  he,  "  Opposition,  by  force  of  arms,  to 
the  lawful  authority  of  the  King  is  high  treason;  but,  in  the 
moment,  when  the  King,  or  his  Ministers,  shall  exceed  the  consti- 
tutional authority  vested  in, them  by  the  constitution,  subrnission  to 
their  mandates  becomes  treason."  His  object  was  reform  rather 
than  revolution. 

His  hoterestead,  "Cliveden,"  on  the  old  Germantown  Road, 
became  still  more  celebrated.  In  it  had  gathered  the  British  forces, 
who  sent  out  a  fire  of  musketry  upon  the  American  forces.  The 
delay  caused  by  trying  to  drive  the  British  from  their  stronghold, 
occasioned  the  loss  of  the  battle  of  Germantown. 

Judge  Chew's  four  daughters  were  celebrated  for  their  beauty. 
"Peggy"  was  the  special  admiration  of  Major  Andre,  a  favorite 
guest  at  "Cliveden."  Upon  her  his  poetic  pen  recorded  many  com- 
pHmentary  verses,  still  extant.  When  Colonel  John  Eager  Howard, 
the  hero  of  the  Revolution,  had  won  "Peggy  Chew"  as  his  wife, 
she  remarked  to  some  distinguished  French  officers,  who  were  guests 
at  Belvidere,  "That  major  Andre  was  a  most  witty  and  cultivated 

gentleman."     Her  patriotic  husband  added:   "  He  was  a spy, 

sir,  nothing  but  a spy." 

"  The  old  homestead,  with  its  rough  walls  of  stone,  its  entrance 
guarded  by  marble  lions,  is  now  blinded  and  defaced  by  age.  In 
its  halls  hang  portraits  older  than  the  house." — (Marion  Harland.) 


112      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Harriet  Chew,  of  "Cliveden,"  presided  at  "Homewood,"  of 
Charles  Carroll,  only  son  of  the  signer.  Juliana  became  Mrs.  Philip 
Nicklin  and  Sophia  was  Mrs.  Henry  Phillips. 

From  Benjamin  Chew,  the  younger,  through  Katherine  Banning, 
came  Benjamin,  who  married  a  daughter  of  Chief  Justice  Tilghman. 
Eliza — James  Murray  Mason,  father  of  Catherine,  wife  of  John  T. 
B.  Dorsey. 

Henry  Banning  Chew  married  Harriet  Ridgely,  of  Hampton. 

Their  descendants  reside  near  Towson. 

i^  PRESTON,  AT.  PATUXENT. 

Colonel  Richard  Preston,  of  the  Patuxent,  was  a  leading  settler 
from  Virginia.  He  arrived  in  Virginia,  about  1642,  and  held  a  high 
position  for  one  of  his  faith.  Surrounding  him,  in  Nansemond 
County,  were  many  others  of  the  same  faith,  opposed  to  the  estab- 
lished church,  and  with  him  removed  to  Maryland,  in  1649.  Richard 
Preston  arrived  with  his  wife  and  children,  numbering  seven  in  all, 
and  entered  land  for  seventy-three  persons.  Upon  his  demand, 
Governor  William  Stone  issued  the  following  order:  "These  are  to 
authorize  Mr.  Richard  Preston,  commander  of  the  north  side  of 
Patuxent  River,  for  one  month  next  ensuing,  with  the  advice  of 
his  Lordship's  Surveyor  General,  to  grant  warranty  to  the  said 
Surveyor  for  the  laying  out  of  any  convenient  quantities  of  land, 
upon  said  river,  on  the  north  side  thereof,  not  formerly  taken  up  by 
any  adventurers  that  shall  make  their  just  title  appear.  Provided 
that  he,  the  said  Mr.  Preston,  do  testify  such  titles,  particularly 
unto  the  Secretary's  ofhce  before  the  return  of  the  certificate  of 
Surveyor,     Given  at  St.  Leonard's,  15  July,  1651. — Wm  Stone." 

Five  hundred  acres  were  surveyed  for  him  in  1650.  It  was 
named  "Preston."  Upon  this  he  erected  a  house  which  still  stands, 
and  is  the  oldest  house  in  Maryland.  It  is  built  of  brick.  It  is 
two  stories  high,  with  three  dormer  windows  front  and  two  back. 
The  lower  room,  where  the  assembly  met,  has  been  divided  by  a 
plaster  partition.  The  inner  walls  are  panelled.  A  porch,  with 
the  house  roof  extending  over  it,  is  in  the  rear.  The  house  stands 
on  the  neck  between  the  Patuxent  and  St.  Leonard's  Creek. 

Captain  Wm.  Fuller  took  up  land  adjoining  it,  and  Governor 
William  Stone  held  lands  not  far  below,  on  the  south  side  of  the 
Patuxent. 

In  1652,  Richard  Preston  was  commanded,  by  authority  of 
Parliament,  to  levy  and  raise  one  able  bodied  man  out  of  every 
seven  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  Patuxent,  from  the  mouth  of  said 
river  as  far  as  Herring  Creek,  with  victuals,  arms  and  ammunition, 
to  meet  at  Mattapania,  and  be  thence  transported  for  the  service 
under  Captain  William  Fuller. 

Colonel  Preston's  petition,  signed  by  sixty  of  his  neighbors,  in 
1652,  to  Richard  Bennett  and  William  Claiborne,  Commissioners  of 
Parliament,  was  a  stirring  appeal  for  their  rights.     It  was  followed 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties,      113 

by  another  of  similar  tenor  in  1653.  Bennett  and  Claiborne  replied 
that  these  petitioners  should  secure  their  rights,  advising  them  to 
stand  fast. 

Then  followed  the  struggle  of  the  Severn. 

John  Hammond,  in  his  pamphlet  "  Hammond  vs.  Heamans," 
records  that  he  alone  seized  the  records  at  Richard  Preston's  house. 
Yet,  in  1655,  "attachment  was  granted  Richard  Preston  on  the  estate 
of  Captain  William  Stone,  to  be  liable  to  satisfy  unto  Richard  Preston 
the  summe  of  twenty-nine  pounds  for  gunnes  and  ammunition, 
taken  from  the  house  of  said  Preston  by  Josias  Fendall,  one  of 
Captain  Stone's  officers  and  complices,  in  the  last  rebellion." 

Richard  Preston's  name  stands  either  at  the  head  or  next  to 
Captain  Fuller's  in  all  official  acts  of  that  period;  and  during  the 
absence  of  Wm.  Durand,  Secretary,  the  records  were  ordered  to  be 
kept  at  his  house.  It  is  interesting  to  note  the  peculiar  transition 
m  the  early  religious  faith  of  these  Virginia  leaders.  We  find  them 
making  stringent  laws  against  Quakers,  yet  some  of  the  most  aggres- 
sive leaders  soon  joined  the  Quakers.  Captain  Wm.  Fuller,  Wm. 
Durand,  Richard  Preston,  Wm.  Berry,  Thom^as  Meers,  Philip  Thomas, 
Peter  Sharp,  changed  their  faith;  and  even  Richard  Bennett  suc- 
cumbed before  his  death.  Richard  Preston's  will  left  several  tracts 
of  Eastern  Shore  lands  to  his  daughters;  but  most  of  his  Patuxent 
estate  to  his  son  James,  if  he  be  living,  or  will  come  into  the  province, 
to  be  held  by  him  until  his  grandson,  Samuel  Preston,  shall  attain 
to  the  age  of  twenty-one  years.  To  his  kinsmen,  Ralph  Dorsey, 
John  and  James  Dorsey,  he  willed  a  portion  of  personality  and  real 
estate,  in  Calvert. 

Samuel  Preston  later  removed  to  Philadelphia,  and  left  a  long 
line  of  descendants. 

Mr.  Dixon,  who  came  into  possession  of  this  historic  homestead, 
has  taken  a  pride  in  preserving  the  old  building,  which,  though  now 
delapidated  through  age,  stands  alone  as  the  one  relic  of  a  revolu- 
tion, one  hundred  years  before  our  Revolution  for  Independence. — 
(Allen  in  Colonial  Homesteads.) 

DAVIS. 

Seventy-five  Davises  are  recorded  among  our  "Early  Settlers," 
during  the  decade  of  1660-1670. 

Sir  Thomas  Davis  was  of  the  London  Company,  to  settle  Vir- 
ginia, and  he  came  over  in  "The  Margaret,"  to  James  City,  in  1619. 
During  that  same  year  he  was  in  the  Assembl}^  of  Virginia  from 
"Martin's  Brandon." 

In  1637,  Thomas  Davis  was  granted  a  plantation  of  three  hun- 
dred acres  for  transporting  six  settlers.  In  1642,  his  plantation  was 
upon  the  east  side  of  the  Elizabeth  River,  in  Nansemond  County, 
from  which  most  of  our  Virginia  pilgrims  came  up  to  Maryland  in 
1650.  Upon  Herring  Creek,  in  the  very  midst  of  these  settlers,  I 
find  a  Thomas  Davis.     But  in  the  absence  of  any  testamentary 


114      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

records,  or  Rent  Roll  records,  in  his  name,  previous  to  1700,  I  am 
inclined  to  believe  that  Thomas  Davis,  Sr.,  wife  Mary  Pierpoint, 
whose  will  was  made  in  1743,  but  not  probated  until  1749,  may  be 
called  the  settler 

The  will  of  Thomas  Davis,  Sr.,  shows  that  he  had  accumulated 
a  good  estate.  He  names  his  dear  wife,  Mary,  to  whom  is  given  all 
his  personal  estate.  "To  grandson,  Caleb  Davis,  son  of  Richard,  I 
give  the  lands  where  his  mother,  Ruth  Davis,  now  lives,  called 
'  Duvall's  Delight,'  two  hundred  acres.  To  son  Thomas,  'Laswell's 
Hopewell.'  To  son  John,  'Davistone'  and  'Whats  Left,  'adjoining. 
To  son  Samuel,  lands  in  Prince  George.  To  son  Robert,  "Ranters 
Ridge.'  To  son  Francis,  'Pearl'  out  of  'Diamond'  and  'Davis 
Addition'  from  'Grimestone.'  Wife  Mary,  John  and  Francis, 
executors.  Personal  estate,  after  death  of  wife,  to  go  equally  to  five 
sons  and  five  daughters." 

Richard  Davis  was  then  dead,  and  Thomas  Davis,  Jr.,  followed 
soon  after.     Both  wills  probated  in  1749. 

Thomas  Davis,  Jr., — Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Benjamin  Gaither. 
He  names  his  sons,  Ephraim  and  Amos;  daughters,  Mary  and  Sarah. 
To  them  was  left  a  part  of  "Snowden's  Second  Addition."  "To 
daughter,  Betsj'^  Davis,  I  give  'Benjamin's  Lot.'  "  This  was  the 
mother's  part  of  Benjamin  Gaither 's  estate,  and  in  her  will  as  Mrs. 
Elizabeth  Brown,  she  names  her  son,  Amos,  and  her  daughters,  Mary 
Norwood  and  Sarah,  wife  of  Edward  Burgess,  and  daughter,  Betsy 
Davis.  Ephraim  Davis,  of  Thomas  and  Elizabeth  (Gaither)  Davis, 
inherited  the  homestead  at  Greenwood.  His  wife,  Elizabeth,  was 
from  the  house  of  Cornelius  Howard,  of  Simpsonville,  and  as  his 
widow  became  the  wife  of  Wm.  Gaither. 

Thomas  Davis,  the  son,  inherited  the  homestead.  He  was  in 
command  of  a  company,  and  was  at  the  front  in  the  Whiskey 
Rebellion  in  Pennsylvania.  He  was,  also,  President  of  the  Board  of 
Trustees  of  Brookeville  Academy,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  son, 
Allen  Bowie  Davis,  of  "Greenwood." 

Taking  the  name  of  his  distinguished  grandfather.  General  Allen 
Bowie,  Mr.  Davis  has  made  a  reputation  which  goes  beyond  the 
borders  of  his  state. 

As  an  agriculturist,  he  advanced  to  the  highest  success.  As 
an  educator,  he  was  always  at  the  front.  President  of  the  Board 
of  the  Academy,  of  the  Public  School  Board  and  President  of  the 
Board  of  the  Agricultural  College,  he  struggled  hard  to  locate  that 
institution  near  his  own  home,  where  the  natural  soil  was  far  better 
suited  for  a  "Model  Farm."  Mr.  Davis  wrote  a  very  good  httle 
text  book  upon  agriculture  to  be  used  in  the  public  schools  as  an 
entrance  to  the  College  of  Argiculture. 

His  first  wife  was  Comfort  Dorsey,  daughter  of  Chief  Justice 
Thomas  Beale  Dorsey.  The  mother  of  his  children  was  Miss  Hester 
Wilkens,  of  Baltimore.  His  only  son,  William,  died  in  Montana, 
where  he  had  married  a  daughter  of  Bishop  Whipple.  His  sister, 
Hester,  died  unmarried.     Misses  Rebecca  and  Mary  Dorsey  Davis 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      115 

having  retired  from  the  beautiful  old  homestead,  now  reside  in  Balti- 
more. Many  relics  of  the  homestead  were  donated  by  them  to 
the  Rockville  Historical  Society. 

2^  Robert  Davis,  of  Thomas  and  Mary,  was  seated  upon  "Ranters' 
Ridge,"  near  Woodstock.  His  wife  was  Ruth  Gaither,  daughter  of 
John  and  Elizabeth.  Their  issue  are  found  in  the  following  trans- 
fer of  1772,  viz:  "John  Davis,  oldest  son  of  Nicholas,  son  of  Robert, 
Sr.,  and  Ely  Davis;  Robert  Davis,  Thomas  Davis  and  Ichabod 
Davis,  sons  and  devisees  of  Robert  Davis,  Sr.,  deed  '  Ranter's  Ridge' 
to  Rezin  Hammond."  Another  transfer  in  the  name  of  Ruth  Ran- 
dall, still  later  Ruth  Nelson,  widow  of  Robert  Davis,  and  widow  of 
Nathan  Randall,  joined  Caleb  Davis,  the  legatee  of  both  Nathan 
and  herself,  in  deeding  a  portion  of  "  Good  Fellowship"  to  Mr.  Knight. 
Still  later  Caleb,  of  Baltimore,  deeded  his  interest  in  "  Good  Fellow- 
ship" to  several  Baltimore  agents.  He  was  the  father  of  Hon.  Henry 
G.  Davis. 

Richard  Davis,  of  Robert,  was  the  celebrated  defender  of  Balti- 
more, in  1814.  His  descendants  still  hold  portions  of  the  large 
estate  of  Robert  Davis.  They  are  William  and  Richard  Davis  and 
their  descendants. 

Richard  Davis,  of  Thomas  and  Mary,  was  located  near  High- 
land, Howard.  He  married  Ruth,  daughter  of  John  Warfield  and 
Ruth  Gaither.  They  had  sons,  Richard,  Thomas — Mary  Sapping- 
ton;  Caleb — Lurcetia  Griffith,  of  Orlando.  His  inheritance  was 
"Duvall's  Delight,"  on  Patuxent.  His  daughter,  Elizabeth — Philip 
Welsh.  This  Caleb  was  not,  as  has  been  stated,  the  father  of  our 
Democratic  candidate  for  Vice-President.  His  brother,  Thomas, 
lived  upon  the  Sappington  estate  near  "Warfi eld's  Range"  and 
"Laurel."  This  estate  has  only  recently  passed  from  the  Davis 
name. 

Sarah  Davis,  of  Thomas, — Colonel  Henry  Griffith,  whose  son 
heired,  through  Mrs.  Mary  Davis  and  Dr.  Francis  Brown  Sappington, 
a  tract  near  Laurel. 

John  Davis,  of  Thomas  and  Mary, — Anne  Worthington/  Francis 
Davis,  of  Thomas  and  Mary, — Anne  Hammond,  daughtef  of  John 
and  Anne  (Dorsey)  Hammond,  and  had  Thomas  Davis,  who  settled 
in  Carroll  County.  He  was  in  the  Revolution.  His  sons  were, 
Henry,  George  and  Dr.  Frank  Davis.  The  first  two  have  many 
descendants  in  Baltimore.  Mr.  Harvey,  Davis,  of  Howard,  is  a 
grandson  of  Revolutionary  Thomas  Davis,  j  Zachariah  Davis,  brother 
of  Thomas,  was  located  near  Mt.  Airy,  in  Carroll.  His  son,  William 
Davis,  was  the  father  of  Eldred  Griffith  Davis,  the  popular  collector 
of  taxes  in  Washington,  D.  C. 

Mary  Davis,  of  Thomas  and  Mary, — John  Riggs,  of  "Riggs' 
Hills."     Ruth  Davis,  of  Thomas  and  Mary, — Joshua  Warfield,  of 
"  Lugg  Ox,"  whose  mother,  Elizabeth  (Duvall)  Warfield,  married 
second   John   Gaither,   whose   daughter,   Ptuth — Robert   Davis,   of' 
Woodstock. 


116      Founders  or  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

In  addition  to  this  line  of  Thomas  Davis,  of  Anne  Arundel,  there 
were  several  William  Davis's — father  and  son.  The  latter  held  an 
estate  of  Captain  John  Welsh.  ~  There  was  also  a  Henry  Davis,  and 
from  him  likely  descen<ied  Professor  Davis,  of  St.  John's  College, 
the  father  of  Hon.  Henry  Winter  Davis. 

JOHN  RANDALL,  SENIOR. 

This  founder  of  a  distinguished  line  of  sons  of  Maryland,  was 
born  in  what  is  now  Richmond  County,  Virginia,  then  a  part  of 
Westmoreland  Co.,  in  1750.  He  was  the  youngest  son  of  Thomas 
Randall,  who  came  from  England  in  the  early  part  of  that  century; 
settled  in  Westmoreland  County,  married  Jane  Davis,  a  daughter 
of  a  Virginia  planter;  became  a  large  land  holder  and  a  member  of  the 
Court  of  Justices  in  the  Northern  Neck  of  Virginia.  John  put  him- 
self under  the  tutelage  of  Mr.  Buckley,  of  Fredericksburg,  an  arch- 
itect and  builder,  who  designed  and  constructed  many  of  the  most 
celebrated  colonial  residences  and  public  buildings  in  Virginia  and 
Maryland.  He  came  to  Annapolis  in  1770,  where  he  designed  and 
constructed  several  of  the  most  admired  specimens  of  colonial  archi- 
tecture, among  the  rest,  what  is  now  known  as  the  Lockerman  or 
Harwood  House,  on  Maryland  Avenue,  Annapolis.  He  was  an 
earnest  upholder  of  the  rights  of  the  colonies  in  the  years  preceding 
the  Revolution,  but  earnestly  protested  against  the  repudiation  of 
debts  due  to  the  inhabitants  of  Great  Britian,  as  by  published  signed 
protests  of  that  day  appear.  At  the  outbreak  of  the  Revolution 
he  was  a  merchant  in  Annapolis  and  was  appointed,  under  a  commis- 
sion from  the  Governor  and  Council  and  afterwards  by  a  resolution 
of  the  Continental  Congress,  as  Commissary  in  the  Army.  He  served 
during  the  Revolution  as  an  officer  of  the  Maryland  Line  and  many 
of  his  letters  are  in  the  Archives  of  Maryland.  Returning  to  . 
Annapolis  after  the  war,  he  established  himself  there  as  a  merchant. 
President  Washington  appointed  him  Collector  of  the  Port  of 
Annapolis  and  he  held  that  position,  or  that  of  Navy  Agent,  until  his 
death  in  1826,  He  married  Deborah  Knapp,  of  Annapolis,  who 
survived  him  with  eleven  children  and  died  at  Annapolis  in  1852, 
ninety  years  of  age. 

DANIEL  RANDALL. 

Daniel  Randall,  son  of  John  Randall,  the  elder,  was  in  active 
service  during  the  War  of  1812,  as  a  volunteer,  and  thereafter  was 
commissioned  as  Paymaster  in  the  Regular  Army.  He  served. as 
such  during  the  Indian  Wars  and  the  Mexican  War  under  General 
Scott  and  was  at  the  time  of  his  death  in  1851,  Assistant  Pay- 
master General  and  in  charge  of  the  Pay-Department  of  the  Army. 

He  was  highly  esteemed  and  Fort  Randall,  then  on  the  frontier, 
was  named  after  him,  as  evidence  of  his  universal  popularity. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      117 

^  HENRY  K.  RANDALL. 

Henry  K.  Randall,  another  son  of  John  Randall,  the  elder,  was 
in  the  militia  during  the  War  of  1812;  was  then  appointed  an  officer 
in  the  Custom  House  in  the  City  of  Baltimore;  was  an  Agent  of  the 
Government  in  closing  up  the  affairs  of  the  Choctaw  Nation  in  Geor- 
gia and  for  many  years  afterwards  was  Chief  Clerk  of  Revolutionary 
Pensions  in  the  Treasury  Department.  He  married  Emily,  daughter 
of  Thomas  Munroe  of  Washington,  D.  C.  and  died  in  1877,  survived 
by  her  and  two  daughters,  Mrs.  William  B.  Webb  and  Mrs.  Henry 
Elliott.  He  was  a  large  real  estate  holder  in  Washington  and  did 
much  to  advance  the  prosperity  of  that  city. 

/  HON.  ALEXANDER  RANDALL. 

Honorable  Alexander  Randall  of  Annapolis,  son  of  John  Ran- 
dall, the  elder,  was  born  at  Annapolis  in  January  1803;  educated  at 
St.  John's  College,  from  which  he  obtained  his  B.  A.  and  M.  A. 
degrees;  practiced  law  for  over  fifty  years  in  Annapolis,  for  over 
twenty  years  in  partnership  with  his  nephew,  Alexander  B.  Hagner, 
afterwards  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Bench  of  the  District  of  Columbia. 
He  was  appointed  Auditor  of  the  Court  of  Chancery  by  Chancellor 
Bland.  In  1841  he  was  a  member  of  the  Congress  of  the  United 
States,  but  declined  a  re-nomination;  was  elected  by  the  Whig  Party. 
His  colleague  from  the  double  district,  as  then  constituted,  was 
Honorable  John  P.  Kennedy.  He  prepared,  as  member  of  the  Com- 
mittee on  the  District  of  Columbia,  a  Code  of  Laws  of  Maryland,  since 
the  separation  of  the  District,  which  were  deemed  important  to  be 
adopted  by  Congress  for  the  District,  and  they  were  added  to  the 
District  Code. 

He  was  a  member  of  the  Constitutional  Convention  of  1851  of 
Maryland  and  in  1864  was  elected  Attorney  General  of  Maryland. 
In  1877  he  retired  from  the  practice  of  law  and  became  the  President 
of  the  Farmers  National  Bank  of  Annapolis,  of  which  he  had  been 
a  Director  and  the  Attorney  from  early  life.  He  died  November 
20th  1881  at  his  residence,  in  Annapolis,  leaving  twelve  children  sur- 
viving him.  He  married  Catharine,  daughter  of  Honorable  William 
Wirt,  Attorney  General  of  the  United  States,  who  died  survived  by 
five  children; — his  second  wife  was  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  the  Rev. 
John  G.  Blanchard,  Assistant  Rector  of  St.  Paul's  Church,  Baltimore 
City,  who  survived  him  with  seven  children. 

During  many  years  Mr.  Alexander  Randall  was  a  Vestryman 
of  St  Anne's  Church,  Annapolis  and  a  member  of  the  Board  of 
Visitors  and  Governors  of  St.  John's  College.  He  was  a  delegate 
to  the  Diocesan  Conventions  of  his  church  for  many  years,  and 
several  times  a  deputy  from  Maryland  to  its  General  Conventions. 
He  founded  and  managed  for  many  years,  as  president,  the  Annap- 
olis Water  Company,  and  its  Gas  Company;  and  was  one  of  the 
active  promoters  and  directors  in  its  first  railroad  company  (the 


y/ 


118      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Annapolis  &  Elk-Ridge),  and  telegraph  company.  He  led  a  most 
active  and  useful  life — as  a  lawyer,  as  a  citizen  and  as  a  Christian 
— and  left  a  large  family  of  carefully  educated  and  trained  children, 
who  represent  his  influence  for  good,  both  in  Maryland  and  in  other 

BURTON  RANDALL,  M.  D. 

Burton  Randall,  M.  D.,  youngest  son  of  John  Randall,  Sr.,  was 
graduated  as  a  physician  at  the  University  of  Pennsylvania,  and 
was  appointed  assistant  surgeon  in  the  United  States  Army.  He 
had  a  long  and  active  service  through  the  Creek,  Seminole  and  other 
Indian  wars;  through  the  Mexican  War  and  on  the  frontiers.  Dur- 
ing the  Civil  War  he  had  charge  of  various  important  hospitals  and 
army  posts.  He  married  Virginia  Taylor,  a  niece  of  General  Zachary 
Taylor,  who  survived  him  with  two  children.  When  he  retired,  in 
1869,  he  held  the  brevet  rank  of  lieutenant-colonel  in  the  army, 
and  settled  at  Annapolis,  where  his  family  still  resides. 

JOHN  RANDALL,  JUNIOR. 

John  Randall,  Jr.,  eldest  son  of  John  Randall  and  Deborah 
(Knapp)  Randall,  lived  and  died  in  Annapolis,  leaving  no  descend- 
ants. He  was  a  farmer  and  also  a  partner  with  his  father  in  the 
merchantile  firm  of  Randall  &  Son,  at  Annapolis.  He  married 
Eliza  Hodges,  of  Anne  Arundel  County,  and  died  in  186L 

HON.  THOMAS  RANDALL. 

Hon.  Thomas  Randall  was  the  second  son  of  John  Randall,  the 
elder.  After  graduating  from  St.  John's  College,  Annapolis,  he 
studied  law  in  the  office  of  Chancellor  Johnson,  the  elder;  was  an 
officer  of  the  regular  army  during  the  War  of  1812,  severely  wounded 
in  one  of  the  battles  near  Niagara,  captured  by  the  British  and 
carried  to  Quebec;  made  a  remarkable  escape  from  prison  during 
the  depth  of  winter,  but  was  recaptured  and  exchanged  after  the 
war;  was  Captain  of  Artillery,  in  1820,  but  resigned  and  practiced 
law  in  Washington,  D.  C;  was  appointed  by  President  Monroe,  a 
Special  Agent  of  the  United  States  in  the  West  Indies,  to  endeavor 
to  stop  the  depredations  of  pirates  in  that  part  of  the  world;  was 
appointed,  in  1826,  Judge  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  Territory  of 
Florida,  where  he  settled  and  practiced  law,  with  his  nephew,  Thomas 
Hagner,  in  Tallahassee;  v/as  appointed  Adjutant  General  under 
Governor  Call,  during  the  Seminole  War.  He  married  Laura,  eldest 
daughter  of  the  Hon.  William  Wirt,  and  left  surviving  him,  in  1877, 
three  daughters  and  numerous  descendants. 

RICHARD  RANDALL,  M.  D. 

Richard  Randall,  M.  D.,  son  of  John  Randall,  the  elder,  was  a 
graduate  of  the  Medical  Department  of  the  University  of  Pennsyl- 
vania; settled  in  Washington,  D.  C,  where  he  had  a  large  practice. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      119 

He  was  one  of  the  founders  and  the  president  of  the  African  Colon- 
ization Society,  and  finally  went  out  to  Liberia  as  Governor.  He 
died  there  of  African  fever,  a  martyr  to  the  cause  of  African  Colon- 
ization. 

HON.  ALEXANDER  BURTON  HAGNER. 

Hon.  Alexander  Burton  Hagner,  born  July  13th,  1826,  in 
Washington,  was  son  of  Peter  Hagner,  for  many  years  a  First 
Auditor  of  the  Treasury,  and  Francis  Hagner,  who  was  a  daughter  of 
John  Randall,  the  elder,  of  Annapolis,  Maryland.  Mr.  Hagner  grad- 
uated at  Princeton  University,  in  1845,  read  law  and  practiced  law 
in  Annapolis,  with  his  uncle,  Hon.  Alexander  Randall.  He  was  one 
of  the  leaders  of  the  Maryland  Bar  and  engaged  in  many  important 
cases,  civil  and  criminal,  in  the  lower  courts  and  in  the  Court  of 
Appeals.  Also,  in  many  important  Naval  Court  Martials,  among 
others  he  was  of  counsel  for  the  defence  in  the  celebrated  prosecutions 
of  Mrs.  Warton  for  poisoning  General  Ketchum  and  Eugene  VanNess. 
He  served  as  special  judge  in  a  number  of  cases  in  Maryland,  under 
the  single  judge  system,  which  prevailed  prior  to  the  adoption  of 
the  Constitution  of  1867,  where  the  regular  judge  was  disqualified 
from  sitting.  He  was  elected  to  the  House  of  Delegates  of  Maryland, 
in  1854,  and  was  Chairman  of  the  Committee  of  Ways  and  Means; 
was  a  candidate  for  Congress,  in  1857,  and  again  in  1874,  but  was 
defeated.  In  1860,  he  was  a  Presidential  Elector  on  the  Bell  and 
Everett  ticket.  In  1879,  he  was  appointed  an  Associate  Justice  of 
the  Supreme  Bench  of  the  District  of  Columbia,  and  held  that  posi- 
tion until  his  resignation  of  it  in  1903.  During  his  long  service  on 
the  Bench,  he  presided  in  many  important  trials  and  wrote  many 
elaborate  and  important  opinions.  Among  the  chief  of  these  is  the 
opinion  in  what  was  known  as  "The  Potomac  Flats  Case,"  involv- 
ing the  government  ownership  of  the  extensive  flats  opposite  the 
City  of  Washington.  Judge  Hagner  wrote  that  opinion,  which  was 
adopted  by  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States,  and  which  is 
one  of  the  most  important  cases  in  its  results  upon  the  District 
welfare,  and  one  of  the  most  learned  and  able  opinions  to  be  found  in 
our  law  reports.  He  married  Louisa,  daughter  of  Randolph  Harrison, 
of  Virginia,  and  they  live  in  the  City  of  Washington,  D.  C. 

^  HON.  JOHN  WIRT  RANDALL. 

Hon.  John  Wirt  Randall,  son  of  Hon.  Alexander  and  Catherine 
(Wirt)  Randall,  born  at  Annapolis,  Maryland,  March  6th,  1845; 
educated  at  St.  John's  College,  Burlington  College,  New  Jersey, 
and  Yale  University;  read  law  in  his  father's  office,  who  was  then 
Attorney  General  of  Maryland;  admitted  to  the  Bar  in  1868.  He 
was  soon  after  appointed  Register  in  Bankruptcy  for  the  Fifth  Con- 
gressional District  of  Maryland,  by  Hon.  Salmon  P.  Chase,  Chief 
Justice  of  the  United  States,  who  had  been  a  student  in  the  office  of 
Wilham  Wirt  (Mr.  Randall's  grand-father)  whilst  Mr.  Wirt  was 
Attorney  General  of  the  United  States.     Mr.  Randall  served  three 


120      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

terms  as  Councilor  of  the  City  of  Annapolis;  revised  and  codified  its 
Ordinances  and  By-laws;  served  one  term  (1884)  in  the  House  of  Dele- 
gates, and  four  terms  (1888,  1890,  1896  and  1898)  in  the  Senate  of 
Maryland.  During  the  last  named  session  he  was  President  of  the 
Senate,  and  was  a  capable  and  dignified  presiding  officer.  He 
remodelled  the  financial  systems  of  the  City  of  Annapolis  and  of  Anne 
Arundel  County,  by  abolishing  the  old  Collectors  of  Taxes  and  creat- 
ing and  regulating  the  Treasurer  System;  remodelled  the  Public 
School  System  of  the  City  of  Annapolis,  and  provided  by-laws  and 
a  bonded  debt  for  the  erection  of  the  present  fine  public  school 
buildings  of  Annapolis,  and  their  management;  was  the  author, 
in  1884,  and  introducer  of  the  Joint  Resolutions  of  the  General 
Assembly  establishing  "Arbor  Day"  in  Maryland,  and,  in  1898,  of 
the  highly  approved  Road  Laws  of  Anne  Arundel  Covmty,  and  of 
many  other  valuable  general  and  local  statutes.  On  the  retire- 
ment of  his  father  from  the  law-firm  of  Randall  &  Hagner,  he 
succeeded  him  as  a  member  of  that  firm;  and  after  the  retire- 
ment of  the  Hon.  Alexander  B.  Hagner  from  the  firm,  by  reason  of 
his  elevation  to  the  Supreme  Bench  of  the  District  of  Columbia,  he 
associated  with  him  his  brother,  Daniel  R.  Randall,  recently  State's 
Attorney  for  Anne  Arundel  County — constituting  the  law-firm  of 
Randall  &  Randall.  Mr.  Randall  has  been,  since  1879,  a  director 
of  the  Farmers  National  Bank  of  Annapolis,  and  since  1881,  its 
president.  He  has  been,  since  1874,  a  Vestryman  and  the  treasurer 
of  St.  Anne's  Protestant  Episcopal  Church,  and  a  member  of  the 
Board  of  Visitors  and  Governors  of  St.  John's  College,  since  1881, 

He  has  represented  his  parish  for  many  years,  in  its  Diocesan 
Conventions,  and,  in  1901  and  1904,  was  chosen  by  that  Convention 
one  of  its  Lay  Deputies  to  the  General  Triennial  Conventions  of 
that  church. 

He  has  been  president  of  the  Maryland  Bankers  Association 
and  of  the  Maryland  Civil  Service  Reform  Association,  as  well  as 
of  various  industrial  companies,  organized  to  promote  the  prosperity 
of  his  native  city. 

He  is  fond  of  historical  studies  and  has  contributed  a  number 
of  papers  and  addresses  on  such  subjects.  In  1895,  at  the  request 
of  the  "  Baltimore  Sun,"  he  wrote  for  that  paper,  a  series  of  articles 
upon  what  was  then  known  as  "The  Eastern  Shore  Law,"  consid- 
ered historically  and  legally  being  the  law,  then  prevailing,  which 
required  that  one  of  the  two  United  States  Senators  from  Mary- 
land should  always  be  a  resident  of  the  Eastern  Shore.  In  1899, 
he  was  selected  by  the  City  of  Annapolis,  to  deliver  an  address,  as 
its  representative,  on  the  occasion  of  the  250th  anniversary  of  the 
settlement  of  Annapolis,  and  the  passage  of  the  Religious  Tolera- 
tion Act,  and  delivered  in  the  hall  of  the  House  of  Delegates,  an 
address,  which  was  published  by  the  city  in  pamphlet  form,  and 
much  admired  for  its  scholarly  and  historical  ability.  The  same  year 
he  delivered,  before  the  Maryland  Bankers  Convention,  on  invita- 
tion, an  address  on  "Colonial  Currencies,"  showing  the  peculiar- 


Founders  op  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      121 

ities  of  the  tobacco,  wampum  and  fur,  or  peltry  currencies  of  the 
early  colonies,  which  was  considered  as  a  masterly  treatment  of  the 
subject,  and  was  published  by  the  Convention.  Some  of  Mr.  John 
Wirt  Randall's  other  published  addresses  have  been,  "  Divorce,  and 
the  Marriage  of  Divorced  Persons,"  a  defense  of  the  existing  canons 
of  the  Protestant  Episcopal  Church  on  the  subject.  "The  Cen- 
tennial of  Maryland's  First  Banking  Institutions,"  delivered  before 
the  Convention  of  the  Maryland  Bankers  Convention,  in  1904. 
"Some  of  the  Wonders  of  Astronomy;"  "Christian  Manliness;" 
"  Lovers  of  the  Beautiful,  How  They  May  Show  Their  Faith  by 
Their  Works,"  an  address  delivered  before  the  Philokalian  Society 
at  St.  John's  College,  etc. 

He  married  Hannah  Parker  Parrott,  daughter  of  P.  P.  Parrott, 
of  Arden,  Orange  County,  New  York,  in  1879.  They  have  four 
children,  three  daughters  and  a  son.  Their  eldest  daughter  was 
married,  in  1902,  to  Wm.  Bladen  Lowndes,  son  of  Ex-Governor 
Lloyd  Lowndes.  Mr.  Randall  owns  and  occupies  his  father's  old 
homestead,  one  of  the  most  beautiful  and  interesting  of  the  old 
historic  houses  in  Annapolis,  with  ample  grounds  about  it,  facing 
upon  the  State  House  Circle. 

AMOS  GARRETT,  FIRST  MAYOR  OF  ANNAPOLIS. 

When  Annapolis  had  arisen,  in  1708,  to  the  dignity  of  a  city. 
Amos  Garrett,  its  wealthy  merchant,  was  its  mayor.  He  was  one 
of  the  largest  land  holders  in  the  county,  and  though  a  bachelor, 
he  seemed  to  buy  lands  simply  to  accommodate  those  who  needed 
money.  These  tracts  were  all  later  resurveyed  under  the  title, 
"Providence." 

There  is  no  better  evidence  of  the  Christian  character  of  this 
English  merchant  than  that  exhibited  in  his  will,  which  I  herein 
condense,  It  was  made  in  1714.  "I,  Amos  Garrett,  merchant, 
desire,  if  I  dye  in  Maryland,  to  be  interred  after  the  third  day  of 
decease.  That  there  be  in  the  house  now  occupied  by  Mr.  Howell, 
on  my  plantation,  preached  a  funeral  sermon,  and  that  the  gentle- 
man remind  all  present  to  employ  their  time  in  doing  good.  That 
my  executor  purchase  a  marble  tombstone.  I  desire  that  my  dear 
mother,  two  sisters,  brother-in-law,  any  of  my  nieces  or  nephews, 
to  see  it  performed.  That  at  my  funeral,  there  be  not  given  such 
plenty  of  liquors  as  is  usual,  but  that  many  people  coming  from 
far  thereto,  may  have  wine  and  cakes.  And,  if  it  cannot  be  gotten 
ready  at  my  funeral,  as  soon  after  my  decease  as  possible  there  be 
bought  by  my  executor,  at  the  best  hand,  one  thousand  pair  of 
men's  and  women's  deerskin  gloves,  and  ye  same  time  be  delivered 
out  to  the  poorest  of  my  customers,  husband  and  wife,  widower 
or  widow,  batchelor  or  old  maid,  each  one  pair,  and  an  account  be 
kept  to  whom  delivered. 

"My  funeral  cost  for  wine  and  cake  and  gloves  I  would  not 
have  exceed  two  hundred  pounds.  I  used  to  buy  good  thick  deer- 
skin gloves  for  two  shillings  and  six  pence  a  pair.     As  to  the  cost 


122      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

of  my  tombstone,  I  am  not  for  a  fine  one.  I  leave  that  to  the  dis- 
cretion of  those  concerned.  I  desire,  also,  the  following  books  to 
be  sent  for,  to  be  delivered  to  every  person  that  has  a  pair  of  gloves, 
and  can  read,  or  that  promises  to  take  all  opportunity  of  getting 
some  person  to  read  to  him  or  her.  Any  one  having  such  books 
shall  not  sell  them  but  they  shall  descend  to  the  next  of  kin.  The 
party  to  have  his  name  wrote  or  stamped  on  the  book. 

"List  of  books:  200  Bibles,  with  testaments  and  common 
prayer  book;  100  of  Dr.  Jeremy  Taylor's  Holy  Living  and  Dying.; 
100  of  ditto  Golden  Grove  and  Guide;  100  Dr.  Wm.  Sherlock  on 
Death;  100  of  Dr.  John  Goodman's  Penitent  Pardoned;  100  of 
Thomas  Doolittle's  on  Lord's  Suffering;  80  of  Dr.  AVm.  Bates 
Sermons;  100  of  Thomas  Wordworth's  Remains;  100  of  Matthew 
Meade's  Good  of  Early  Obedience;  20  of  John  Bonn's  Guide  to 
Eternity,  making  in  all  1,000  books. 

"  I  give  out  of  my  personal  estate,  to  the  children  of  my  sister, 
Mary  Woodard,  £600;  to  sister,  Elizabeth  Ginn,  £600;  To  loving 
mother,  £1,000;   to  my  brother-in-law,  Henry  Woodard,  £300. 

"To  Henry  Faces  and  Elizabeth,  his  wife,  daughter  of  Seth 
Garrett,  £100  and  one  lot  in  Annapolis,  where  a  free  school  is  kept. 
To  Thomas  Faces,  a  lot  in  Annapolis,  adjoining  John  Baldwin.  To 
James  Garrett,  of  Seth  of  London,  lots  in  Annapolis,  formerly  Chas. 
Killburnes.  To  niece  Elizabeth  Woodward,  daughter  of  Henry,  £300 
and  six  tracts  of  land;  to  niece  Mary  Woodward,  of  Henry,  £300 
and  six  tracts  of  land;  to  nephew,  William  Woodward,  £400  and  six 
tracts  of  land  and  tv.^o  lots  in  Annapolis;  to  Hannah  Woodward,  of 
Henry,  £300  and  six  tracts  of  land;  to  Amos  Woodward,  of  Henry, 
£500  and  six  tracts  and  two  lots,  in  Annapolis;  to  nephew  Garrett 
Woodward,  of  Henry,  £500  and  six  or  eight  tracts;  to  mother,  Sarah 
Garrett,  thirteen  tracts  and  four  lots,  in  Annapolis,  during  life,  to 
descend  to  sister  Elizabeth  Ginn;  to  the  Church  of  St.  Anne's,  for 
the  use  of  its  minister,  a  house  bought  of  Samuel  Dorsey,  and  four- 
teen tracts  of  land;  to  my  mother,  £100  for  mourning  rings  and 
such  memorials. 

"  In  witness  whereof  to  every  side  of  this  my  will  set  my  hand 
and  seal,  it  containing  sheets  of  paper  fairly  writ. — Amos  Garrett." 

On  March  29th,  1728,  was  exhibited  the  administration  bond 
of  Amos  Garrett,  in  common  form  by  Amos  Woodward,  his  admin- 
istrator, with  Samuel  Relee,  William  Chapman,  Caleb  Dorsey,  Rich- 
ard Warfield,  Richard  Hill  and  John  Beaie,  his  sureties,  in  sixty 
thousand  pounds  sterling,  dated  28th,  March,  1728,  which  bond  is 
ordered  to  be  filed.  At  the  same  time,  was  exhibited  by  said  Amos 
Woodward,  a  will  of  said  Amos  Garrett,  Esq.,  made  in  the  year, 
1714,  but  not  evidenced  or  executed,  which  at  the  request  of  said 
Amos  Woodward,  is  ordered  to  be  recorded  at  the  expense  of  the 
estate. 

The  tablet  seen  on  Mr.  Garrett's  tombstone,  in  St.  Anne's 
churchyard,  is  identical  with  the  words  of  his  will.  It  is  upon  a 
slab  of  white  marble,  with  a  griffin  rampant  surrounded  by  fieur 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      123 

di  lis,  with  the  following  inscription:  "Here  lieth  interred  the  body 
of  Mr.  Amos  Garrett,  of  the  City  of  Annapolis,  in  Anne  Arundel 
County,  in  the  Province  of  Maryland,  merchant,  son  of  Mr.  James 
and  Mrs.  Sarah  Garrett,  late  of  St.  Olive  Street,  Southwark,  then 
in  the  Kingdom  of  England,  now  a  part  of  Great  Brittian,  who 
departed  this  life  on  March  8th,  1727.     Aetatis  56." 

WOODWARDS. 

William  Woodward,  of  London,  sent  three  sons  to  Maryland. 
They  were  Henry  Woodward,  William  Woodward  and  Abraham 
Woodward. 

Henry  Woodward  located  upon  the  Patuxent,  and  married 
Mary  Garrett,  sister  of  Amos  Garrett,  the  wealthy  merchant  of 
AnnapoHs,  first  mayor  of  the  city.  They  had  issue,  William  Wood- 
ward, known  as  the  Goldsmith;  Mary — Mr.  Holmes,  of  England; 
Elizabeth — Benjamin  Baron,  of  Maryland;  Sarah — C.  Calhon,  of 
England.  Amos  Woodward,  of  Henry,  married  Achsah  Dorsey,  of 
Caleb  and  Elinor  (Warfield)  Dorsey.  Issue,  Mary,  Elinor,  Eliza- 
beth; Henry  Woodward,  only  son  of  Amos,  married  Mary  Young, 
daughter  of  Colonel  Richard  Young  and  Rebecca  Holsworth,  his 
wife,  of  Calvert  County.  Issue,  Rebecca — Philip  Rogers;  Eleanor — 
Samuel  Dorsey;  Mary — first,  Mr.  Govane,  second,  Samuel  Owings; 
Harriet — first.  Colonel  Edmund  Brice,  second,  Colonel  Alexander 
Murray;  Achsah  died  young. 

Mary  (Young)  Woodward — second  John  Hessilius  Artist. 

WilHam  Woodward,  of  William,  of  London,  left  three  children, 
Elizabeth,  Hannah  and  William., 

Abraham  Woodward,  (of  William  of  London) — first,  Elizabeth 
Firlor,  second,  Mrs.  Priscilla  Orrick,  widow  of  James  Orrick,     Issue,  , 

William,  Rebecca,  Martha,  Abraham,  Thomas,  Mary — Wm.  Tarris,  ^o-^^-^ 
Priscilla,  Henry,  Elizabeth  and  Eleanor, 

William  —  Alice  Ridgely,  daughter  of  WilHam  and  Jane 
(Westall)Ridgely.  Issue,  Jane — Nelson  Waters;  Henry — Mary  White; 
Abraham,  killed  in  the  Revolution;  William,  Jr. — Jane  Ridgely, 
daughter  of  William  and  Mary  Orrick.  Issue,  William — Mary 
Jacobs  and  went  west;  Henry,  born  1770;  Ahce — Stephen  Wat- 
kins;  Ann — William  Ridgely,  of  Allegheny;  Sarah — Mr.  Connand 
went  to  Tennessee.  ^ 

Henry  Woodward,  born  1770 — Eleanor  Turner  (widow),  daugh-  '' 

ter  of  Colonel  Thomas  Williams   and  Rachel   Duckett,   his  wife. 
Issue,    Jane   Maria — Judge   WilHam   Henry    Baldwin;     WilHam — '"  . 
Virginia    Burneston;      Henry    Williams    Woodward — first,    Sarah  ^ 
GambriU,  second,  Mary  E.  Webb;    Rignal  Duckett — second,  M.  J.  ^ 
Hall;   Rachel  Ann,  Eleanor,  and  Martha  Ridgely — James  RawHngs. 

Henry  Williams  Woodward  and  Sarah  GambriU,  of  Augustine, 
had  issue,  Juliet — Professor  Phil.  Moore  Leakin.  Issue,  Mrs. 
Robert  Welsh,  of  Baltimore;  Phil.  Moore  Leakin,  of  New  York,  and 
a  brother  in  Baltimore. 


124      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Henry  Williams  Woodward — second,  Mary  Edge  Webb.  Issue, 
William  Woodward,  born  December  31st,  1835,  died  March  20th, 
1889,  and  James  T.  Woodward,  president  of  the  Hanover  Bank, 
New  York.     (Elsewhere  recorded.) 

William  Woodward  was  a  cotton  merchant,  and  one  of  the 
founders  of  the  Cotton  Exchange.  In  1864,  he  removed  from 
Baltimore  to  New  York,  where  he  died.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
Union,  Manhattan,  Yacht  Club,  Lewannaka,  Tuxedo,  South  Side 
Fishing  Club,  Racket,  and,  also,  member  of  the  Baltimore  and 
Washington  clubs.  He  married,  September  27th,  1865,  Sarah 
Abigail,  daughter  of  Samuel  and  Mary  (Peckham)  Rodman,  of 
■Rhode  Island.  Issue  Mary  Edge,  Julia  Rodman,  Edith  and  William 
Woodward,  graduate  of  Harvard,  class  of  '98,  and  of  the  Harvard 
Law  School,  of  1901.  His  clubs  are  Institute  Porcellain,  Institute 
Zees. 

Jas.  T.  Woodward,  of  New  York,  holds  the  homestead,  "  Edge- 
wood,"  just  north  of  Gambrill's  Station.  It  was  his  birthplace. 
Mr.  James  T.  Woodward  went  to  New  York  soon  after  the  war, 
and  became  connected  with  the  importing  house  of  Ross,  Campbell 
&  Co.  His  good  business  judgment  and  habit  of  observing  closely 
the  conditions  of  trade  throughout  the  general  field,  gave  value  to 
his  opinions  on  commercial  matters.  In  the  early  seventies  he 
became  a  director  in  the  Hanover  Bank.  His  acquaintance  among 
the  important  men  of  the  financial  district  was  broadening,  his 
experience  was  ripening. 

In  1877,  the  large  interest  of  the  well-known  bankers  J.  &  I. 
Stewart,  in  the  Hanover  Bank,  was  bought  by  Mr.  Woodward  and 
his  late  brother,  William  Woodward,  Jr.  He  was  elected  to  the 
presidency  of  the  bank,  and  retired  from  the  importing  firm  in  which 
he  had  become  a  partner. 

Mr.  Woodward  has  been  president  of  the  Hanover  Bank  since 
that  time.  When  he  assumed  the  presidency  the  deposits  of  the 
bank  were  $6,000,000;  they  are  now  $45,000,000.  There  could  be 
no  more  striking  evidence  of  the  wisdom  of  his  management. 

The  fact  that  he  has  brought  his  bank  to  be  one  of  the  three 
leading  banks  of  the  City  of  New  York,  is  ample  proof  that  he  has 
won  and  enjoys  the  confidence  of  the  business  community.  But 
Mr.  Woodward  has  a  broader  sphere  of  influence  than  that.  His 
attentive  observation  of  the  money  market,  now  a  fixed  habit,  has 
made  him  a  man  to  be  consulted  in  the  financial  district.  In  the 
preliminary  discussions  of  large  investments,  in  investigations  that 
precede  bond  sales  by  the  United  States  Treasury,  and  in  the 
determination  of  financial  policies,  Mr.  Woodward's  views  are 
influential  and  always  incline  to  the  side  of  safety  and  prudence. 

He  has  a  characteristically  positive  way  of  expressing  his  opin- 
ions, which  is  often  observed  in  men  whose  conclusions  are  the  fruit 
of  ripe  thought,  and  may,  therefore,  be  given  with  confidence.  At 
a  meeting  of  the  Clearing  House  Association,  held  on  October  4th, 
last,  Mr.  Woodward,  although  he  had  not  sought  the  place,  was 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      125 

elected  president  of  the  Association;  an  office,  at  once,  of  both 
dignity  and  responsibility.  The  Clearing  House  is  the  vigilant 
guardian  of  the  financial  interests  of  the  commercial  community, 
and  a  tower  of  observation  over  all  banks;  guarantor  to  the  business 
public  that  no  bank  can  go  far  into  imprudence  without  detection. 

Like  a  wise  man,  Mr.  Woodward  looks  also  to  the  pleasant 
things  of  life,  as  the  means  for  banishing  cares. 

Though  a  model  of  punctuality,  when  duty  calls,  yet  when  the 
season  and  weather  are  propitious,  he  comes  to  visit  his  plantations 
in  Anne  Arundel,  near  Gambrill's  Station,  and  in  Prince  George,  at 
Collington,  to  hunt  across  country,  maintaining  the  old  favorite 
pastime  of  his  colonial  ancestors.  He  delights  to  have  his  social 
companions  of  New  York  join  him,  at  his  bachelor  quarters,  during 
the  hunting  season.  Amiable,  agreeable  and  entertaining,  his  friends 
are  lasting  and  loyal. 

He  is  a  member  of  numerous  clubs,  among  them  being  the  Union, 
the  Knickerbocker,  the  Metropolitan,  the  Tuxedo,  and  the  Riding 
Club. 

Mr.  Woodward  is  also  taking  interest  in  developing  the  useful- 
ness of  St.  John's  College.  Woodward  Hall  has  been  erected  to  his 
name.  He  has  also  succeeded  in  paying  off  the  debt  upon  St.  John's. 
After  the  inauguration  of  Governor  Warfield,  Mr.  Woodward  brought 
a  tally-ho  party  from  New  York,  to  call  upon  him  at  the  govern- 
ment house. 

SKETCH  OF  THE  LIFE  OF  THE  LATE  RIGNAL  T. 

WOODWARD,  OF  ABINGTON  FARM,  MILLERSVILLE, 

ANNE  ARUNDEL  COUNTY,  MD. 

Rignal  T.  Woodward  was  born  at  Abington  Farm,  Anne  Arundel 
County,  Maryland,  his  father's  place.  His  father  was  the  Hon.  Rignal 
Duckett  Woodward,  the  third  son  of  Henry  Woodward,  of  Anne 
Arundel  County,  and  his  wife,  Eleanor  Williams,  of  Prince  George 
County.  His  mother  was  a  Miss  Elizabeth  Hardisty,  whose  mother 
was  Miss  Hodges.  The  Hon.  Rignal  Duckett  Woodward  was  a 
planter,  one  time  sheriff  of  the  county,  and  for  a  number  of  years, 
presiding  justice  of  the  Orphans  Court.     He  died  in  1888.  > 

Rignal  T.  Woodward  was  educated  at  the  Academy  at  Millers- 
ville.  His  father  wanted  him  to  go  to  college,  but  he  preferred  to 
go  into  business.  When  he  was  seventeen  years  old  he  entered  the 
office  of  his  uncle  Mr.  William  Woodward,  a  commission  merchant, 
doing  business  in  the  city  of  Baltimore  under  the  firm  name  of 
William  Woodward  &  Co.  Later  the  firm  name  was  changed  to  Wood- 
ward, Baldwin  &  Co.  In  1863,  the  firm  opened  an  office  in  New 
York  City,  and  he  was  sent  there.  In  October,  1863,  he  was 
admitted  into  the  firm  as  a  partner.  On  January  26th,  1864,  he 
married  Mary  H.  Raborg,  the  eldest  daughter  of  Dr.  Christopher 
H.  Raborg,  of  Baltimore.     By  her  he  had  eight  children,  namely: 


126      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Mary  Raborg,  born  December  19th,  1864,  died  August  10th, 
1865;  Rignal  Duckett,  December  28th,  1865;  Christopher  Raborg 
born  January  24th,  1867,  died  August  16th,  1868;  Wilham  Baird, 
born  April  4th,  1868,  died  August  18th,  1868;  Christopher  H.  R., 
born  May  31st,  1869;  Mary  Raborg,  born  December  16th,  1870; 
Charles  Woodward,  born  June  2nd,  1872;  Elijah,  born  July  14th, 
1874. 

Mr.  Woodward  continued  to  reside  in  New  York  City  until  May, 
1898,  when  he  moved  to  Morristown,  New  Jersey.  His  wife,  Mary  H. 
(Raborg)  Woodward,  died  March  5th,  1900.  On  the  death  of  his 
father,  Mr.  Woodward  became  the  owner  of  Abington  Farm.  On 
February  5th,  1902,  he  married  JuHa  Winchester  Bowling,  daughter 
of  Chief  Justice  Benjamin  Winchester,  of  Louisiana.  The  death 
of  Mr.  Woodward  was  recently  announced  in  the  Baltimore  Sun. 
The  interment  was  in  his  native  county. 

Wilham  Woodward,  (of  Henry,  of  Wilham,  of  London,)  and  Jane, 
his  wife,  had  William  Garrett  Woodward  and  Maria  G.  Woodward, 
who  became  Mrs.  Edmiston,  of  London.  A  letter  from  the  former 
to  the  latter,  giving  a  good  view  of  the  trying  days  in  which  he 
lived,  and  containing  some  genealogical  information,  is  still  pre- 
served by  his  descendants. 

Wilham  Garrett  Woodward  married  Dinah  Warfield,  daughter 
of  Alexander  and  Dinah  Davidge.     They  had  two  daughters. 

Maria  Graham  became  the  second  wife  of  Captain  Henry  Bald- 
win; Ehzabeth  Woodward  became  the  second  wife  of  Alexander 
Warfield,  of  Sam's  Creek, 

Wilham  Woodward,  late  head  of  Woodward,  &  Baldwin  &  Co., 
of  Baltimore,  leading  dry-goods  merchants,  descendant  of  Henry  and 
Eleanor  (Williams)  Woodward,  removed  to  Baltimore,  and  entered 
the  house  of  Mullikin  &  Co.  He  later  formed  the  partnership  of 
Jones  &  Woodward,  which  was  merged  into  Woodward,  Baldwin 
&  Co.  Mr.  Woodward  was  an  organizer  of  the  first  temperance 
society  of  Maryland.  He  was  a  director  in  numerous  institutions. 
His  wife  was  Virginia  Barnetson,  of  Baltimore.  Six  daughters  and 
three  sons  are  their  heirs. 

Mr.  Woodward  was  ranked  as  a  christian  philanthropist,  and 
an  enterprising  man  '  of  business,  worthy  to  succeed  the  great 
merchant,  Amos  Garrett,  of  Annapolis. 

Thomas  Woodward,  son  of  Abraham,  of  William,  lived  at  Wood- 
wardville,  in  Anne  Arundel,  upon  the  Patuxent.  He  married  Mrs. 
Margaret  I  jams,  nee  Margaret  Waters.  Issue,  Abraham,  Nicholas 
R.,  Priscilla.  Nicholas  R.  Woodward  married  Margaret  Mullikin, 
and  left  Sophia  Hall — Richard  Anderson;  Eliza  Ann,  Catherine M. 
— Jacob  Strider.  By  a  second  wife,  Sarah  Gambrill,  Nicholas  R. 
Woodward  had  John  Randolph — Caroline  V.  Gardner;  Abraham 
. — Annie  Anderson;  Emily  R.  Nicholas;  Daniel  Dodge — Jennie 
nderson. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      127 

Mr.  William  Nicholas  Woodward,  son  of  John  Randolph  Wood- 
ward, is  now  Deputy  Clerk  of  Anne  Arundel.  He  married  Jennie 
G.  Ashwell,  of  New  Jersey.  His  sisters  are,  Mrs.  Laura  M.  Moore, 
of  West  Virginia,  and  Annie  V.  Woodward. 

Mr.  Woodward  was  born  at  Woodwardville.  He  has  a  place 
south  of  Gambrill's  Station,  and  also  holds  the  old  Dorsey  property 
near  Savage.  He  resides  in  Annapolis,  and  has  recently  purchased 
a  property  upon  Murray  Hill. 

THE  PINKNEY  FAMILY. 

In  the  house  just  opposite  the  Chase  mansion,  afterward  owned 
by  the  Lockerman  and  Harwood  families,  was  born  William  Pink- 
ney,  the  fifth  Bishop  of  Maryland.  His  paternal  grandfather, 
Jonathan  Pinkney  settled  in  Annapolis  before  the  Revolution.  He 
was  a  sturdy  Englishman,  but  "  He  adhered  with  a  mistaken,  but 
honest  firmness,  to  the  cause  of  the  mother  country,  and  suffered 
severely  the  consequences  of  his  conscientiousness."  All  of  his 
property  was  confiscated. 

The  five  children  of  Jonathan  Pinkney  by  his  two  wives,  both 
sisters,  were  Margaret,  Nancy,  Jonathan,  William  and  Ninian. 

Jonathan,  Jr.,  was  cashier  of  the  Farmers  Bank  of  Maryland. 
He  left  a  large  family.  William  became  the  great  lawyer  and  states- 
man, whose  history  is  given  below.  The  third  son,  Ninian,  was  the 
father  of  Bishop  Pinkney,  of  Maryland.  He  was  twice  married;  his 
first  wife  was  a  sister  of  Mr.  Louis  Gassaway,  but  left  no  heirs;  the 
second  was  Mrs.  Amelia  Grason  Hobbs,  a  widow  with  three  children. 
She  was  the  daughter  of  Richard  Grason,  of  Talbot  County,  and 
sister  of  the  governor.  The  children  by  Mr.  Pinkney  were  Amelia, 
William  and  Ninian. 

The  father  held  the  important  position  of  "Clerk  of  the  Council" 
for  thirty  years.  Mrs.  Pinkney's  vivid  remembrances  of  both  wars 
are  extant,  and  are  reproduced  in  Rev.  Orlando  Hutton's  life  of 
Bishop  Pinkney. 

After  removing  from  their  home  on  Maryland  Avenue,  the 
family  lived,  until  the  death  of  Mrs.  Pinkney,  in  a  frame  cottage, 
under  the  shadow  of  the  Naval  Academy,  and  close  to  the  then 
governor's  palace.  In  1853,  the  site  was  sold  to  the  government, 
but  Mrs.  Pinkney  was  allowed  to  remain  during  life. 

William  Pinkney,  second  son  of  the  English  settler,  was  a 
student  of  King  William's  School.  It  is  related  that  Judge  Samuel 
Chase,  towards  the  close  of  the  American  war,  stepping  one  day  into 
a  debating  society,  was  astonished  at  the  eloquence  of  a  young  drug 
clerk.  Seeking  him  out,  the  Judge  urged  him  to  study  law.  The 
young  clerk  made  known  his  necessities,  whereupon  Judge  Chase 
offered  him  his  library,  which  was  accepted.  The  young  man  was 
William  Pinkney.  Admitted  to  the  bar  in  1786,  he  afterwards 
became  "the  wonder  of  his  age." 


128      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

In  1788,  William  Pinkney  was  a  delegate  to  the  convention 
which  ratified  the  Constitiution  of  the  United  States.  He  was 
later  a  member  of  the  House,  Senate  and  Council.  In  1796,  was 
commissioner  under  the  Jay  treaty.  In  1805,  was  Attorney-Gen- 
eral of  Maryland.  In  1806,  was  minister  to  England.  In  1811, 
was  Attorney-General  of  the  United  States. 

At  the  battle  of  Bladensburg,  in  1812,  he  commanded  a 
volunteer  company,  and  was  wounded.  He  handed  down  to  his 
distinguished  relative.  Bishop  William  Pinkney,  of  Bladensburg,  a 
statement  giving  the  cause  of  that  disastrous  defeat  as  a  want  of 
both  powder  and  preparation.  Mr.  Pinkney  was  in  Congress  in 
1815,  and  a  minister  to  Russia  in  1816.  Upon  his  return,  he  was 
given  an  ovation  in  his  native  city.  In  1819,  he  was  elected  United 
States  Senator,  which  he  held  until  his  death  in  1822. 

The  latest  Pinkney  homestead,  in  Annapolis,  stood  facing  the 
State  House.  The  site  is  now  occupied  by  the  new  State  building  for 
the  Court  of  Appeals  and  State  Library,  but  the  Pinkney  building 
was  removed  intact,  to  a  site  opposite  College  Green.  It  is  still 
held  by  his  descendants. 

HON.  REVERDY  JOHNSON. 

Honorable  Reverdy  Johnson  was  born  at  Annapolis,  21st  of 
May,  1796,  in  the  house,  the  beautiful  park  of  which,  extends  to 
State  House  Circle,  now  the  property  of  Hon.  J.  Wirt  Randall. 

Mr.  Johnson  was  educated  at  St.  John's  College,  and  at  seven- 
teen years  of  age,  began  the  study  of  law.  He  was  the  son  of  Hon. 
John  Johnson,  Judge  of  the  Court  of  Appeals  and  Attorney-Gen- 
eral of  Maryland,  who  married  Deborah  Ghiselen,  daughter  of 
Reverdy  Ghiselen,  long  commissioner  of  the  Land  Office  at  Annapolis. 

Reverdy  Johnson  commenced  his  career  at  Marlborough.  His 
first  attempt  was  a  failure.  He  became  discouraged  and  thought 
of  giving  it  up;  but  upon  the  advice  of  Judge  Edmund  Key,  of 
that  judicial  circuit,  determined  to  continue.  He  was  appointed 
State's  Attorney  for  Prince  George,  in  1817.  Two  years  later  removed 
to  Baltimore,  where  he  made  the  reputation  of  a  profound  student  of 
law.  With  Mr.  Thomas  Harris,  he  reported  the  decisions  of  the 
Maryland  Court  of  Appeals  (seven  volumnes). 

In  1821,  he  was  elected  a  State  Senator  and  re-elected  in  1825. 
In  1845,  was  chosen  United  States  Senator;  resigning,  in  1849,  to 
accept  the  office  of  Attorney-General  under  President  Taylor.  He 
was  a  member  of  the  Peace  Commission,  in  1861;  was  elected 
United  States  Senator  again  in  1862.  In  1868,  General  Grant 
appointed  him  minister  to  England,  where  he  negotiated  the  treaty 
for  the  settlement  of  the  Alabama  claims.  This  treaty  was  rejected 
and  he  was  recalled  in  1869.  Though  a  Unionist,  he  voted,  in  1866, 
against  the  impeachment  of  President  Johnson. 

Reverdy  Johnson  married  Mary  Mackall  Bowie,  daughter  of 
Governor  Robert  Bowie.  Her  portrait,  painted  by  Sully,  whilst  at 
the  Court  of  St.  James,  is  now  in  the  Peabody  Institute.     She  was 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      129 

the  financial  manager  of  the  household  that  he  might  be  free  for 
public  duties.  In  1869,  they  celebrated  their  golden  wedding.  She 
died  in  1873,  and  he  in  1876,  whilst  a  guest  at  the  governor's  man- 
sion in  Annapolis,  within  a  stone's  throw  of  his  birthplace,  and  in 
sight  of  his  Alma  Mater. 

SAPPINGTON  FAMILY. 

The  records  of  All  Hallows  show  two  brothers,  Thomas  and 
John  Sappington,  near  South  River.  They  had  clearly  come  down 
the  bay  from  the  homestead  of  Nathaniel  Sappington,  of  Cecil 
County,  whose  home  was  near  the  Sassafras  River. 

The  will  of  Thomas  Rutland,  of  South  River,  probated  1731, 
names  his  son,  Thomas  ;  daughter,  Elizabeth  Stuart;  grandson, 
Thomas  Sappington,  and  granddaughter,  Jeane,  child  of  daughter 
Ann  Wayman,  wife  of  Leonard  Wayman. 

The  records  of  All  Hallows  show  the  marriage  of  Thomas 
Sappington  to  Mary  Rutland,  and  the  birth  of  their  son,  Thomas 
Sappington,  legatee  of  Thomas  Rutland.  John  Sappington,  of  All 
Hallows,  located  his  son,  John  Sappington,  Jr.,  upon  the  estate  known 
as  "Sappington,"  upon  which  still  stands  the  quaint  little  college 
at  Sappington  Station,  of  the  Annapolis  &  Elk  Ridge  railroad.  The 
present  house  is  claimed  to  have  been  built  by  Caleb  Sappington, 
of  John,  Jr.     It  is  an  interesting  relic  of  earlier  days. 

The  Sappington  family  will  be  continued  in  Howard  Coimty 
records. 

RUTLAND  FAMILY. 

Thomas  Rutland,  the  settler,  married  a  daughter  of  Thomas 
Linthicum.  Three  succeeding  Thomas  Rutlands  follow.  The  daugh- 
ters of  the  first  were,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Stuart,  Mrs.  Ann  Wayman  and 
Mrs.  Mary  Sappington.  Thomas  Rutland's  wiU,  of  1783,  names  his 
descendants. 

The  second  Thomas  Rutland  married  Ann  Beale  daughter  of 
John  and  Elizabeth  Norwood,  daughter  of  Andrew  by  his  wife, 
Elizabeth  Howard,  of  Captain  Cornelius.  The  will  of  Mrs.  Thomas 
Rutland,  in  1773,  names  her  aunt,  Hannah  Norwood. 

She  gave  a  pair  of  sleeve  buttons  to  Mary  Snowden,  daughter 
of  Eliza  (Rutland)  Snowden,  but  left  the  bulk  of  her  estate  to  the 
daughters  of  her  sister,  Elizabeth  (Nicholson)  Dorsey.  Those  nieces 
were  Ann  Beale,  Eliza  Harrison  and  Mary  Dorsey.  The  will  of 
Joseph  Howard  shows  'his  daughter  married  another  Thomas 
Rutland.  There  was  a  row  of  houses  in  AnnapoHs,  built  by  Thomas 
Rutland,  the  large  importing  merchant  of  AnnapoHs. 

RANDALL. 

Early  among  the  land  holders  of  North  Severn,  was  Christopher 
Randall,  who  held  "Randall's  Range,"  "Randall's  Fancy"  and 
"Randall's  Purchase."     He  died  in  1684,  when  an  inventory  of  his 


130      Founders  of  Anne  Aeundel  and  Howard  Counties, 

estate  returned  by  Matthew  Howard,  shows  his  wife  was  Joan. 
Richard  Owings,  a  brother-in-law  of  Thomas  Randall,  son  of  Christo- 
pher, was  a  debtor,  and  Christopher,  Jr.,  Thomas  Randall  and  one 
sister  were  the  heirs.     All  these  removed  to  Baltimore  County. 

Closely  connected  with  this  Randall  family  were  the  English 
merchants,  Thomas  and  Anthony  Bale,  written  in  the  chancery 
records  as  both  Bale  and  Beal.  The  will  of  Urath  Bale,  who  names 
her  aunt,  Hannah  Randall,  is  on  record  at  Annapolis.  Hannah 
Bale  became  the  wife  of  Thomas  Randall,  who  died  in  1722.  Her 
will,  of  1727,  names  her  son,  Christopher,  and  her  daughter,  Urath 
(Urith),  later  wife  of  Samuel  Owings,  of  Owings  Mills. 

Mrs.  Hannah  Randall  also  named  her  daughter-in-law,  Catherine, 
wife  of  Christopher,  her  son,  and  leaves  a  ring  to  her  brother-in-law, 
Christopher  Randall,  whose  wife  was  Ann.  The  latter  left  a  will, 
in  Baltimore,  naming  his  sons,  Roger,  Aquilla  and  John.  The  latter 
heired  the  Anne  Arundel  estate.  The  daughters  were  Johanna,  Ruth 
and  Rachel, 

Christopher  and  Thomas  united,  in  1710,  in  selling  "Randall's 
Range"  to  John  Harwood. 

Both  branches  of  this  family  live  in  the  neighborhood  of  Ran- 
dallstown  and  Owings  Mill.  The  estate  of  Samuel  Owings  occu- 
pied a  pretty  large  slice  of  Baltimore  County,  and  all  through  the 
West  are  descendants  who  still  bear  the  name  of  Urith,  handed 
down  from  "Urath  Bale." 

Captain  John  Randall,  of  Anne  Arundel,  held  "a  flat,"  in  1731, 
from  which  a  man  fell  and  was  drowned. — (St.  Paul  Records.) 

Richard  Randall,  of  Anne  Arundel,  owned  "Tower  Hill."  His 
heirs  were  Margaret,  Elizabeth  and  John  Randall.  They  sold  this 
tract  in  1792.  Richard  Randall's  sisters  were,  Elizabeth — Ben- 
jamin Atwell,  in  1799;  Lorena — Frederick  Goatee,  in  1800;  Atridge 
— John  Smith,  1807;  Ruth — Joseph  Norman,  1792;  Anna — George 
Kirby,  1798. 

Another  Anne  Arundel  branch  of  the  family  was  Catherine  Ran- 
dall, whose  will,  of  1729,  names  "her  son  Robert  Welsh,"  and  her 
grandsons,  James  Lewis  and  Robert  Welsh,  and  gave  them  "Town 
Hill"  and  "Diligent  Search." 

The  present  Randall  family,  of  Annapolis,  comes  from  a 
Virginia  settler,  who  came  up  much  later  than  Christopher  Randall. 

This  branch  will  elsewhere  be  given. 

JOHN  GILL. 

John  Gill  was  born  in  Annapolis,  August  15th,  1841.  His 
father  was  Richard  W.  Gill,  son  of  John  Gill,  of  Alexandria,  Virginia, 
and  his  mother  was  Miss  Ann  E.  Deale,  daughter  of  Captain  James 
Deale,  of  Anne  Arundel  County. 

In  an  autobiography  of  his  early  life  General  Gill  writes: 
"My  father  died  when  I  was  about  ten  years  old.     My  mother 
was  left  with  four  children — two  girls  and  two  boys.     Fortunately, 
my  father  had  left  an  estate  sufficient  to  provide  comfortably  for 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      131 

all  of  us,  and  my  mother,  a  woman  of  most  excellent  sense  and  judg- 
ment, made  the  best  possible  disposition  of  her  income,  with  the 
view  of  educating  her  children. 

"  My  father's  death  left  a  scar  that  time  could  never  efface.  One 
of  his  associates  at  the  bar,  in  announcing  his  death  to  a  full  bench 
of  the  Court  of  Appeals  of  Maryland,  said:  'I  will  not  attempt  to 
eulogize  the  dead,  but  I  cannot  refrain  from  saying  that  I  have 
never  known  one  who  more  deservedly  and  universally  possessed 
the  esteem  of  all  who  knew  him.' 

"  For  several  years  after  my  father's  death  we  were  all  kept  at 
home.  My  mother  secured  a  most  excellent  governess,  a  Miss  Boyce, 
who  proved  most  satisfactory,  and  was  liked  so  much  that  she  soon 
became  part  of  our  household. 

"At  the  age  of  about  fifteen,  I  was  sent  to  the  preparatory 
school  of  St.  John's  College,  In  1856,  my  mother  and  sisters  con- 
cluded that  it  was  best  for  me  to  go  to  a  boarding  school,  and  the 
Lawrenceville  High  School,  near  Princeton,  New  Jersey,  was  selected. 

"  I  shall  never  cease  being  grateful  to  my  mother  for  sending  me 
to  this  school.  At  the  head  of  it  was  a  very  distinguished  educator. 
Dr.  Samuel  Hamill,  well  known  throughout  the  country,  and  the 
best  man  I  ever  knew  to  train  boys  in  the  way  they  should  go.  I  was 
graduated  at  Lawrenceville  in  the  fall  of  1859,  and  from  there  went 
to  the  University  of  Virginia. 

"  At  the  outbreak  of  the  Civil  War,  I  enlisted  as  a  private  soldier 
in  the  Confederate  Army." 

General  Gill  came  to  Baltimore  after  the  war,  and  went  into  the 
grain  business,  establishing  the  firm  of  Gill  &  Fisher.  This  firm  is 
still  in  existence,  and  Mr.  Charles  D.  Fisher,  the  original  partner  of 
General  Gill,  is  still  a  member.  General  Gill,  however,  retired  from 
the  firm  about  twenty  years  ago,  to  become  president  of  the  Mer- 
cantile Trust  and  Deposit  Company  on  its  organization.  He  is  fond  of 
relating  his  early  experience  in  the  grain  trade,  which  was  before  the 
establishment  of  the  present  perfect  system  of  elevators  and  inspec- 
tions. He  said  his  firm  employed  its  own  inspectors  and  weighers, 
and  he  would  frequently  meet  incoming  vessels,  with  cargoes 
of  southern  wheat  and  corn,  some  distance  down  the  harbor,  and 
have  all  terms  of  its  purchase  and  its  inspection  settled  by  the  time 
it  reached  the  steamship  which  was  to  take  it  aboard.  He  prides 
himself  on  the  fact  that,  in  1879  and  in  1880,  his  firm  sent  out 
about  five  hundred  cargoes  of  grain  to  foreign  ports. 

General  Gill  married  a  daughter  of  Mr.  W.  W.  Spence,  and  has 
five  children,  all  daughters.  He  is  still  hale  and  hearty,  and  in  full 
possession  of  all  his  faculties,  mental  and  physical.  Few  in  his 
employ  have  the  same  capacity  for  work  as  General  Gill;  and  his 
tireless  energy  in  the  many  intricate  financial  problems  with  which  he 
has  had  to  deal,  has  frequently  caused  astonishment  to  his  asso- 
ciates and  fellow  workers. 


132      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

^  JOHN  MARRIOTT. 

Following  close  upon  the  Howards  and  Porters  of  the  Severn, 
we  find  John  Marriott,  in  1681,  living  upon  Peter  Porter's  plantation, 
at  Indian  Landing.  At  that  time  the  Indians  had  made  an  attack 
upon  his  household,  and  Mrs.  Marriott  had  been  compelled  to  seek 
her  neighbors'  protection.  She  was  Sarah  Acton,  of  the  AnnapoUs 
family. 

In  his  will,  of  1718,  John  Marriott  names  a  large  family,  viz.: 
"To  son  Joseph,  my  tract,  'Cordwell,'  where  he  lives.  To  son 
Emanuel,  'Hereford'  and  dwelhng.  To  son  John,  the  remaining 
part  of  'Hereford'  and  one  hundred  acres  of  'Brookslys  Point.'  To 
two  sons,  Augustine  and  Silvanus,  the  remainder  of  '  Brookslys,'  and, 
also,  four  hundred  and  forty  acres  out  of  'Shepherd's  Forest,'  on  the 
Patuxent.  I  give  to  John  Riggs,  fifty  acres  of  'Shepherd's  Forest.' 
(The  English  wills  show  a  close  connection  between  Marriott  and 
Riggs).  I  give  to  Henry  Sew  ell  the  sum  of  forty  shillings,  and  to 
Wm.  Stevens  a  like  amount.  To  daughter,  Ann  Gambrill,  I  give 
£5.  To  daughter,  Sarah  Marriott,  I  give  £30.  The  balance  to  my 
five  sons,  Joseph,  Emanuel,  John,  Augustine  and  Silvanus." 

Joseph  and  Augustine  were  executors.  Peter  Porter,  Wm. 
Stevens  and  Edward  Benson  were  witnesses. 

John  Sewell's  wife,  Mary  Marriott,  was  a  descendant  of  John 
Marriott,  who  was  a  large  land-holder  on  the  Severn  River  about 
1667.  John  Marriott's  wife,  Sarah  Acton,  was  a  daughter  of  Rich- 
ard Acton,  who  settled  on  the  Severn  River,  in  1651,  at  "Acton's 
Hill,"  now  called  "Murray's  Hill,"  Annapolis.  He  came  with  that 
celebrated  colony  from  Sewell's  Point,  Virginia. 

A  similarity  of  Christian  names  again  occurs  at  this  time,  in 
England  and  Maryland,  and  shows  close  connections,  mentioned  so 
prominently  by  Sir  Bernard  Burke,  in  his  Peerage,  Landed  Gentry 
and  Armory  and  Heraldr}'',  running  back  previous  to  the  arrival 
of  William  the  Conqueror.  The  Marriotts  are  also  mentioned  by 
Burke  as  having  arrived  in  England  with  William  the  Conqueror — 
three  brothers,  viz. :  Rudolphus,  Guillermus  and  Augustine  Marriott. 
Burke  also  states  that  there  was  an  Augustine  Marriott  living  in 
London,  1689. 

John  Marriott,  the  pioneer  in  Maryland,  named  in  his  will, 
1716-18,  his  children — Sarah  Yieldhall,  Mary  Sewell,  Achsah  Hall 
and  John  Marriott.  Sarah  Marriott  was  the  wife  of  Wm.  Yieldhall; 
Mary  Marriott,  the  wife  of  John  Sewell;  John  Marriott  married 
Nancy  Warfield,  daughter  of  Alexander  Warfield,  and  Achsah 
Marriott  married  John  Hall,  of  Whitehall,  and  their  daughter,  Sarah 
Hall,  married,  first,  Francis  Rawlings,  secondly.  Captain  Henry 
Baldwin. 

Sallie  Baldwin,  daughter  of  Henry  and  Sarah  (Rawlings-Hall) 
Baldwin,  married  Denton  Hammond.  Issue,  Elizabeth,  Camilla 
and  Matthias  Hammond.  Camilla — Dr.  Herbert  and  had  a  son. 
General  James  Rawlings  Herbert,  whose  daughter,  Camilla,  married 
Wm.  Pinkney  Whyte,  Jr.     Elizabeth — Richard  Cromwell;   Matthias 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      133 

Eliza  Brown;  John  Marriott,  who  died  1798, — Elizabeth  Davis, 
daughter  of  Richard  Davis  and  Ruth  Warfield,  his  wife,  the  daughter 
of  John  and  Ruth  (Gaither)  Warfield. 

John  Marriott,  in  his  will,  1798,  mentions  wife  Elizabeth.  Issue, 
John,  Richard,  Ruth,  Rachel  and  Elizabeth  Marriott.  Richard — 
Sarah  Hammond,  daughter  of  John  Hammond,  and  their  son,  Gen- 
eral Wm.  Hammond  Marriott — Jane  McKim;  his  brother,  Richard 
Marriott,  married  a  granddaughter  of  Anthony  Stewart,  of  Peggy- 
Stewart  fame. 

In  1756,  Mr.  Emanuel  Marriott,  the  son  of  Mr.  Joseph  Marriott, 
was  taxed  as  a  bachelor  for  the  support  of  the  church  of  St.  Anne's,  ' 
on  a  schedule  of  £100. 

The  will  of  Augustine  Marriott,  who  held  the  homestead  at 
Indian  Landing,  and  married  Mary  Warfield,  of  John  and  Ruth 
Gaither,  in  1729,  reads  as  follows:  "My  wife,  Mary,  if  she  does  not 
marry,  to  hold  the  whole  estate  during  life.  My  son,  John,  to  hold 
'Shepherd's  Forest.' " 

His  three  daughters  named  were  Sarah,  wife  of  Wm.  Yieldhall; 
Mary,  wife  of  John  Sewall;  Achsah,  wife  of  John  Hall,  and  her 
three  daughters.  John  Marriott,  Joseph  Warfield  and  Joshua 
Gambrill  were  witnesses. 

John  Marriott,  the  son,  married  Elizabeth  Davis,  daughter  of 
Richard  and  Ruth  (Warfield)  Davis.  In  his  will,  of  1798,  he  named 
his  sons,  Richard,  John,  Rachel,  Ruth,  and  Elizabeth;  wife, 
Elizabeth;  lands,  "Lancaster  Plains." 

THE  COLE  FAMILY. 

*^'^  Edith  Cole,  wife  of  John  Mallonee,  was  the  daughter  of  Dennis 
Garrett  Cole  and  Rachel,  his  wife,  of  Baltimore  County,  November 
8th,  1748.  Their  children  were  Thomas,  James,  William  and 
Leonard  Mallonee. 

Dennis  Garrett  Cole  was  the  son  of  John  and  Hannah  (Garrett) 
Cole,  and  Hannah  Garrett  was  the  daughter  of  Dennis  and  Barbara 
Garrett.  Thomas  Stone  and  Dennis  Garrett  purchased  "Long 
Island  Point"  in  1683,  and  in  1691,  Thomas  Stone  gave  his  moiety 
in  this  land  to  the  children  of  Dennis  Garrett,  deceased,  and  stated 
it  was  for  his  love  and  affection. 

"Long  Island  Point"  was  to  the  east  and  adjoining  "Cole  Har- 
bor," settled  by  Thomas  Cole  in  1668,  and  the  latter  was  covered 
by  the  following  lines:  Beginning  at  Harford  Run  on  the  east,  where 
it  flows  into  the  Patapsco  River,  thence  west  one  mile,  binding  on 
the  water  front  to  about  Sharp  Street;    thence  north  about  half  ^^^ 
mile  to  Saratoga  Street,  then  east  to  Harford  Run;    thence  to  tl^ 
place  of  the  beginning,  containing  550  acres.     John  Cole  sold  Rich^ 
Owings,  in  1702,  809  acres,  "Cole's  Choice,"  in  the  same  sect' 
All  of  these  tracts  were  described  as  on  the  north  side  of  the  new 
west  branch  of  the  Patapsco  River,  and  now  covered  by  Balt^ 
City  from  Sharp  Street  to  the  east.  '^' 


134      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

The  Cole  families,  of  Old  England,  appear  to  have  had  the  same 
Christian  names  as  the  early  settlers  in  Maryland  and  Virginia,  viz. : 
John,  Thomas,  William,  Skipwith,  et  al.  Cole — Stake  Lyne — John 
Thomas  and  William.  There  was  a  fine  monument  erected  to  the 
Cole  family  at  Petersham,  in  1624.  John  Cole,  tenth  in  line  from 
William  Cole,  Comity  Devon,  1243.  Cole — Marazon — Francis  Sewell 
Cole,  esquire,  nineteenth  in  direct  descent  from  Edward,  third, 
and  the  family  long  in  County  Devon.  Cole — Woodniem — John 
Cole,  1614,  father  of  William  Cole,  officer  in  Cromwell's  Army.  James 
Garrett,  Esquire,  County  Carlow,  married  Mary,  daughter  of  Colonel 
Blake,  same  family  as  Sir  William  Garrett,  Lord  Mayor  London, 
1555. 

Sir  Bernard  Burke,  in  his  "Armory  and  Heraldry,"  gives  the 
Sewell  family  in  England  three  coats  of  arms;  the  Cole  family, 
twenty-two;  Stone,  thirty;  Garrett,  three;  Kirby,  fourteen;  Randall, 
fifteen;  Warner,  nineteen;  Acton,  twenty-seven.  These  names  are 
all  shown  in  the  above  as  Sewall  connections. 

/  RAWLINGS. 

Much  has  been  written  lately  concerning  this  family.  As  none 
of  the  writers  seem  to  have  gone  to  the  wills  for  information,  I  will 
reproduce  them  and  leave  interested  descendants  to  fit  them. 

It  has  been  stated  that  Henry  Rawlings,  father  of  Anthony, 
the  public  man,  was  the  immigrant.  There  seem  to  have  been 
others.  The  archives  are  full  of  Anthony  Rawlings,  and  the  chan- 
cery records  add  more  light.  His  will  of  1652,  names  sons,  John 
and  Anthony,  who  inherited  adjoining  lands  up  on  the  Patuxent. 
He  names  his  oldest  daughter,  Anne,  and  youngest  daughter,  Mar- 
garet.    His  wife  was  Jane  Rawlings. 

In  1676,  Elizabeth  Rawlings,  widow  of  Nicholas,  made  an  oral 
will  in  which  she  desired  Elizabeth  Mackey  to  take  care  of  her  child, 
and  to  collect  from  her  debtors  what  was  due. 

In  1696,  Richard  Rawlings  named  his  two  sons,  Richard  and 
John;   his  daughters  were  Mary  and  Elizabeth,  and  wife  Jane. 

In  1717,  John  Rawlings,  of  Dorchester,  named  his  brother, 
Anthony,  and  his  nephew,  John  of  Anthony,  also  his  nephew,  John 
King,  and  his  son-in-law,  Mark  Fisher.    His  wife  was  Elizabeth. 

Daniel   Rawlings,  of   Charles   County,   in    1726,  held   a   large 

estate  both  there  and  in  Calvert.     He  left  his  ''home  plantation,  on 

St.  Leonard's  Creek,"  to  my  youngest  son,  Daniel.     I  confirm  unto 

my  son-in-law,  John  Clare  and  Elizabeth,  his  wife,  part  of   'Elton 

^Head  Manor,'   called   'Rawlings'  Choice,'  now   occupied  by   John 

Bfiare  and  his  wife,  Elizabeth.     To  daughter,  Anne  Rawlings,  the 

orth  part  of  'Rawlings'  Choice'  and  five  hundred  acres  of  the  same 

Bai^ct  to  son  Isaac  Rawlings.     To  daughter  Mary  Halloway,  negroes. 

and    Isaac  and  son-in-law  John  Clare  executors. 

GeneJ)."  — Dan  Rawlings. 

Wm.  Pohn  Parran,  Wm.  Day,  and  Alexander  Parran  were  witnesses. 


FOUNDEKS  OF  AnNE  ArUNDEL  AND  HoWARD  COUNTIES.        135 

Daniel  Rawlings,  of  Calvert  County,  in  1748,  named  sons, 
Daniel  and  John,  and  daughters,  Nancy  and  Margaret.  He  held 
tract  "Rawlings'  Choice"  "left  me  by  my  father."  He  bought, 
also,  his  brother  Isaac's  lands. 

Of  this  family  upon  "Rawlings'  Manor,"  one  brother,  Isaac, 
still  later,  was  in  Mississippi  when  that  was  only  a  territory.  In 
one  of  his  letters,  which  I  have  seen,  he  wrote  that  "his  brother, 
Captain  Thomas  Rawlings,  was  then  at  the  front  with  General 
Jackson  in  his  Indian  campaign  at  Pensacola."  After  the  war. 
Captain  Thomas  returned  to  Calvert,  and,  at  forty  years  of  age, 
married  his  cousin,  Mary  Dalrymple,  whose  mother  was  Christiana 
Clare,  of  John.  She  was  then  a  girl  of  fifteen  years.  Together 
they  lived  upon  "Rawlings'  Choice"  and  had  one  son  who  died 
in  early  manhood.  This  girl  of  fifteen  years,  later  married  another 
cousin,  her  first  lover.  Dr.  S.  J.  Cook,  and  became  the  mother  of 
Mrs.  J.  D.  Warfield. 

Anthony  Rawlings,  Jr.,  of  Dorchester,  in  1728,  left  a  colt  to 
his  father,  and  named  his  sister  Mary,  and  cousins,  Mary  and  Charles 
Daughety.  To  his  brother,  John,  he  left  his  clothes  and  silver  shoe 
buckles.  Sister  Margaret  Hail  was  made  legatee  of  all  his  personal 
property  and  his  executrix     — 

Aaron  Rawhngs,  of  Anne  Arundel  Coimty,  in  1741,  named  his 
wdfe,  Susannah,  and  sons,  Jonathan,  Aaron,  William  and  Stephen. 
The  last  two  inherited  "  Darnall's  Groves,"  in  Prince  George  County, 
"My  lands  in  Baltimore  County,  called  'Brown's  Adventure,'  to 
sons  and  daughter  Ann.     Aaron  to  hold  the  homestead. 

This  testator's  wife  was  Susannah  Beard,  the  daughter  of 
Stephen.  Her  will  closes  the  Rawlings  previous  to  the  Revolution.  In 
1762,  she  named  her  sons,  Aaron,  Moses,  Richard,  daughter  Mary, 
and  four  married  daughters,  Ann,  Susannah,  Rachel  and  Elizabeth. 
Her  son,  Aaron,  and  son-in-law,  Gassaway  Watkins,  executors. 

The  further  records  of  this  family  have  been  already  published. 


^ 


THE  SEWELLS  OF  VIRGINIA. 


Henry  Sewell  came  to  Virginia  from  England  previous  to  1632. 
He  gave  his  name  to  "  Sewell/sJ'oint "  at  the  entrance  to  Elizabeth 
River,  opposite  to  Fortress  Monroe.  His  wife  was  Alice  Willoughby, 
daughter  of  Thomas  Willoughby,  who  came  to  Virginia  in  1610, 
and  was  Justice  of  Ehzabeth  City,  1628;  Burgess,  1629-32,  and 
Councilor,  1644-50.  At  the  court  holden  May  31st,  1640,  Henry 
Sewell  and  Captain  Sibley  were  authorized  to  build  a  church  at  Mr 
Sewell's  Point.  August  2nd,  1640,  Captain  Thomas  Willot-'-i  the 
Esquire,  Captain  John  Sibley,  Mr.  Henry  Sewell,  Mr.  Edwrufter  the 
ham  and  Mr.  William  Julian,  are  to  pay  for  themselves  ac  of  Chan- 
the  church  minister,  Mr.  Thomas  Harrison. 

Peter  Porter's  name  appears  in  1641.     He,  in  1650,hiUp  How- 
Maryland,  at  the  head  of  Severn  River,  "Peter  Porter kney,  was 


136      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

In  1641,  the  orders  of  the  Court  directed  that  this  parish  church 
should  be  built  at  Mr.  Henry  Sewell's  Point  at  the  cost  and  charge 
of  the  inhabitants,  and  chapel  of  ease  at  Elizabeth  River. 

Henry  Sewell  had  two  children,  Anne  and  Henry.  Anne  was 
born  1634,  and  married  Lemuel  Mason,  son  of  Francis  Mason.  Henry 
Sewell,  the  younger,  was  born  1639.  Henry  Sewell,  the  elder,  was 
elected  to  the  House  of  Burgesses  from  Elizabeth  City,  in  1632,  and 
from  Lower  Norfolk  County  in  1639.  He  died,  1644,  and  at  a  Court 
holden  same  year  in  Lower  Norfolk  County,  at  the  house  of  Ensign 
Thomas  Lambert,  February  20th,  "The  Court  doth  think  fit  and 
orders  it,  Mr.  Matthew  Phillips,  the  administrator  of  Mr.  Henry 
Sewell  ,deceased,  shall  within  ten  days  satisfy  and  pay  to  Mr.  Thomas 
Harrison,  clerk,  one  thousand  pounds  of  tobacco,  and  satisfaction 
in  consideration  for  the  burial  and  preaching  of  the  funeral  sermon 
of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Sewell,  deceased,  and  for  breaking  ground  in  the 
chancel  of  the  church  for  the  burial  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Sewell. 

Mr.  James  Warner  was  elected,  in  1649,  Church  Warden  at 
Sewell's  Point,  and,  in  1651,  settled  on  the  Severn  River,  Maryland. 

At  a  -Court,  holden  February  25th,  1649,  the  opinion  is  con- 
cerning the  estate  of  Henry  Sewell,  with  the  consent  of  John  Holmes, 
overseer,  with  Lemuel  Mason  and  Anne,  daughter  of  Henry  Sewell, 
witnesses,  agreed  the  estate  of  Mr.  Matthew  Phillips,  late  deceased, 
be  responsible  for  the  estate  ofHenry  Sewell,  and  Mrs.  Ann  Phillips 
administratrix  of  said  Matthew  Phillips,  responsibility  to  be  left  to 
the  decision  of  four  disinterested  persons.  Henry  Sewell,  the  younger 
then  ten  years  old,  to  be  sent  abroad  by  orders  of  the  Court  for 
seven  years,  in  charge  of  his  kinsman,  Mr.  Thomas  Lee.  A  deposi- 
tion taken  in  1662,  shows  Henry  Sewell,  the  younger,  to  have  been 
born,  1639,  and  a  deposition  taken  in  1672,  shows  Henry  Sewell, 
the  younger,  deceased  sine  prole. 

The  custom  in  England  at  this  time,  of  giving  the  same  christian 
name  to  two  or  more  sons  was  not  uncommon,  for  instance,  Henry 
the  elder,  Henry  the  younger,  and  Henry  the  middle.  The  Mary- 
land settler  was  evidently  of  this  family. 

There  were  quite  a  number  of  people  in  the  vicinity  of  Sewell's 
Point  about  1650,  who  came  up  to  Maryland  and  settled  on  or  near 
the  Severn  River.  Among  them,  Edward  Lloyd,  Cornelius  Lloyd, 
Matthew  Howard,  Thomas  Todd,  William  Crouch,  James  Horner, 
Nicholas  Wyatt,  Thomas  Howell,  Thomas  Gott,  William  Galloway, 
B/iaiT.  Porter,  James  Warner,  Richard  Acton  and  others. 

orth  pafoUowing  is  an  account  sales,  in  1638,  for  Henry  Sewell, 
Baict  to  s^oint,  Virginia,  from  his  factor  in  London,  England,  of 
and  Isaaent  over  in  the  ships,  America  and  Alexandria,  and  for 
Gene.i)."  ;  a  cargo  in  a  shallop  with  sassafras  roots,  sold  in  England, 
Wm.  i:ohmd  the  cash  receipts  to  have  been  £650,  19s.  and  6d. 


FouNDEns  OF  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      137 

MUSTER  ROLLS— REVOLUTIONARY  WAR  SEWELLS. 

John  Sewell,  June  3rd,  1778,  served  during  the  war. 

James  Sewell,  second  battalion,  Colonel  William's  regiment, 
October,  1780. 

John  Sewell,  fourth  battalion,  July  27th,  1776. 

Joseph  Sewell,  1776,  Captain  Goldsborough  Company. 

John  Sewell  served  until  1781. 

John  Sewell,  5th  Regiment,  1776. 

John  Sewell  enlisted  in  Captain  Goldsborough  Company,  1776. 

Charles  Sewell,  July  2nd,  1776. 

Daniel  Sewell,  enlisted  July  4th,  1776. 

WiUiam  Sewell,  1776,  discharged  1779. 
^  Clement    Sewell,    May  4th,    1777,    promoted   Maryland    Line, 
September  14th,  1777. 

William  Sewell  re-enlisted,  June  4th,  1778;  Maryland  Line 
April  4th,  1779. 

John  Sewell,  June  8th,  1778;   corporal  1779;   sergeant  1780. 

William  Sewell,  March  11th,  1776,  4th  Infantry. 

Hon.  Grover  Cleveland,  ex-president  of  the  United  States,  is 
a  descendant  of  the  Sewell  family 

Margaret  Borodale  married  Rev.  Jonathan  Mitchell.  Their 
daughter,  Margaret  —  Major  Stephen  Sewell.  Their  daughter, 
Susannah — Rev.  Aaron  Porter.  Their  daughter,  Susannah — Aaron 
Cleveland,  whose  son  was  William  Cleveland,  who  had  a  son.  Rev. 
Richard  Falley  Cleveland,  who  was  the  father  of  Grover  Cleveland 
— eighth  in  direct  line  from  Rev.  Jonathan  Mitchell,  and  seventh 
from  Stephen  Sewell. 

THE  SEWELLS  OF  THE  SEVERN. 

"  Sew  ell's  Point,"  upon  which  the  Independent  Churchmen  had 
built  their  conventicle  in  1638,  and  upon  which  the  coming  James- 
town exhibition  will  be  held,  sent  to  the  Severn,  along  with  many 
others,  a  descendant  of  Henry  Sewell,  the  prominent  pillar  of  that 
chm-ch. 

Henry  Sewell  of  the  Severn,  made  surveys  with  the  Howards 
in  1662.  He  settled  near  James  Warner,  another  member  of  the 
Virginia  church,  and  later,  married  his  daughter,  Johanna. 

From  a  case  in  chancery,  the  following  history  is  established. 
By  James  Warner's  will,  his  daughter,  Johanna,  heired  "Warner's 
Neck."  It  was  "not  to  be  disposed  of  by  none  from  them,  but 
his  said  daughter  and  her  heirs  forever."  It  was,  in  the  face  of 
that  will,  later  sold  by  James  Sewell,  son  of  Henry  and  Johanna 
to  Samuel  Howard.  Henry  Sewell,  Jr.,  contested  this  sale  on  the 
plea  of  entail.  The  Provincial  Court  passed  upon  it,  but,  after  the 
death  of  all  the  original  parties,  it  was  carried  to  the  Court  of  Chan- 
cery, which  reversed  the  decision  of  the  Provincial  Court. 

The  Rent  Rolls  show  that  it  was  handed  down  by  Philip  How- 
ard to  his  widow,  and  by  her  next  husband,  Henry  Pinkney,  was 


138      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

held  in  the  Howard  estate.  The  will  of  James  Warner  names 
Samuel  Howard  and  Henry  Sewell,  "sons."  To  the  first  he  left  a 
"broad  cloth  suit;"   to  the  latter,  a  suit  of  " stuff e." 

Henry  Sewell,  Jr.,  remained  upon  the  homestead.  He  took  up 
"Sewell's  Fancy,"  and  bought  a  part  of  "Duvall's  Delight"  upon 
the  Patuxent,  from  Charles  Carroll.  In  his  will,  of  1726,  he  named 
Mary,  his  wife,  and  Samuel,  Mary,  Henry,  Joseph,  Philip  and  John 
Sewell.  Having  bought,  of  Richard  and  Adam  Shipley,  their 
father's  purchase  of  "Howard  and  Porter's  Range,"  this  tract  was 
left  to  his  sons.  "Hereford,"  the  Marriott  tract  ,was  also  in  pos- 
session of  Henry  Sewell,  the  testator  of  1726.  This  may  have  come 
through  his  wife,  Mary,  a  Marriott.  This  tract  was  closed  out  by 
the  heirs  to  their  brother  John  Sewell. 

John  married  Hannah  Carroll,  daughter  of  Daniel  Carroll,  at 
St.  Anne's,  Annapolis,  May  30th,  1721.  Hannah  and  Daniel  Car- 
roll, of  Daniel,  were  baptized  at  St.  Anne's  March  2nd,  1713.  Daniel 
Carroll  married  EHzabeth  Purdy,  at  "All  Hallows,"  1730.  John 
and  Hannah  (Carroll)  Sewell  had  John,  born  1725,  and  Henry,  1723^ 
and  were  baptized  at  "All  Hallows,"  July  4th,  1726. 

John,  of  John  and  Hannah  Sewell,  married  Mary  Marriott, 
daughter  of  Augustine  and  Mary  (Warfield)  Marriott,  1729.  Issue, 
John,  born  1761,  Achsah,  1768,  Augustine,  Sarah  and  Mary  Sewell. 

John  Sewell,  son  of  John  and  Mary  (Marriott)  Sewell,  married 
Lydia  Baldwin,  in  1804,  daughter  of  James  and  Sallie  (Rawlings) 
Baldwin.     Issue,  John,  Sarah,  Matilda,  Eliza  and  Mary  Sewell. 

John  Sewell,  of  John  and  Lydia  Sewell,  married  Juliet  Gambrill, 
daughter  of  Augustine  and  Maria  (Woodward-Baldwin)  Gambrill. 
Issue,  Augusta — Rev.  W.  L.  Welch;  John  died  single;  Charles — 
Elizabeth  Whitney.  Issue,  Burnett  S.  Sewell  and  Juliet  Gam- 
brill Sewell. 

Juliet  Sewell,  daughter  of  John  and  Juliet  (Gambrill)  Sewell,. 
married  Summerfield  Baldwin.  Issue,  Charles,  Summerfield,  Juliet, 
Dorothy  and  Willard  Baldwin.     \ 

Matilda  Sewell  married  George  Savage.  Issue,  George,  John, 
Lydia  and  Rev.  Riley  W.  Savage.  Sarah  Sewell  married  Benja- 
min Clark.     Mary  and  Eliza  Sewell  died  single. 

Mary  Sewell,  daughter  of  John  and  Mary  (Marriott)  Sewell, 
married  Patrick  Orme,  of  Montgomery  County,  and  left  two  children 
— Mary — a  Mr.  Newlin,  and  Rebecca — Dr.  Perry,  of  Washington, 
D.  C.  Mr.  Orme  married  a  second  time,  and  left  three  daughters. 
One  married  Richard  Sewell,  another  Mr.  Bailey,  and  the  third,  Mr. 
Landstreet,  all  of  Baltimore  City. 

Augustine  Sewell,  of  John  and  Mary  (Marriott)  Sewell,  married 
Mary  Pitts,  1784,  daughter  of  Thomas  Pitts,  of  WilHam.  Issue, 
John  Marriott  Sewell,  a  prominent  merchant  of  Baltimore;  Mary 
— Francis  Baldwin,  of  James  of  Edward.  Issue,  John,  James  F.,, 
Thomas  Pitts,  Mary  Pitts,  Susan  and  Sallie  Baldwin. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      139 

Juliet  Sew  ell — Thomas  Worthington,  and  left  a  son,  Thomas 
Worthington.  Juliet  (Sewell)  Worthington  married  a  second  time, 
Augustine  Sappington.     Issue,  Nicholas  and  Mary  Sappington. 

Augustine  Sewell,  Jr.,  died  single.  George  Sewell  died,  age 
sixteen.  Charles  Pitts  Sewell  died,  age  six  years.  Eleanor  Sewell, 
daughter  of  Augustine  and  his  second  wife,  Anne,  married  James 
Gaskins.     Issue,  Emily  Stewart,  Edward  and  Thomas  Gaskins. 

Sarah  Sewell,  daughter  of  John  and  Mary  (Marriott)  Sewell, 
married  Thomas  Pitts,  in  1782,  of  Thomas  of  William,  and  brother 
of  Mary  Pitts,  who  married  Augustine  Sewell.  '  Issue,  Achsah  and 
Thomas  Pitts. 

The  Sewells  and  their  allied  families  were  among  the  very 
earliest  settlers  in  Maryland,  and  held  land  where  both  Annapolis 
and  Baltimore  are  now  located. 

The  old  Sewell  homestead  near  Indian  Landing  at  the  head  of 
the  Severn  River,  Anne  Arundel  County,  has  been  in  the  possession 
of  the  family  since  1673,  and  is  still  owned  by  the  descendants  of 
the  Sewells.  It  was  surveyed  for  John  Marriott,  in  1673,  and  in 
his  will,  dated  1718,  he  left  it  to  his  sons,  John,  Silvanus  and 
Augustine  Marriott.  Sarah,  the  daughter  of  Augustine  and  Mary 
(Warfield)  Marriott,  held  it  imtil  1773,  when  it  was  transferred  to  John 
Sewell  and  his  wife,  Mary  Marriott,  a  daughter  of  Augustine  Mar- 
riott, and  sister  of  Sarah  Marriott.  In  1791,  John  Sewell  trans- 
ferred it  to  his  son,  John  Sewell,  and  it  has  been  in  the  family  ever 
since. 

The  first  church  built  in  this  section  was  known  as  the  Cross 
Roads,  now  Baldwin's  Memorial;  and  the  members  of  the  Protestant 
Episcopal  and  Methodist  Episcopal  Churches  worshipped  together. 
The  first  trustees  were  John  Sewell,  Matthias  Hammond  and 
Augustine  Gambrill. 

(This  matter  was  given  to  the  author  before  its  publication  in 
the  Sunday  "Sun,"  and  by  request,  is  republished.) 

Extract  from  a  letter  written  mnny  years  ago  by  one  of  the  Sewell  family. 

"Our  great-grandfather,  John  Sewell,  married  Miss  Mary 
Marriott,  who  was  born  on  the  old  Marriott  estate  near  the  Indian 
Landing  at  the  head  of  the  Severn  River.  John  Sewell,  who  died 
1805,  and  his  wife,  Mary  Marriott,  who  died  1800,  lived  to  a  good 
old  age  on  the  old  Sewell  homestead,  situated  on  the  Annapolis 
and  Baltimore  road,  about  eleven  miles  distance  from  Annapolis, 
and  adjoining  the  Marriott  estate. 

"A  sister,  Sarah,  married  William  Yieldhall.  They  had  no 
children,  and  left  all  their  possessions  to  Thomas  Furlong,  whom 
they  had  reared  and  educated  under  peculiar  circumstances.  And 
this  deed  of  kindness  was  never  forgotten  by  our  family,  so 
characteristic  of  the  Sewells  and  their  love  of  hospitality. 

"  Achsah  Sewell,  daughter  of  John  and  Mary  (Marriott)  Sewell, 
married  Leonard  Mallonee,  at  that  time  a  class  leader  in  the  Metho- 
dist Church;   and,  to  give  you  some  idea  of  the  ways  of  Methodism 


140      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

at  that  period,  I  will  relate  a  little  incident.  Major  Philip  Ham- 
mond and  uncle  Leonard  were  fast  friends,  both  members  of  the 
church,  but  had  previously  been  fond  of  dancing — passionately  so; 
and  on  the  occasion  of  the  marriage  of  one  of  Major  Hammond's 
family,  our  uncle-in-law,  Leonard  Mallonee,  being  a  guest  at  the 
wedding,  their  old  passion  for  dancing  overcame  them,  and  they 
both  indulged  in  that  pleasing  dissipation,  and  they  were  both 
turned  out  of  church. 

"The  entire  community  had  worshipped  at  our  great-grand- 
father's house — John  Sewell — before  there  was  any  church  in  that 
vicinity.  Bishops  Asbury  and  George,  Reverends  Henry  Smith, 
Alfred  Griffith,  Samuel  Rozzell  and  Joshua  Wells  preached  from 
the  same  desk — an  heirloom  still  remaining  at  the  same  old  home- 
stead of  the  Sewell  family.  After  our  great-grandfather's  death, 
the  house  was  kept  open  for  preaching;  the  desk  still  occupying 
the  same  old  place. 

"The  piety  and  zeal  of  our  great-grandparents  won  for  them 
the  title  of  "The  Two  Christians"  throughout  the  neighborhood. 

"  This  old  homestead  is  also  sacred  to  the  memory  as  being 
the  place  where  the  first  camp-meeting  was  held  on  Severn  Cir- 
cuit, called  the  Baltimore  and  Severn  Camp-meeting,  presenting 
quite  a  novelty  for  those  times,  as  the  grove  was  illuminated  by 
lamps  brought  from  the  oldest  Methodist  Church  in  Baltimore. 
The  first  church  on  the  Severn,  called  Cross  Roads,  adjoined  this 
tract." 

Sewell  tombstones,  at  the  old  Sewell  homestead  in  Anne 
Arundel  County,  at  the  head  of  the  Severn  River,  near  the  old 
Cross  Roads  Church  and  Indian  Landing: 

John  Sewell  died  1805,  born  1725.  Wife,  Mary  (Marriott) 
Sewell  died  1800.  Son,  John  Sewell,  born  1761,  died  1817.  Wife, 
Lydia  Sewell,  born  1781,  died  1850.  Son,  John  Sewell,  born  1813, 
died  1844.  Wife,  JuHet  W.  Sewell,  born  1814,  died  1845.  Son, 
John  Sewell,  born  1838,  died  1850,  single.  EHza  Sewell,  born  1815, 
died  June  6th,  1873. 

Seven  generations  sleep  in  Anne  Arundel  County,  in  consecu- 
tive line,  viz.:  Henry,  Henry,  John,  John,  John,  John,  and  John 
Sewell. 

COUNCIL  PROCEEDINGS. 

September,  1681,  Archives  of  Maryland. 

Sir: — Mr.  Edward  Dorsey  came  here  last  night  very  late,  and 
brought  news  that  the  Indians  had  robbed  John  Marriott — beaten 
him  and  his  wife,  and  turned  them  out  of  doors.  I  design,  to-day 
being  2nd  September,  to  go  up  and  take  ten  or  twelve  men.  If 
you  please  to  give  me  any  further  orders,  be  pleased  to  direct  to 
Towne,  to  him  who  is.  Sir,  your  most  humble  servant, 

Robert  Proctor. 

September  2nd,  1681.  To  Captain  Thomas  Francis,  at  Road 
River.     Deliver  with  speed. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      .141 

September  2nd,  1681,  Anne  Arundel  County. 

Rt.  Honble. — The  occasion  of  my  present  presumption  is  to 
inform  your  Lordship  of  a  robbery  committed  by  the  Sinnequain 
— Seneca — Indians  (as  is  supposed),  on  the  first  day  of  this  instant, 
at  the  house  of  John  Marriott  at  the  head  of  Anne  Arundel  River, 
upon  the  Ridge  formerly  Peter  Porter's.  The  enclosed  was  sent 
to  me  and  the  same  day  being  our  election  day,  I  had  an  oppor-s 
tunity  to  speak  with  the  said  John  Marriott,  which  for  substance 
gave  me  the  following  narrative,  viz.:  That  nine  Indians  came  to 
his  house,  September  1st,  inst.  in  the  morning  and  pressed  hard  for 
entrance  into  his  house,  which  he  resisted,  taking  his  gun  in  hand 
and  standing  upon  his  guard,  willing  his  wife  to  take  the  children 
and  make  escape  to  the  nearest  plantation,  which  was  hindered  by 
more  Indians,  till  then  indescerned,  but  still  appearing  more  and 
more,  to  the  quantity  of  one  hundred  or  thereabouts.  They  then 
pressed  so  sore  upon  him  that  into  the  house  they  would  go;  no 
threat  or  sign  of  anger  would  deter  them.  Out  of  which,  they  have 
carried  all  that  he  hath  in  this  world,  and  killed  his  hogs,  which  he 
says  he  had  thirty  in  his  pen,  which  troubled  his  cornfield,  some 
of  which  they  have  taken  away,  others  they  killed  for  pastime  and 
let  lye,  that  of  numbers  he  finds  only  three  or  four  alive.  His 
cattle  he  knows  not  what  they  have  killed,  for  they  have  all  for- 
saken the  plantation.  His  tobacco,  which  was  hanging  in  the 
houses,  they  have  thrown  down  and  spoiled.  All  of  which,  tendeth 
to  his  great  loss,  and  putting  the  neighboring  plantations  in  great 
feare,  so  that  there  are  many  of  them  together  for  their  future 
safety. 

In  humble  manner,  I  have  truly,  though  briefly,  acquainted 
your  Lordship  with  the  robbery.  I  humbly  crave  your  pardon  for 
what  is  remiss,  and  subscribe  myself,  your  faithful  and  obedient 
servant.  Thomas  Ffrancis. 

Near  the  old  Sewell  homestead,  at  the  head  of  the  Severn  River, 
Anne  Arundel  County,  Maryland,  which  has  been  in  the  family  for 
about  two  hundred  years,  a  tragic  event  transpired,  and  has  often 
been  spoken  of  in  bygone  days  by  the  Sewells. 

One  of  the  early  settlers  in  this  neighborhood,  started  out  to 
hunt,  and  took  his  little  dog  with  him.  After  he  had  been  out  some 
time  he  heard  the  Indian  war-whoop  over  the  hills,  and,  in  his  effort 
to  retrace  his  steps,  he  found  he  could  not  escape  the  Indians.  He, 
therefore,  took  his  little  dog  and  climbed  up  into  the  hollow  of  a 
large  tree.  As  the  Indians  were  passing,  the  dog  barked  and  the 
hiding  place  was  discovered,  and  he  was  pulled  down  by  the 
Indians  and  tied  to  a  stake.  And  the  Indians  piled  pine  light  wood 
around  him  and  having  set  fire  to  it,  proceeded  to  have  a  war  dance, 
and  he  was  burned  alive. 

Later  on,  when  corn-husking  and  cider-pressing  time  came,  the 
same  Indians  came  to  assist,  and  the  white  settlers  put  in  the  cider 
a  copious  supply  of  rum,  of  which  the  Indians  drank  freely,  and  then 
went  into  the  barn  to  sleep  off  the  effect. 


142      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties, 

It  was  now  the  white  people  had  their  revenge,  as  they 
barricaded  the  door  and  set  fire  to  the  barn,  and  the  same 
Indians  who  burned  the  white  man  were  consumed. 

PITTS  FAMILY. 

^  Wilham  Pitts  came  from  England  to  visit  friends  in  Baltimore 
and,  while  here,  went  out  in  Baltimore  County  and  stopped  at  a 
then  fashionable  hotel,  and  at  night  dreamed  of  a  beautiful  French 
lady,  and  in  his  dream  became  greatly  enamored.  And  lo,  the  very 
next  morning  at  breakfast  there  sat,  directly  opposite  to  him  at 
the  table,  the  veritable  French  lady  of  his  dream.  He  was 
introduced  and  subsequently  they  were  married,  and  instead  of 
returning  to  England,  settled  in  Baltimore  County. 

There  were  two  sons  by  this  romantic  marriage,  William  and 
Thomas  Pitts.  The  former  remained  in  Baltimore  County  and  the 
latter  went  to  Anne  Arundel  County  and  married  Susannah  Lusby, 
and  had  eight  children — Thomas,  Charles,  John,  Elizabeth,  Susan, 
Ann,  Henrietta  and  Mary  Pitts.  Thomas — Sarah  Sewell,  1782; 
Mary — Augustine  Sewell;  Ann — Mordecai  Stewart,  of  South  River; 
Elizabeth — Charles  McElfresh;  Susan  died  single.  The  Pitts  family 
moved  to  Frederick  County. 

John  Pitts,  of  Thomas — Elizabeth  Hall,  daughter  of  Nicholas 
Hall,  of  New  Market,  and  had  six  children — Nicholas,  John  Lusby, 
Anna  Maria,  Thomas,  William  and  Charles  H.  Pitts,  the  gifted 
lawyer  of  Baltimore — Elizabeth  Reynolds.  Issue,  T.  Glenn,  Edward, 
Charles  and  Martha  Pitts. 


V 


\  MALLONEE  FAMILY. 

Achsah  Sewell,  daughter  of  John  and  Mary  (Marriott)  Sewell, 
married  Leonard  Mallonee,  of  John.  She  was  born  in  1768,  married 
in  1791,  died  in  1859,  in  her  91st  year.  Leonard  Mallonee  was  born 
1763,  died  1854,  in  his  92nd  year.  Issue,  John,  Brice,  William, 
Denton,  Achsah,  Mary  Edith  and  Anne  Sewell  Mallonee. 

John  Mallonee  married  Rachel  Lyon,  a  niece  of  Moses  Sheppard, 
the  founder  of  Moses  Sheppard  Asylum.  The  children  of  John  and 
Rachel  (Lyon)  Mallonee  were  William,  John,  Rachel,  Leonard,  James 
and  Benjamin  Mallonee. 

Brice  Mallonee  married  Louisa  Fairall,  1824.  Issue,  John 
Stephen,  William,  Alexander,  Brice,  Martin  Van  Buren,  Achsah, 
Edith,  Maryland  and  Virginia  Mallonee. 

William  Mallonee  married  Thomazine  Keirll,  daughter  of  John 
W.  Keirll,  a  prominent  merchant  of  Baltimore,  previous  to  1840. 
The  latter  was  lost  on  the  steamer  Lexington,  which  was  burned 
on  Long  Island  Sound  at  night,  in  1840.  The  children  of  William 
and  Thomazine  Mallonee  were,  John,  Leonard,  William,  Matthew, 
Mark  and  Achsah  Mallonee.  William  Mallonee  was  a  prominent 
dry-goods  merchant  in  Baltimore,  previous  to  1840,  and  located  on 
the  corner  of  Baltimore  and  Hanover  Streets. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      143 

Denton  Mallonee,  son  of  Leonard  and  Achash  (Sewell)  Mallonee 
— in  1821,  Ann  Kirby,  daughter  of  George  and  Anna  (Randall) 
Kirby.  Issue,  George,  Leonard  and  Achsah  Ann  Mallonee.  George 
Leonard — Amanda  E.  Carter,  daughter  of  John  W.  and  Elizabeth, 
Carter,  of  Baltimore.  Issue,  George  Carter,  John  Denton  and  Anne 
E.  Mallonee.  Achsah  Ann — Frederick  Custis  Hyde.  Issue,  Anna  M. 
Eleanor  and  George  M.  Hyde.  The  last  named  married  Elizabeth 
Wallace,  of  Westchester,  New  York,  and  had  a  child,  Elise  Wallace 
Hyde. 

Mary,  daughter  of  Leonard  and  Achsah  (Sewell)  Mallonee — 
•George  Bradford,  of  Howard  County.  Issue,  William  Charles,  John, 
Luther,  Ann,  Melvina  and  Achsah  Bradford.  The  latter  became 
Mrs.  Edwin  Owings,  of  Lisbon. 

Achsah  Mallonee,  daughter  of  Leonard  and  Achsah  (Sewell) 
Mallonee — Alfred  Fairall.  Issue,  Thomas,  William,  John,  Horace, 
Alfred,  Achsah,  Henrietta,  Alexina  and  Elizabeth  Fairall.  Anne 
Sewell  Mallonee,  daughter  of  Leonard  and  Achsah  (Sewell)  Mallonee 
— WiUiam  Kirby,  1833. 

MUSTER  ROLL  OF  KIRBYS,  IN  THE  WAR  OF  THE 
REVOLUTION. 

Richard  Kirby,  in  Flying  Camp,  July  27th,  1776. 

Anthony  Kirby,  1781. 

John  Kirky,  1781. 

Nathaniel,  1783. 

Joseph,  of  Annapolis,  1781. 

John  Kirby,  1776. 

David  Dirby. 

John  Kirby,  blown  from  a  barge. 

^  KIRBY  FAMILY. 

Walter  Kirby  was  early  in  Kent  Island,  and  the  Rent  Rolls 
show  he  patented  lands  in  1667.  In  1679,  he  was  honored  by  the 
Lord  Proprietary  to  take  charge  of  important  Chancery  proceedings. 
Walter  Kirby,  in  his  will  dated  1702,  mentions  his  wife,  Elizabeth, 
and  children,  William,  James,  Matthew,  Benjamin,  Mary  and 
Rebecca  Kirby. 

WilHam,  son  of  Walter,  in  his  will,  1717,  named  his  wife,  Ann, 
and  children,  Walter,  James,  Sarah  and  Mary  Kirby.  Benjamin, 
of  Walter,  in  his  will  of  1721,  mentioned,  wife,  Elizabeth.  Walter 
Kirby,  of  William,  died  in  1755;  his  wife  was  Sarah  Kirby.  Wil- 
liam Kirby,  of  Walter,  died  in  1768,  wife,  Rachel;  children,  Walter, 
Elizabeth  and  Ann  Kirby.  Benjamin  Kirby,  son  of  Matthew  of 
Walter,  died  in  1774,  on  Kent  Island.  Issue,  Joshua,  died  1794; 
Benjamin,  died  1783;  Nicholas,  died  1800;  Littlelar,  died  1810; 
Elizabeth— Edmond  Custis,  1796,  died  1807;  Margery— Jonathan 
Harrison,  1786;    Rebecca — Dr.  Jacob  Ringgold,  1787;    Sarah  and 


144      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

William  Kirby.  The  above  named  children  of  Benjamin  Kirby 
went  to  Baltimore  previous  to  1783.  William  Kirby  was  in  business 
in  Baltimore,  at  the  corner  of  Calvert  and  Water  Streets,  from 
1796  to  1800. 

William  Kirby  bought  "  Pratt's  Choice,"  West  River,  in  1802, 
from  Thomas  Tillard,  and  in  his  will,  dated  1818,  named  his  wife, 
Mary,  and  children,  William,  Francis,  Benjamin,  Solomon,  Joseph, 
George,  Jane,  Anne,  Sarah  and  Charlotte  Kirby. 

George  Kirby  married  Anna  Randall  at  St.  Anne's,  Annapolis, 
October  25th,  1798.  She  was  a  descendant  of  Christopher  Randall, 
who  settled  on  the  Severn  River  previous  to  1679.     Died  1847. 

William  Kirby,  of  George — Anne  Sewell  Mallonee,  1833,  died 
1872.  Issue,  Leonard,  born  1834,  died  1891;  Isabella,  born  1836, 
died  1877;  Norval,  Ann,  William  and  George  A.  Kirby.  Norval 
Ann  Kirby — Philip  Hammond,  1862.  Issue,  Anne — Woodland  C. 
Phillips;  Cora — Ralph  Gilbert  Lee;  Wilham — Anna  Barbara  Benson; 
Norval  Adele — Charles  Leonard  Owens;  Maud — William  Henry 
Cole;  Philip  and  Zoe  Kirby  Hammond,  unmarried.  Isabella  Kirby 
died  1877 — Arthur  Hammond,  1865.  Issue,  Luther  Kirby  Ham- 
mond. 
^  Philip    and    Arthur    Hammond    were    lineal    descendants    of 

General  John  Hammond,  who  died,  1707.  Upon  the  estate  of  Major 
Philip  Hammond,  now  owned  by  Mr.  George  Kirby,  are  the  follow- 
ing monuments: 

"This  monument,  erected  in  memory  of  a  great  and  good  man, 
Philip  Hammond,  Esquire,  who  died  May  10th,  1760,  in  tjie  64th 
year  of  his  age." 

"  This  monument  covers  the  remains  of  Mrs.  Rachel  Hammond, 
daughter  of  John  Brice,  Esquire,  and  relict  of  Philip  Hammond, 
Esquire;   born  April  13th,  1711;    died,  Tuesday,  April  11th,  1786." 

"  Here  lies  the  body  of  Mrs.  Rachel  Hopkins,  daughter  of 
Philip  Hammond,  Esquire,  deceased,  born  May  2nd,  1740;  died 
September  11th,  1773." 

"This  monument  covers  the  remains  of  Denton  Hammond, 
son  of  Philip  Hammond,  Esquire,  born  March  10th,  1745;  died 
March  2nd,  1784." 

"This  monument  covers  the  remains  of  Philip  Hammond,  son 
of  Philip  Hammond,  Esquire,  born  April  2nd,  1739;    died  1783." 

"Here  lies  the  body  of  Mr.  Matthias  Hammond,  son  of  Philip 
Hammond,  Esquire,  born  May  24th,  1740;   died  March  11th,  1786." 

"Erected  in  memory  of  Colonel  Rezin  Hammond,  son  of  Philip 
and  Rachel  (Brice)  Hammond,  his  wife;  died  September  1st,  1809, 
in  his  65th  year." 

"Sacred  to  the  memory  of  Dr.  Matthias  Hammond,  son  of 
Philip  and  Elizabeth  (Wright)  Hammond,  who  died,  1819,  in  his 
35th  year." 

"Sacred  to  the  memory  of  EHzabeth  Mewburn,  daughter  of 
Phillip  Hammond,  Esquire,  who  died  1819,  age  22  years." 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      145 

William  M.  Kirby — Virginia  Downing  Parrish,  of  Missouri. 
Issue,  William  Clyde,  Guy  Donnell,  Leila  Virginia  and  Anne  Louis 
Kirby. 

George  A.  Kirby — Mary  Ella  Hodges,  daughter  of  James  and 
Josephine  A.  Hodges.  Issue,  Bessie  Sewell,  Mary  Hanson  and 
William  George  Kirby.  Bessie  Sewell  Kirby — George  R.  A.  Hiss, 
in  1900,  and  he  died  in  1904.  Issue,  George  R.  A.  Hiss,  born  1903. 
Mr.  Hiss,  was  a  lineal  descendant  of  Colonel  William  Burgess,  who 
was  appointed  by  Lord  Baltimore  in  1665,  to  command  the  militia 
of  the  province,  and  acted  as  governor  during  Lord  Baltimore's 
absence. 

ACTON. 

Richard  Acton  was  at  Annapolis  in  1657.  Daniel  Dulany,  in 
one  of  his  pleadings  in  a  contest  over  the  early  surveys  of  Annapolis, 
said  that  Thos.  Todd  probably  assigned  his  Annapolis  survey  to 
Acton,  whilst  Thomas  Hall's  lands  going  to  Christopher,  the  son, 
who  left  it  to  his  mother,  Elizabeth,  and  both  dying  without  issue, 
the  land  was  escheated.  Todd's  Harbor,  in  the  hands  of  Robert 
Lusby,  also  reverted  back  by  escheat.  This  indeed  took  place 
pretty  generally  in  Annapolis.  The  Lord  Proprietary  reserved  lands 
in  the  city,  but  Thomas  Bordley  and  Thomas  Larkin,  combining 
with  Lancelot  Todd,  pretending  to  be  heir-at-law  of  said  Thomas 
Todd,  deprived  the  Lord  Proprietor  of  it. 

Upon  the  south  limits  of  Annapolis  to-day,  is  "Murray's  Hill," 
named  for  the  distinguished  family  who  has  held  it  for  many  years. 
Its  present  owner  is  the  former  paymaster  of  the  navy,  Murray  of 
the  West  River  branch.  This  tract,  upon  which  stands  a  very  old 
colonial  homestead,  was  formerly  known  as  "Acton"  and  it 
adjoins,  if  not  a  part  of  the  Carroll  estate,  which  was  the  survey  of 
Thomas  Todd. 

John  Acton  was  a  son  of  Richard  Acton;  and  Sarah,  the  daugh- 
ter of  Richard — John  Marriott,  the  pioneer  settler  of  "  Porter's  Hill." 

Philip  Hammond,  the  rich  merchant,  built  the  present  mansion 
upon  the  Acton  tract,  now  Murray's  Hill. 

CAPTAIN  JOHN  WORTHINGTON. 

There  are  many  traditions  but  few  records  of  this  family. 

"'All  who  bear  the  name  of  Worthington  in  this  country,"  says 
Mr.  W.  Worthington  Fowler,  in  his  notes  on  the  Worthington 
family,  "derived  their  origin  from  two  sources:  First,  from  an 
immigrant  who  settled  in  Maryland.  Second,  from  Nicholas 
Worthington,  who  came  to  New  England  in  1650,  and  was  the  only 
immigrant  of  that  name  in  New  England  at  that  time." 

"  There  is  on  record,  in  the  archives  of  Pennsylvania,  a  coroner's 
inquest  upon  the  body  of  a  Worthington  immigrant,  who  died  in 
passage  to  that  province,  which  shows  he  belonged  to  the  Worth- 
ingtons  of  Manchester,  England."     Mr.  Fowler  adds. 


14G      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties, 

"About  twenty  miles  northeast  of  Liverpool,  in  the  Hundred 
of  Leyland,  is  the  town  of  Worthington,  established,  "says  Burke, 
"in  high  repute  from  the  time  of  the  Plantagenets."  The  old  hall 
where  the  family  resided  for  seven  hundred  years,  was  pulled  down 
long  ago.  The  present  representative  of  the  family  is  Edward 
Worthington,  of  "The  Bryn,"  County  Chester,  1868. 

The  family  is  connected  by  marriage  with  Norris,  Orrell,  Rad- 
cliffe,  Lawrence,  Ashton,  Byron,  Leven,  Anderson  and  Standish, 
ancestors  of  Stout  Myles  Standish,  "the  Captain  of  the  Puritan 
Band." 

The  coat-of-arms,  given  by  Burke,  is  that  of  the  main  stem  of 
Lancashire  Worthingtons,  viz.:  "Argent,  three  pitch  forks  (or 
tridents),  sable,  crest,  a  goat  passant,  argent,  holding  in  his  mouth 
an  oak  branch." 

Our  records  at  Annapolis  show  that  Captain  John  Worthington 
was  here  as  early  as  1675,  and  in  1686  bought  "Greenberry  Forest" 
from  Colonel  Nicholas  Greenberry.  He  married,  soon  after,  Sarah, 
daughter  of  Matthew  Howard,  his  neighbor  upon  the  Severn.  In 
1692,  Captain  Worthington  was  appointed  associate  justice  of  Anne 
Arundel;  and,  in  1699,  was  a  member  of  the  Legislative  Assembly, 
during  which  year  his  will  was  written.  It  reads:  "I  give  and 
bequeath  to  my  dear  and  loving  wife,  Sarah  Worthington,  the  whole 
use  and  profit  and  comfort  of  this  my  now  dwelling  plantation, 
and  all  my  personal  estate,  she  paying  the  legacies  hereinafter 
specified,  and  being  by  me  ordered  to  give  all  the  children  what 
learning  the  country  will  afford  at  her  personal  cost.  And  if,  in 
case  my  said  wife  shall  marry  again,  then  the  children  to  be  for 
themselves  at  the  age  of  sixteen,  but  if  she  continue  a  widow,  then 
all  my  sons  to  live  with  her  to  be  her  assistance  and  comfort  till 
the  age  of  twenty-one  years.  And  after  the  decease  of  my  wife, 
Sarah,  then  the  personal  estate  to  be  divided  equally  amongst  my 
children. 

"Then  I  give  to  my  son,  John  Worthington,  the  plantation  I 
now  live  on  and  all  the  land  adjoining,  being  four  hundred  acres, 
lying  on  the  Severn  River. 

"Then  I  give  to  my  son,  Thomas  Worthington,  my  planta- 
tion called  "Greenberry  Forrest,'  being  four  hundred  acres,  more 
or  less,  and  'Lowe's  Addition,'  being  a  tract  of  three  hundred  and 
fifty  acres,  all  lying  near  Magothy  River. 

"Then  I  give  my  son,  William  Worthington,  the  plantation 
called  '  Howard's  Inheritance,'  containing  one  hundred  and  thirty 
acres;  also,  a  parcel  of  woodland  ground,  part  of  Mr.  William 
Hopkin's  plantation,  as  doth  appear  by  the  last  will  of  Mr. 
Matthew  Howard,  deceased,  and  two  hundred  acres,  lying  where 
Mr.  Richard  Beard's  mill  stands;  and  two  hundred  and  seventy 
acres  near  the  fish  pond  in  'Bodkin's  Creek,'  of  the  Patapsco  River. 

"Then  I  give  to  my  daughter,  Sarah  Worthington,  two  young 
working  negroes,  or  fifty  pounds  sterling,  at  the  age  of  sixteen,  or 
the  day  of  marriage." 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      147 

Charles  Worthington,  born  after  the  above  will  was  written, 
was  similarly  provided.  In  addition  to  the  above  tracts,  the  Worth- 
ington heirs  held  "Howard's  Pasture,"  "Pendenny  and  Expecta- 
tions" and  "  Howardstown,"  formerly  surveyed  for  Philip  Howard. 

Upon  a  tombstone  on  the  farm  of  the  late  R.  Tilghman  Brice, 
just  opposite  the  Naval  Academy  at  Annapolis,  may  be  read  the 
following  inscription: 

"  Here  lieth  interred,  the  body  of 
Captain  John  Worthington, 
Who  departed  this  life 
April  9th,  1701.     Aged  51  years." 

The  tombstone,  an  immense  slab  of  greyish  marble  color,  is  in 
excellent  preservation,  and  the  inscription  perfectly  legible.  It,  also, 
bears  on  top  a  most  beautiful  and  remarkable  insignia.  The  inter- 
pretation of  the  crest  is,  "To  him  who  lies  beneath  this  stone,  time" 
(represented  by  the  hour-glass)  has  taken  to  itself  wings  (wings, 
between  which  stands  the  hour-glass).  His  mortal  remains  must 
here  lie  (mortality  represented  by  death's  head),  until  summoned 
by  the  trumpet  of  the  arch-angle  (trumpets  crossed  behind  death's 
head)  to  wear  the  victor's  crown  (laurel  wreath)."  The  slab  covers 
a  well-preserved  walled  grave,  which  is  only  a  few  yards  north  of 
the  homestead,  the  form  and  material  of  which  is  still  preserved. 

About  1688,  Captain  John  Worthington  married  Sarah  Howard. 
Issue,  John,  born  1689;  Thomas,  1691;  WiUiam,  1694;  Sarah,  1696; 
Charles,  1701. 

John,  1713 — Helen,  daughter  of  Thomas  and  Mary  Heath 
Hammond.  Issue,  William,  Charles,  Vachel,  Anne — Thomas  Beale 
Dorsey,  Elizabeth — Nicholas  Dorsey,  John,  Samuel  and  Thomas 
Worthington. 

John  Worthington,  Jr.,  in  his  will,  styled  himself  merchant, 
gave  to  daughter,  Ann  Dorsey,  the  homestead,  "Wyatt's  Harbor" 
and  "Wyatt's  Hills."  To  son,  John,  " Worthington's  Fancy"  and 
"  Worthington's  Beginning"  and  part  of  "Duvall's  Delight,"  "Food 
Plenty"  and  other  tracts  bought  of  Orlando  Griffith,  some  2,620 
acres;  also  "Whiskey  Ridge,"  at  Liberty,  Frederick  County,  To 
son,  Charles,  "Hunting  Ground,"  "Ridgely's  Range,"  "Broken 
Ground,"  "Howard  and  Porters  Fancy"  and  "Abington,"  adjoin- 
ing, some  950  acres.  To  Samuel,  1,000  acres,  "Welsh's  Cradle," 
in  Baltimore  County.  To  son  Thomas,  three  tracts  on  the  Patapsco, 
some  1,680  acres.  To  Elizabeth  Dorsey,  "Todd's  Risque"  and 
"  Andover."  To  granddaughter,  Helen  Lynch,  £60.  To  grandsons, 
John  and  William,  sons  of  William,  deceased,  "Whiskey  Ridge" 
on  the  Linganore,  700  acres. 

William,  1734 — Hannah  Cromwell.  Issue,  William,  John — 
Mary  Todd.  Her  will,  of  1776,  announced  herself  as  the  widow  of 
John  Worthington,  and  named  her  daughters,  Elinor,  Ann,  Eliza- 
beth,|Hannah  and  Margaret.     She  made  her  brother,  Wm.  Linch, 


148      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

and  Wm.  Wilkinson  executors.  Elinor  Griffith  was  a  witness. 
Hannah  Worthington,  her  daughter,  1798,  named  her  sisters,  Ann 
Craddock,  Margaret  Lamar,  and  niece,  Elizabeth  Mary  Tolley. 

John  Worthington,  of  John  and  Helen,  married  Susannah 
Hood,  sister  of  Zachariah,  the  stamp  agent.  Issue,  Thomas,  Nicholas, 
William,  James,  Ann,  Sarah  and  Elizabeth — Caleb  Dorsey.  Thos. 
Worthington  named  Margaret,  daughter  of  my  late  brother  William; 
niece,  Sarah  Wilson;   nephew,  Abraham  Worthington 

Samuel  Worthington,  of  John  and  Helen,  1759— Mary  Tolley, 
daughter  of  Walter  Tolley,  of  Joppa.  Issue,  John,  Tolley,  Comfort, 
wife  of  John  Worthington  Dorsey,  Ann  Hawley,  Martha  Love, 
Thomas  Tolley,  James  Tolley,  Edward,  Samuel,  Jr.,  Walter  and 
Vachel  Worthington,  all  inheriting  from  $3,000  to  $8,000  each. 
By  his  second  marriage  to  Martha  Garrettson,  he  willed  her  "  Bat- 
sons'  Forest,"  "Welsh's  Cradle,"  negroes,  plate,  furniture.  Named 
his  daughters,  Charlotte  Merryman,  Sarah  Dorsey,  Catherine  Larsh, 
Susannah  Worthington,  Eleanor  Worthington,  Martha  and  Eliza- 
beth Worthington.  Sons,  Nicholas  and  Garrett  Worthington.  To 
John  Tolley  Worthington  he  left  the  family  graveyard,  to  be  handed 
down  by  him,  whom  he  made  executor  with  son  Charles. 

By  codicil  be  revoked  the  legacies  of  real  estate  to  his  daughters, 
and  left  it  to  his  sons,  John  Tolley,  Walter  and  Charles  Worthington. 
His  son  Garrett  was  given  a  large  estate  under  the  condition  of  his 
paying  certain  legacies  to  his  daughters,  Susannah,  Eleanor  and 
Martha.     Son  Nicholas  was  also  required  to  aid  in  their  support. 

John  Tolley  Worthington,  executor  of  Samuel  and  Mary, 
married  Mary  Worthington,  daughter  of  Hon.  Brice  Thomas  Beale. 
Issue,  Brice,  Ann  Ridgely  and  Mary — John  T.  H.  Worthington. 
The  will  of  John  Tolley  Worthington  left  to  his  "grandson,  John 
Tolley  Wortihngton,  son  of  my  daughter  Mary, '  Cottage,  or  Welcome 
Here,'  all  of  'Welsh's  Cradle'  and  'Murray's  Plains,'  purchased  of 
Garrett  G.  Worthington,  and  most  of  my  real  estate.  To  grand- 
daughter, Polly  Worthington  Johns,  daughter  of  my  daughter, 
Nancy  Ridgely  Johns,  all  lands  not  divised  to  grandson,  John 
Tolley.  To  granddaughter,  Ann  Maria  Worthington,  lands  in 
Baltimore  City.  To  grandson,  Richard  Johns,  lands  in  Baltimore 
City.  Named  son-in-law,  John  T.  H.  Worthington.  He  named, 
also,  as  residuary  legatees,  his  grandchildren.  Comfort,  Samuel, 
Polly  Worthington,  John  Tolley  and  Sarah  Weems  Johns. 

He  referred  to  the  helplessness  of  his  wife  and  urged  his  grand- 
son to  give  her  all  necessary  attention.  To  him,  also,  was  committed 
the  care  of  the  family  graveyard. 

Walter,  of  Samuel  and  Mary — Sarah  Hood.  Issue,  Mary — 
Charles  Worthington  Dorsey,  Martha,  Elizabeth,  Comfort,  Hannah, 
John  Tolley  Hood,  Samuel  and  Charles.  Samuel  Worthington,  Jr., 
the  bachelor,  named  his  sister,  Ann  Hawley;  brother,  Vachel; 
nieces,  Mary  Tolley  and  Comfort  Worthington,  daughters  of  brother 
Walter,  and  nephew  John  Tolley  Hood  Worthington  (children  of 
Walter  and  Sarah  Hood,  daughter  of  John  Hood,  Jr.,  by  Hannah 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      149 

Barnes).  Nephew  Samuel  Worthington,  son  of  brother  Edward, 
inherited  "  my  ciphered  china  and  tea  caddy,"  or,  if  he  preferred, 
one  hundred  dollars  instead,  the  said  china  to  go  to  niece  Ann 
Ridgely  Worthington,  daughter  of  brother  John  Tolley  Worthington. 
"  All  the  remainder  of  my  estate  to  my  brother,  John  Tolley. 

--     WORTHINGTONS  OF  SAMUEL  AND  MARY  TOLLEY. 

Thomas  Tolley  Worthington  was  born  in  Maryland,  17th 
December,  1771,  (a  twin  of  James  Tolley  Worthington  infra.), 
and  died  at  his  home  in  Mason  County,  Kentucky,  near  Bryant's 
Station,  30th  July,  1843.  On  6th  June,  1799,  he  married,  first, 
Lydia  Whipps,  who  died  15th  December,  1803.  The  issue  of  this 
marriage  were,  (1)  Rachel,  born  24th  April,  1800;  died  7th  Decem- 
ber, 1837.  (2)  Walter  Tolley,  born  17th  May,  1802  died  5th  May, 
1828. 

On  1st  November,  1804,  he  married  his  sister-in-law,  Avery 
Whipps.  The  issue  of  this  marriage  were,  (1)  Lydia,  born  4th 
August,  1805;  (2)  Samuel,  born  25th  January,  1807;  died  3rd  Octo- 
ber, 1862.  (3)  Comfort  Ann,  born  8th  May,  1808;  died  29th  May, 
1830.  (4)  Edward,  born  1st  April,  1809;  died  28th  September, 
1829,  unmarried.  (5)  John  Tolley,  born  6th  March,  1811;  died 
20th  May,  1836.  (6)  Mary  Ann,  born  2nd  September,  1812;  died 
12th  April,  1881.  (7)  Vachel,  born  7th  May,  1814;  died  5th  May, 
1856,  unmarried.  (8)  Thomas  Tolley,  born  25th  November,  1815; 
died  28th  September,  1856,  unmarried.  (9)  Charles,  born  5th  July, 
1817;  died  1st  September  1838,  unmarried.  (10)  Garrett,  born 
15th  June,  1819;  died  12th  October,  1857.  (11)  Madison,  born 
10th  April,  1821;  died  12th  June,  1897.  (12)  Martha,  born  25th 
February,  1823,  living.  (13)  Nicholas  Brice,  born  25th  May,  1825; 
died  27th  September,  1862.  (14)  Henry,  born  1st  September,  1826; 
died  18th  October,  1895. 

Rachel  married  Thomas  Mannen,  of  Mason  County,  Kentucky. 
Walter  Tolley  married  Elizabeth  Slack,  of  Mason  County,  Kentucky, 
Lydia  married  James  G.  Pepper,  of  Mason  County,  Kentucky. 
Samuel  married,  first,  Elizabeth  Robinson;  second,  Malusia  Robin- 
son (sisters),  of  Tuckahoe  County,  Kentucky;  third,  Sarah  Runyan, 
of  Mason  County.  Comfort  Ann  married  John  Robinson,  of 
Tuckahoe  County.  John  Tolley  married  Rachel  Donovan,  of 
Mason  County.  Mary  Ann  married,  first,  George  Barker;  second, 
Evan  Pickerell,  both  of  Bracken  County.  Garrett  married  Laura 
Adams,  of  Fleming  County.  Madison  married,  first,  Lizzie  Bledsoe; 
second,  Tillie  Holton.  Martha  married  William  T.  Craig,  of  Bracken 
County.  Nicholas  Brice  married,  first,  Jane  Craig;  second,  Maria 
Goward,  both  of  Mason  County.  Henry  married  Maria  Slack,  of 
Mason  C!ounty. 

James  Tolley  Worthington,  twin  of  Thomas  Tolle}^  was  born 
in  Maryland,  17th  December,  1771,  and  died  at  his  home  in  Mercer 
County,  Kentucky,  near  Harrodsburg,  28th  September,  1829.     In 


150      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

the  early  spring,  1801,  he  married  Margaret  P.  Stade.  The  issue 
of  this  marriage  were:  (1)  Vachel,  born  2nd  February,  1802;  died 
7th  July,  1877.  (2)  Mary  Tolley,  born  January,  1804;  died  Feb- 
ruary, 1878.  (3)  John  Tolley,  born  1808-9.  (4)  Comfort,  born 
28th  August,  1812;  died  28th  August,  1890.  (5)  William,  born 
1814-15;  died  in  early  youth.  (6)  Margaret  Ehzabeth,  born  23rd 
February,  1817;  died  19th  June,  1862.  (7)  Charles  Thomas,  born 
3rd  April,  1819;  died  14th  December,  1876.  (8)  Ellen  Catherine, 
born  1st  March,  1821;  died  27th  January,  1872.  (9)  Edward  Strade, 
born  29th  October,  1824;  died  30th  April,  1874.  (10)  Augusta, 
born  1827;  died  in  infancy. 

Vachel  married,  first,  25th  May,  1825,  Mary  Ann  Burnet,  of 
Cincinnati,  Ohio,  born  29th  June,  1802;  died  25th  October,  1834, 
and  had  issue,  (1)  Rebecca  Burnet,  (2)  James  Tolley,  (3)  Jacob 
Burner,  (4)  Rebecca  Burnet,  (5)  Jacob  Burnet,  all  dying  in  infancy 
but  James  Tolley,  still  living.  On  6th  January,  1839,  he  married, 
second,  Julia  Wiggins,  of  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  born  18th  October,  1816; 
died  7th  September,  1877,  and  had  issue,  (1)  Edward,  (2)  Samuel, 
(3)  Julia,  (4)  William. 

James  Tolley  married  Anne  Mary  Postlethwaite,  of  Lexington, 
Kentucky.  No  issue.  Edward,  unmarried,  Samuel  died,  6th 
December,  1848. 

Julia  married  William  Pope  Anderson,  of  Cincinnati,  Ohio. 
Issue,  Vachel  Worthington,  Larz.  Worthington,  Catherine  Long- 
worth,  Julia  Wiggins,  died  21st  January,  1876;  William  Pope, 
Laura  Wiggins,  died  4th  August,  1891;  Ida  Longworth,  died  24th 
October,  1897;  Francis  Baldwin,  William  Pope  Anderson,  her  hus- 
band, died  20th  November,  1897.  William  married  Susan  Carpen- 
ter.    Issue,  Julia,  Helen,  Louise  Skinner,  Elizabeth  Carpenter. 

Mary  Tolley  married,  first,  Madison  Worthington,  son  of  her 
uncle,  Edward  Worthington,  and  had  issue,  Margaret  Stade,  died, 
1886,  and  Caroline,  died  in  youth.  She  married,  secondly.  Dr. 
George  Venable,  of  Hopkinsville,  Kentucky,  and  had  issue,  George 
Worthington,  and  James  Edward.  Margaret  married  Frederic 
Augusta  de  Seebach-Juny,  and  had  issue,  George  Ousley,  Frederic 
Augustus,  Madison,  Edward  de  Seebach.  George  Worthington 
Venable  married  Louisa  Blair  and  had  issue,  Mary  Tolley,  died  1880; 
Julia  Augusta,  died  1896;  Susanna  Worthington;  Agnes  Louise, 
died  1884. 

John  Tolley  married  Susan  Hoard,  of  Mercer  County,  Kentucky, 
and  had  issue,  Margaret  Strade,  Maude,  Mary  Tolley.  Comfort 
married  Buckner  Miller,  of  Jefferson  County,  Kentucky,  and  had 
issue,  James  Tolley,  Margaret  Stade,  Charlie,  Henry,  Anna,  Julia 
Worthington.     William  died  in  youth. 

Margaret  Elizabeth  married,  27th  September,  1834,  George 
Mason  Long,  and  had  issue,  Margaret  Mason  and  Francis  Martin. 
Margaret  Mason  married  Smith  Gordon,  and  had  issue,  Margaret 
Elizabeth,  Francis  Zacharie,  Archie  Calvert.     Frances  Martin  mar- 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      151 

ried  John  Thomas  Janney,  of  Baltimore,  Maryland,  and  had  issue, 
Anna  Mason,  Margaret  Marshall,  Alice  Moore,  Ethel  Hyams,  Thomas, 
George  Mason  Long. 

Charles  Thomas  married  Joanna  Theresa  Gill,  and  had  issue, 
Erasmus  Tolley,  Anna  Elizabeth,  James  Tolley,  Vachelj  Hood, 
Joanna  Theresa,  Charles  Thomas,  Union,  Vachel  (2),  Mary  Tolley. 

Ellen  Catherine  married,  first,  James  Bruce  Johnstones,  and 
had  issue,  Margaret  Anna,  Edward  Worthington,  Charles  Worth- 
ington,  Julia  James,  Ellen  Bell,  Mary  Tolley,  of  whom  Charles 
Worthington  only  is  surviving.  She  married,  secondly,  William 
Edward  Keyes,  of  Louisville,  Kentucky.     No  issue. 

Edward  Stade  married  Anna  Eliza  Powell.     No  issue. 

Edward  Worthington  was  born  in  Maryland,  18th  June,  1773, 
and  died  in  Hopkinsville,  Kentucky,  1846.  In  1899  he  married 
Eliza  G.  Madison,  of  Point  Pleasant,  Virginia.  The  issue  of  this 
marriage  were,  (1)  Samuel  Madison,  (2)  John  Tolley,  (3)  Edward, 
(4)  James  Tolley,  (5)  Rowland  Madison,  (6)  Mary  Aim  Lewis,  (7) 
Eliza  Martha  Augusta,  (8)  Lucy  Lewis,  (9)  Margaret  Jane  Catherine. 
Samuel  Madison  married  his  cousin,  Mary  Tolley  Worthington, 
of  James  Tolley,  supra. 

John  Tolley  married,  first,  Ann  Hoard  Slaughter,  of  Mercer 
County,  Kentucky.  Issue,  William  Hoard.  He  married,  secondly, 
his  cousin  Elizabeth  Ann  Worthington,  of  Maryland.  Issue,  Walter 
Edward,  Sarah  Martha  Ann,  Eliza  Madison,  John  Tolley  Hood. 
He  married,  thirdly,  Jane  Alida  Holland,  of  Whitestone,  New  York. 
Issue.  James  Edward,  Rowland  Madison,  Lewis  Gilmore. 

Edward,  unmarried.  James  Tolley,  unmarried.  Rowland 
Madison,  married  Ann  Maria  Wells,  of  Rushville,  Illinois.  Issue, 
Eliza  Madison,  Edward,  Mary  Lewis,  James  Wells,  Anna  Maria, 
Lucy  Jane,  Sarah  Grier. 

Mary  Ann  Lewis,  unmarried.  Eliza  Martha  Augusta  married 
Judge  English,  of  Sacramento  City,  California,  and  had  one  daughter. 

Lucy  Lewis,  unmarried.  Margaret  Jane  Catherine  married  Dr. 
Charles  Shackelford,  of  Hopkinsville,  Kentucky.  Issue,  Lucy, 
Elizabeth  Madison,  Edward  Worthington. 

Charles,  of  Samuel  and  Mary, — Susan  Johns.  Issue,  Mary 
Tolley,  Samuel,  Richard,  John,  Sallie,  Henry,  Benjamin,  Rosetta, 
Edward. 

Ann  Worthington,  of  John  and  Helen, — Thomas,  Beale  Dorsey, 
youngest  son  of  Caleb  and  Elinor  (Warfield)  Dorsey,  of  Hockley. 
Issue,  Caleb,  John  Worthington  Dorsey,  Thomas  Beale  Dorsey,  Jr., 
and  Sarah  Meriweather. 

Ehzabeth  Worthington,  of  John  and  Helen, — Nicholas  Dorsey,^ 
of  Joshua  and  Anne  Ridgely.     (See  Dorsey.) 

Thomas  Worthington,  of  John  and  Helen,  1761, — Ehzabeth 
Hammond.  Issue,  John  Worthington,  1785, — Anne  Dorsey,  of 
Nicholas  and  Elizabeth,  of  AnnapoUs  Junction.  Issue,  Nicholas, 
Lloyd,  John,  Noah,  Thomas,  Reuben,  Elizabeth,  Ann,  Comfort  and 
Henrietta.     Nicholas   was   the   large    landholder;    Lloyd   went    to 


152      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Missouri;  Reuben  was  drowned;  Noah  and  Thomas  were  bachelors. 
John — Miss  Cockey.  Issue,  Nicholas — Miss  O'dell,  granddaughter 
of  General  Towson, — Issue,  John — Miss  Parshall,  of  Pennsylvania, 
whose  daughter  is  Mrs.  Matilda  Pomeroy  of  Toledo,  Ohio. 

Judge  Dye  Worthington,  of  Howard,  long  judge  of  the  Orphans 
Court,  married  Henrietta  Ridgely,  of  Dr.  Charles  C.  Ridgely,  of 
Clarkesville.  Otis  Worthington,  his  brother, — first.  Miss  Walters, 
and,  second,  NelHe  Dorsey,  of  Amos.  Thomas  Worthington — 
second,  Marcella  Owings,  of  Joshua.  Issue,  Mary,  Noah,  Thomas 
Dye,  Rezin  Hammond — first,  Rachel  Shipley,  of  Robert;  second, 
Mary  Shipley.  Issue  Thomas  Chew  Worthington,  whose  large 
estate  was  near  Woodstock. 

John  Tolley  Worthington — Mary  Govane,  daughter  of  James 
Hood,  of  Hood's  Mill,  whose  wife  was  Sarah  Howard,  daughter  of 
Benjamin  Howard  and  Mary  Govane.  Issue,  Mary  Govane  Hood, 
whose  inheritance  was  later  sold  by  her  husband  and  herself  to 
Samuel  Bentz,  and  by  him  named  "The  Stock  Farm."  It  bordered 
on  "Dexterity"  at  Hood's  Mill;  took  in  "Sally's  Chance,"  her 
mother's  tract.  It  was  deeded  by  John  Tolley  Worthington,  and 
Mary  Govane,  his  wife,  to  Samuel  Bentz,  in  1858. 

The  following  notice  of  his  estate  is  taken  from  the  Baltimore 
Sun:  "John  Tolley  Worthington,  son  of  John  Tolley  Worthington, 
who  died  in  1860,  holds  an  estate  which  covers  most  of  Worthington 
Valley.  His  mother  was  Mary  Govane  Hood.  Mr.  Worthington 
inherited  the  'Shawan'  Hunting  Ground,  about  1,000  acres,  near 
Cockeysville.  His  father's  estate  called  'Mont  Morency,'  was  left 
to  him,  Mrs.  Sallie  Conrad  and  L.  W.  Cipriani,  his  nephew." 

The  following  quotation  from  a  Washington  paper  refers  to  him: 
"There  are  many  persons  living  in  Baltimore  to  whom  the  name, 
Bodisco,  will  recall  another  brilliant  marriage;  that  of  the  beautiful 
daughter  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  Tolley  Worthington.  Some  years 
before  the  war.  Miss  Mary  Worthington  went  abroad  with  the 
Count  and  Countess  Bodisco.  She  was  presented  at  the  French 
Court,  which  was  then  the  most  brilliant  in  Europe.  On  this 
occasion  she  wore  a  superb  pink  watered  silk  gown,  the  front  of 
which  was  trimmed  with  rosettes  in  which  glistened  diamonds.  She 
married  Leonette  Cipriani,  an  Italian  general  of  noble  birth.  One 
year  later,  the  daughter  returned  to  her  home  and  there  died.  Her 
only  son  inherited  her  interest  in  Worthington  Valley. 

James  Worthington,  of  John, — Elizabeth  Griffith,  of  Colonel 
Henry,  Jr.  Issue,  John  Hammond  Worthington,  Nicholas  Griffith, 
Sarah,  Susan,  Thomas,  William,  Mary  H.,  Upton  and  Elizabeth 
Worthington. 

John  Hammond  —  Ann  Hammond  Dorsey,  of  Joshua  and 
Henrietta  Hammond.  Issue,  Joshua  Dorsey  Worthington,  Nicholas, 
John  T.  Worthington. 

Nicholas  Worthington,  of  John  H.  and  Ann, — first,  Sarah  E, 
Anderson.  Issue,  Laura — Lloyd  E.  Dorsey.  Second,  Henrietta  A. 
Dorsey. 


FOUNDEKS  OF  AnNE  ArUNDEL  AND  HoWARD  COUNTIES.         153 

Charles  Worthington,  of  James  and  Elizabeth, — Ann  Brashear. 
Upton  Worthington,  of  James  and  Elizabeth — Catherine  Dorsey, 
of  Joshua  and  Henrietta.  Nicholas  Griffith  Worthington,  of  James 
and  Elizabeth, — in  Kentucky,  Eliza  White. 

Thomas  Worthington,  second  son  of  Captain  John — Elizabeth 
Ridgely, "daughter  of  Henry  and  Katherine  (Greenberry)  Ridgely. 
Issue,  Ann,  born  1713;  "Sarah,  1715;  Elizabeth,  1717;  Katherine, 
1720;  Rachel  Ridgely,  1722;  Thomasine,  1724;  Brice  Thomas 
Beale,  1727;   Ariana,  1729;   Thomas,  1731;    Nicholas,  1734. 

Thomas  and  Elizabeth  Worthington  bought  "Broome"  and 
"Wardridge"  of  Henry  Ridgely,  third,  and  resided  there.  It 
bordered  upon  "Hockley",  and  upon  it  are  both  the  Ridgely  and 
Worthington  graveyards. 

From  that  old  homestead  went  forth  to  Elk  Ridge,  the  follow- 
ing daughters,  whose  history  belongs  to  Howard  County:  Sarah 
Worthington — Basil  Dorsey,  born  at  Hockley;  Elizabeth — Henry 
Dorsey,  of  Joshua  and  Ann  Ridgely;  Katherine — Major  Nicholas 
Gassa^ay,  of  Colonel  Nicholas,  of  South  ^iver;  Rachel  Ridgely 
Worthington — Cornelius  Howard,  of  Joseph,  her  neighbor;  Thom- 
asin — Alexander  Warfield,  of  John;  Ariana — Nicholas  Watkins,  Jr. 
All  inherited  portions  of  "Worthington  Range,"  at  Clarksville,  and 
"Partnership,"  between  Highland  and  Fulton. 

The  sons  of  Thomas  and  Elizabeth  Ridgely  Worthington 
remained  in  Anne  Arundel.  Thomas  Worthington  died  in  1753, 
when  the  following  obituary  notice  was  written  upon  his  life;  his 
wife,  Elizabeth,  died  1734:  "Last  Monday  morning,  died  at  his 
plantation,  about  five  miles  from  town,  in  the  63rd  year,  or  grand 
climatical  year,  of  his  age,  Mr.  Thomas  Worthington,  who,  for  many 
years  past,  and  to  the  time  of  his  death,  was  one  of  the  representa- 
tives for  this  county  in  the  Lower  House  of  the  Assembly.  He 
served  his  country  with  a  steady  and  disinterested  fidelity;  was 
strictly  honest  in  principle  and  practice,  and,  therefore,  had  the 
esteem  of  all  that  knew  him.  He  was  a  good  father  and  sincere 
friend;  was  frugal  and  industrious,  and  was  possessed  of  many 
qualities  which  constituted  the  character  of  a  good  and  sincere 
Christian."— (Maryland  Gazette,  1753.) 

Hon.  Brice  Thomas  Beale  Worthington,  his  son,  w^as  a  mem- 
ber of  the  colonial  legislature  preceding  the  Revolution,  and  was 
upon  the  active  list  in  the  defense  of  the  province.  He  married 
Ann  Ridgely,  daughter  of  Colonel  Henry  and  Elizabeth  (Warfield) 
Ridgely.  Their  daughter  Mary — John  Tolley  Worthington,  of 
Samuel  and  Mary  Tolley,  of  Joppa.     Issue,  Brice,  Mary  and  Ann. 

Mary  Tyler  Worthington,  granddaughter  of  Hon.  Thomas 
Beale,  became  the  wife  of  Wilham  Warfield,  the  Annapolis  merchant, 
great-grandson  of  Benjamin  Warfield,  of  "  Lugg  Ox." 

Major  Nicholas  Worthington,  next  son  of  Thomas  and  Eliza- 
beth, married  Catherine  Griffith,  daughter  of  Captain  Charles  and 
Catherine  (Baldwin)  Griffith.  Their  homestead  was  "  Summer  Hill." 
It  stood  west  of  Hockley,  and  south  of  the  Annapolis  and  Elk  Ridge 


154      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

railroad,  until  destroyed  by  fire.  Major  Worthington  was  a  rep- 
resentative in  the  General  Assembly  at  Annapolis,  and  commanded 
the  militia  of  his  section.  His  oldest  son,  Thomas  Worthington,, 
was  located  near  "The  Rising  Sun,"  a  celebrated  wayside  resort. 
He  married  Margaret  Mullikin.  Charles — Elizabeth  Booth;  Nich- 
olas— Elizabeth  Rutland;  Catherine — Colonel  Baker  Johnson;  Brice 
John  Worthington — Ann  Fitzhugh. 

John  Griffith  Worthington,  his  twin  brother,  was  a  representa- 
tive in  the  Legislature,  and  died  a  bachelor.  Achsah — Dr.  Richard 
Goldsborough;  Sarah — Dr.  William  Goldsborough.  These  daugh- 
ters of  "Summer  Hill"  have  left  long  lines  of  distinguished  men 
and  women,  in  Frederick  and  upon  the  Eastern  Shore. 

Thomas  and  Margaret  (Mullikin)  Worthington's  descendants 
were  Thomas  and  Dr.  Charles  Griffith  Worthington,  the  history 
of  whom  belongs  to  Howard  County. 

"  BELVOIR." 

Upon  a  commanding  ridge  overlooking  an  extensive  landscape, 
and  in  full  view  of  Round  Bay,  stands  the  best  preserved  colonial 
home  near  Annapolis.  It  is  "  Belvoir,"  built  upon  "  Wyatt's  Ridge." 
It  is  a  long  brick  building  with  wide  hallway  and  well-proportioned 
rooms.  It  was  built  by  John  Ross,  when  Register  of  the  Land 
Office.     It  became  next  the  property  of  Colonel  Maynadier. 

Hon.  Brice  John  Worthington,  son  of  Colonel  Nicholas,  of 
"Summer  Hill,"  to  extend  his  estate  from  Eagle  Nest  Bay  to  South- 
River,  a  distance  of  seven  miles,  purchased  "Belvoir"  at  a  cost  of 
$25,000,  and,  it  is  claimed,  made  $13,000  on  tobacco  in  one  year. 
He  married  Anna  Lee  Fitzhugh,  niece  of  Colonel  Maynadier  of  "  Old 
Windsor,"  Baltimore  County,  whom  he  met  on  one  of  his  fox-hunt- 
ing rims  with  the  Colonel. 

In  a  large  field,  nearly  a  fourth  of  a  mile  from  the  dwelling, 
surrounded  by  an  iron  railing,  rest  the  remains  of  Mrs.  Maynadier 
and  those  of  Mrs.  Ann  Arnold  Key,  grandmother  of  Maryland's 
poet.  The  latter  grave  has  the  protective  stamp  of  the  Colonial 
Dames  of  Maryland;  and  upon  the  old  tombstone  one  may  read: 
"In  memory  of  Mrs.  Ann  Arnold  Key,  who  departed  this  life 
January  5th,  1811,  in  the  84th  year  of  her  age." 

She  was  the  daughter  of  John  Ross,  who  held  land  in  several 
counties,  viz.:  "Ross  Range,"  in  Frederick  County;  "Carpenter's 
Point,"  Talbot  County,  and  later,  the  builder  of  "Belvoir."  upon 
Nicholas  Wyatt's  survey  of  "Wyatt's  Ridge." 

Mrs.  Key's  sister,  Elizabeth  Ross,  married  Dr.  Upton  Scott, 
a  wealthy  citizen  of  Annapolis,  whose  homestead  has  been  made 
the  seat  of  the  hero,  "Richard  Carvil." 

Ann  Arnold  Ross  married  Francis  Key,  son  of  Philip  Key,  of 
St.  Mary's.  Upon  the  burning  of  her  house  at  Carpenter's  Point, 
her  sight  was  destroyed  by  fire  and  smoke  while  rescuing  two 
servants  from  the  flames.     She  then  crossed  the  bay  and  took  up  her 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      155 

residence  with  her  daughter,  Ehzabeth  Ross  Key,  wife  of  Colonel 
Henry  Maynadier,  of  "  Belvoir,"  where  she  ended  her  days.  Mrs. 
Key  had,  also,  two  sons,  John  Ross  and  Philip  Barton  Key.  The 
former  was  an  active  patriot  of  the  Revolution;  the  latter  a  Tory, 
whose  property  was  confiscated.  This  same  property  came  to  him 
through  the  generosity  of  his  brother,  heir-at-law  of  the  estate,  who 
shared  with  his  brother;  and,  after  the  war,  again  shared  his  estate 
with  his  Tory  brother. 

General  John  Ross  Key  married  Anne  Rhoche  Charlton,  whose 
son  was  Francis  Scott  Key,  author  of  the  "Star  Spangled  Banner." 
His  sister,  Anne,  became  the  wife  of  Chief  Justice  Roger  Brooke 
Taney. 

Francis  Scott  Key  married  Mary  Tayloe  Lloyd:  their  son, 
Philip  Barton  Key,  met  a  tragic  death — killed  by  General  Daniel 
E.  Sickles.  His  brother,  Samuel  P.  Key,  fell  in  a  duel  at  Bladens- 
burg.  His  daughter,  wife  of  Senator  George  H.  Pendleton,  also  met 
a  tragic  death,  in  falling  from  her  carriage.  He,  himself,  died 
suddenly  in  Baltimore,  in  1843,  and  now  lies  in  Mt.  Olivet  Cemetery, 
Frederick,  under  a  handsome  monument  erected  over  him  in  1898. 
His  wife  rests  beside  him."  The  above  quotation  is  from  an 
excellent  contribution  to  the  Ellicott  City  Times. 

The  unprotected  tomb,  thus  described,  has  only  recently  been 
guarded  by  the  Society  of  Colonial  Dames,  which  is  rescuing  many 
"more  graves  from  desecration. 

Hon.  Brice  John  Worthington  was  fourth  in  line  in  distinguished 
service  in  legislative  halls,  at  Annapolis.  He  was  an  ardent  Fed- 
eralist. When  Alexander  Contee  Hanson,  General  Lingan,  "Light- 
Horse"  Harry  Lee,  Dr.  Peregrine  Warfield,  Majors  Ephraim  and 
William  Gaither,  and  other  defenders  of  Hanson's  Press,  had  been 
mobbed  in  Baltimore,  Hon.  Mr.  Worthington  rode  in  his  carriage 
to  bring  them  to  his  home  at  "Belvoir."  When  Samuel  Chase  had 
been  impeached  in  Washington,  he  rode  there  and  remained  with 
him  during  his  trial. 

Upon  the  arrival  of  United  States  Senator  Henry  Moore  Ridgely 
at  Washington,  he  asked  General  Samuel  Smith  if  "his  cousin, 
Brice  John  Worthington,  still  lived."  The  General  answered,  "Yes 
and  his  heart  is  as  big  as  this  capitol."  This  big-hearted  Federalist 
and  friend  in  need,  though  his  county  had  been  democratic,  still 
kept  a  seat  in  the  halls  of  legislation,  where  three  of  his  direct 
ancestors  had  sat  before  him — all  from  the  neighborhood  of  ''Eagle 
Nest  Bay." 

His  issue  were  Catherine — Dr.  Wm.  Gautt;  Elizabeth — 
Edward  Rutland;  George  Fitzhugh — Elizabeth  Harwood;  Nicholas 
Brice — Sophia  K.  Muse;  Hester  Ann — Dr.  Richard  McCubbin; 
Brice  John — Matilda  Pue;  CaroHne — WiUiam  Holliday;  Mary  and 
Charles  F.  Worthington. 

"Belvoir"  is  now  held  by  a  Catholic  society,  but  its  history 
belongs  to  the  brightest  and  most  palmy  days  of  the  province. 


156      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

William  Worthington,  of  Captain  John,  1717, — Sarah  Home- 
wood.  He  was  a  justice  in  1719.  He  bought,  or  held,  a  tract  of 
Thomas  Homewood  near  the  Magothy  River  in  Anne  Arundel  County. 
Wornell  Worthington  was  the  only  son  of  William,  who  left  descend- 
ants. He  married  Anna  Hammond.  The  "  William  Worthington," 
recorded  in  "The  Bowies  and  Their  Kin,"  "born,  1748,"  was  his 
son.  I  quote  from  the  above:  "Reared  by  his  grandfather,  he 
inherited  a  large  estate  upon  the  Magothy,  opposite  'Three  Sisters,' 
and  called  his  home  'Mount  Ida.'  " 

In  1773,  his  land  was  named  "  Worthington's  Courting." 
He  married  Jane  Contee,  daughter  of  Colonel  Thomas  Contee 
and  Sarah  Fendall.  He  was  polished,  affable  and  generous;  but 
his  property,  some  1,200  acres,  was  sacrificed  to  pay  his  friends' 
debts.  He  went  to  Nottingham.  His  wife  inherited  "Brookefield" 
and  its  graveyard.  It  is  now  known  as  "The  Valley,"  and  is  held 
by  his  granddaughter,  Mrs.  Thomas  F.  Bowie,  Jr.  It  was  willed  to 
Walter  Worthington,  the  eldest  son. 

General  Thomas  Contee  Worthington,  of  William,  born  1782, 
died  at  Frederick,  1847.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Governor's 
Council,  and  was  in  Congress,  in  1830.  He  was  an  officer  in  the 
State  Militia,  and  in  the  war  of  1812,  in  which  he  was  commissioned 
Brigadier-General  of  9th  Brigade  of  Maryland  Troops.  He  never 
married. 

Judge  Wm.  G.  D.  Worthington,  of  William, — Eliza  Jordan. 
He' was  minister  to  South  America;  trod  the  sunburnt  pampas,  and 
climbed  the  snow  clad  peaks  of  the  Andes;  was  sent  to  Greece,  and 
advocated  its  independence.  He  was  Judge  of  the  Court  in  Balti- 
more. Alexander  Contee  Worthington  and  his  son,  of  Baltimore, 
are  descendants. 

Walter  Brooke  Cox  Worthington,  youngest  son, — Mrs.  Priscilla 
Oden,  daughter  of  Governor  Robert  Bowie.  His  daughter  Eliza- 
beth Margaret — Thomas  F.  Bowie,  Jr.,  and  inherits  "The  Valley." 
He  was  wealthy  and  kind.  His  son  William — a  daughter  of  General 
Thomas  F.  Bowie,  United  States  Congressman  and  political  leader 
in  Prince  George.  His  son,  Hal.  Bowie,  my  classmate  at  Dickin- 
son College,  a  splendid  soldier  during  the  War  of  1861,  was  one  of 
its  victims. 

Charles  Worthington,  of  Captain  John, — Sarah  Chew.     Issue, 

Elizabeth,  Charles  and  John.     He  removed  to  Baltimore  County. 

Sarah  Worthington,   of  Captain   John, — Nicholas  Ridgely,   of 

Henry  and  Katherine  Greenberry.     Her  descendants  are  in  both 

Maryland  and  Delaware. 

CAPT,  JOHN  BRICE. 

From  a  copy  held  by  Nicholas  Brice,  of  Philadelphia,  made 
from  Judge  Nicholas  Price's  record,  the  following  is  taken,  by 
permission  of  Mrs.  Edith  Marden  Ridout,  of  the  Severn: 

"Captain  John  Brice  came  from  Hamershire,  England.  He  is 
recorded  as  gentleman,  merchant,  planter,  member  of  the  House 


FOUXDERS  OF  AXNE  ArUXDEL  AXD  HoTVARD   COUNTIES.         157 

of  Burgesses,  Justice  of  the  Peace,  and  Captain  of  the  Severn  Hun- 
dred. He  married  Sarah,  widow  of  Captain  John  Worthington. 
His  crest  and  coat  of  arms,  a  Hon's  head,  are  still  extant. 

"Captain  Brice  was  guardian  for  the  Worthington  heirs  and 
extended  the  estate.  One  son  and  two  daughters  were  the  issue  of 
his  marriage  to  Mrs.  Worthington.  Ann — Vachel  Denton:  Rachel 
— Philip  Hammond,  the  Annapolis  merchant.  John  Brice,  Jr., 
Judge  of  the  Provincial  Court — Sarah  Frisby,  daughter  of  James 
and  Ariana  (Vanderheyden)  Frisby." 

Mrs.  Ariana  Frisby  was  three  times  married.  Her  last  husband 
was  Edmund  Jenings,  secretary  of  the  province,  by  whom  she  had 
a  son,  Edmund  Jenings,  Jr.  John  and  Sarah  Frisby  Brice  left 
Ariana — Dr.  David  Ross;  Sarah — Richard  Henderson,  of  Blad- 
ensburg.  John,, the  bachelor  official  of  Annapolis;  Colonel  James 
Brice — Juliana  Jenings,  whose  wedding  gift  was  the  magnificent 
colonial  homestead  on  Prince  George  Street.  Annapolis. 

Colonel  James  Brice  left  a  note  book  with  maps  of  the  battles 
of  the  Revolution,  in  which  he  was  engaged.  His  daughter,  Juhana 
Jenings  Brice  became  the  wife  of  Judge  John  Stephen,  of  St.  Mary's 
County,  son  of  Rev.  Stephen  of  St.  Mary's,  whose  church  still  stands. 

Judge  Stephen  removed  to  Bladensburg.  He  had  eight  sons, 
only  one  of  whom,  Nicholas  Carroll  Stephen,  had  issue.  Benjamin 
D.  Stephen,  John  Stephen  and  Mrs.  Juliana  Jenings  Dieudonne, 
all  of  Bladensburg,  are  his  heirs.  From  these  I  have  seen  the  Brice 
records. 

Mr.  James  Frisby  Brice,  son  of  Colonel  James  Brice,  left  the 
following  record  of  the  families  of  Edmund  and  Thomas  Jenings, 
the  two  distinguished  officials  of  the  province.  He  records :  "  Thomas 
Jenings,  my  grandfather,  was  born  in  England.  The  place  and 
time  of  his  birth  are  not  known  to  us;  nor  do  we  know  the  christian 
names  of-his  father  and  mother.  The  former  died  when  he  was 
quite  j^oimg.  He  was  a  cousin  to  the  Duchess  of  Marlborough, 
whose  name  was  Sarah  Jenings.  He  came  to  this  country  when 
ninteen  years  of  age.  My  brother,  Thomas  J.  Brice,  found  in  the 
Executive  Chamber  a  record  of  his  commission  as  Attorney-General 
of  the  State,  about  the  year  1773. 

"He  studied  law  in  England  with  Mr.  James  Best,  and  at  his 
request,  named  a  son  and  daughter  for  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Best,  who 
left  them  legacies.  Elizabeth  Jenings  was  a  celebrated  beauty. 
She  became  Mrs.  Hodges  of  Baltimore.  We  are  related  to  the 
family  of  Edmimd  Jenings,  Secretary  of  the  Pro\'ince,  through  his 
marriage  to  my  great-grandmother,  Ariana,  mother  of  Sarah  Frisby. 

"Edmund  Jenings  and  wife  went  to  London,  where  she  died. 
He  returned  and  died  in  1757.  Their  son,  Edmund  Jenings, 
remained  in  England,  and  wTote  to  his  half  sister,  Sarah  (Frisby) 
Brice,  for  information  of  the  family." 

Mr.  Thomas  J.  Brice,  brother  of  the  above  recorder,  held  the 
Brice  mansion  until  his  death,  which  was  caused  by  a  blow  given 
him  whilst  asleep,  presumably  by  a  servant  to  secure  a  legacy. 


158      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

The  historic  house  descended  to  Nicholas  Carroll  Stephen,  the 
attorney  of  Bladensburg,  who  sold  it  to  Ex-Mayor  Martin,  its 
present  owner.    It  is  by  all  odds,  the  most  elegant  home  in  Annapolis. 

Edmund  Brice,  of  John  and  Sarah, — Harriet  Woodward.  Their 
son,  James  Edmund  Brice  was  consul  to  St.  Domingo.  His  mother, 
later,  became  the  wife  of  Dr.  William  Murray,  of  West  River. 

Margaretta  Augusta,  of  John  and  Sarah,  became  the  wife 
of  Major  Andrew  Leitch,  of  General  Washington's  staff.  Their 
daughters  were  Mrs.  John  Addison,  Mrs.  Dr.  Thomas  Scharff,  of 
Georgetown,  whose  daughter,  Jane,  married  Rev.  John  Johns, 
rector  of  Christ  Church. 

Elizabeth,  of  John  and  Sarah, — first,  Lloyd  Dulaney,  who  fell 
in  duel  with  Rev.  Mr.  Allen,  in  Hyde  Park;  second,  Major  Walter 
Dulaney,  of  the  British  Army.  They  resided  at  Annapolis.  Their 
daughter  Mary,  married  Henry  Rogers;  Sally  Grafton  Dulaney — 
Oliver  Donaldson. 

The  wives  of  General  James  Lingan,  who  was  killed  in  the 
Baltimore  mob  of  1812,  and  of  Patrick  Sim,  were  daughters  of 
Sarah  Brice  and  Richard  Henderson,  of  Bladensburg. 

John  Brice,  the  third,  married  Mary  Clare  Carroll  MacCubbin. 
Their  sons  were  John,  Nicholas,  Henry  and  Edmund. 

John,  the  fourth, — Sarah  Lane,  and  had  issue,  Mary  Clare — 
Christian  Keener;  Providence  Dorsey — Darius  Clagett;  Eliza — 
I.  P.  Kraffth,  Prussian  Consul.  Their  daughter,  Mary  E.,  became 
the  wife,  and  (now  deceased.)  widow  of  Judge  Reuben  M.  Dorsey, 
of  Howard  County. 

Judge  Nicholas  Brice — Anna  Maria  Margaret  Tilghman.  Their 
son,  John  Henry  Brice — Sophia  Howard;  Charles  Carroll  Brice — 
Susan  Selby.  Issue,  Anna  Maria  Brice — Jesse  Marden.  Their 
daughter,  Edith,  is  now  Mrs.  Weems  Ridout,  of  St.  Margaret's 
Parish. 

Richard  Tilghman  Brice,  of  Charles  Carroll,  held  the  historic 
homestead  overlooking  the  beautiful  Severn,  a  picture  of  which  he 
kindly  offered  me. 

JOHN  BALDWIN,  OF  SOUTH  RIVER: 

This  Virginia  descendant  of  John  Baldwyn,  the  hero  of  1622, 
became  a  Quaker  convert  of  the  South  River  settlement.  His  will 
of  1684,  named  his  wife,  Elizabeth;  daughter,  Margaret,  wife  of 
Thomas  Cruchley,  the  Annapolis  attorney;  his  daughter  Lydia, 
widow  of  Thomas  Watkins  and  mother  of  Thomas  Watkins,  Jr.; 
his  daughter,  Ruth,  wife  of  Captain  Philip  Howard;  his  son,  John 
heir  and  executor.  The  testator  also  names  his  grand  children,  viz. : 
Hannah  Howard,  Lydia  Cruchley  (sister  of  Ruth  Warfield),  and 
Thomas  Watkins,  Jr. 

John  Baldwin,  the  son,  married  Hester,  widow  of  Nicholas 
Nicholson  and  daughter  of  John  B^Msssia.  Their  sons  were  Thomas 
and  John.     Catherine,  wife   of  Captain  Charles   Griffith,   was   the 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      159 

•only  daughter.  From  Thomas  and  Agnes  Baldwin  came  Anne,  wife 
of  Judge  Samuel  Chase,  signer  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence, 
and  Hester,  wife  of  Judge  Townley  Chase. 

John  Baldwin,  the  third,  removed  to  Cecil  County.  He  was 
the  progenitor  of  the  McLane  and  Milligan  families  of  Delaware; 
represented  in  Maryland  by  Hon.  Louis  McLane,  once  president  of 
the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad,  father  of  Governor  Robert 
McLane,  ambassador  to  France  under  President  Cleveland.  The  late 
Mayor  Robert  McLane,  a  nephew,  by  his  courageous  work,  suc- 
ceeding the  disastrous  fire  of  1904,  has  helped  to  restore  a  more 
beautiful  city. 

There  is  a  will  at  Annapolis,  which  shows  that  John  Baldwin, 
the  Quaker,  must  have  had  another  son  not  named  in  his  will,  viz.: 
James  Baldwin,  the  testator  of  1727.  He  names  his  sons  John, 
James,  Thomas,  Tyler;  and  daughters  Susanna  and  Mary  Baldwin. 
"To  son  James,  the  homestead  of  my  father,  John  Baldwin,  by  his 
last  will  and  testament."     Thomas  Baldwin  was  a  witness. 

The  will  of  Robert  Tyler  sheds  further  light  on  this  family.  It 
reads:  "My  tract,  ' Borough,' to  go  afterwards  to  grandson,  John 
Baldwin;  to  grandson,  Tyler  Baldwin;  to  grandson,  Thomas  Bald- 
win; to  grandson,  James  Baldwin — sons  of  Mary  Baldwin." 

The  Baldwin  family  of  Anne  Arundel,  suppose  that  their  pro- 
genitor, Edward  Baldwin,  descended  from  one  of  the  sons  of  James 
Baldwin,  the  testator  of  1727.  I  am  aware  that  he  is  put  down  in 
the  Baldwin  book  as  an  independent  member,  not  further  traced. 

Edward  Baldwin  settled  in  Anne' Arundel,  on  a  tract,  "  Brogdens" 
His  wife  was  Miss  Meeks.  Issue,  James,  Henry,  Deborah  and  Lydia. 
The  oldest  son,  James,  bore  the  name  of  the  testator  of  1727;  this 
indicates  a  connection. 

Mr.  Edward  Baldwin  and  his  wife,  both  died  young,  leaving 
minors.  These  were  well  brought  up  by  a  Mr.  Wilson,  of  Annapolis, 
Mr.  Guildhall  and  Mr.  Woodward.  James  inherited  the  homestead; 
Henry  was  seated  at  "  Rising  Sun,"  adjoining  his  brother. 

Coming  to  manhood  at  the  beginning  of  the  Revolution,  Henry 
raised  a  company  of  militia,  and  later  served  in  the  field.  Captain 
Henry  married,  first,  Sarah  Hall,  widow  of  James  Rawlings.  Their 
daughter,  Sarah,  became  Mrs.  Denton  Hammond.  Issue,  Colonel 
Matthias;  Elizabeth  —  Richard  Cromwell;  Camilla  —  Dr.  Fairfax 
Herbert,  of  Howard.  Their  sons  were  the  noted  Confederate 
General  James  Rawlings  Herbert,  and  his  brothers  John  and  Edward. 

Captain  Henry  Baldwin — second,  Maria  Woodward,  daughter 
of  Wm.  Garrett  Woodward,  by  Dinah  Warfield,  his  wife.  Their 
only  son  was  Judge  William  Henry  Baldwin,  who  married  Jane 
Maria  Woodward,  of  Lieutenant  Henry  Woodward.  Eliza,  his  sister, 
married  Thomas  Worthington.  Their  two  children  were  Dr.  Wm. 
Henry  Worthington  and  Achsah  Dorsey.  Judge  Wm.  Henry  Bald- 
win, of  Annapolis,  left  sons  and  daughters  of  distinction:  Maria 
Eleanor — Hon.  Benjamin  Gantt;  Martha  E. — Rev.  N.  J.  B.  Morgan; 


160      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Wm.  Henry  Baldwin,  Jr.,  Richard,  Christopher  Columbus,  Sum- 
merfield,  Rev.  Charles  Winterfield,  presiding  elder  of  the  Methodist 
Church,  graduate  of  Yale, — first,  Annie  E.  Hopkins;  second,  Annie 
M.  Thomas. 

Christopher  Columbus  Baldwin  married  Miss  Roman,  of  Hagers- 
town. 

The  late  Richard  Baldwin,  former  Register  of  Wills  in  Anne 
Arundel  County,  lived  at  Waterbury,  upon  Howard's  and  Porter's 
Range.  His  wife  was  Sophia  Furlong.  Their  oldest  daughter,  Jane, 
now  Mrs.  Cotton,  has  completed  indexes  of  wills  and  testamentary 
proceedings  in  Anne  Arundel.  Her  brothers  and  sisters  are  Wm. 
Henry,  H.  Furlong,  Richard,  Christopher  Columbus,  Fannie-Louisa 
and  Washington,  wa^  j  ;  v^Q-j;:ir^  ^  Y'iMSK  :>f  tXl,    f^}^<.n-:t^'-fAC. 

Summerfield  Baldwin  —  Fannie  Cugle.  Issue,  William  and 
Summerfield  Baldwin.     He  married,  second,  Miss  Juliet  Sewell. 

Rignal  Baldwin,  attorney-at-law,  Baltimore, — Rosa  Hall,  of 
Washington,  D.  C.  Issue,  Rignal,  Morgan  H.,  Springfield,  Henry 
Wilson  and  Charles  Severn  Baldwin.  Mr.  Rignal  Baldwin  graduated 
from  Dickinson  College,  but  died  in  his  prime. 

WilHam  Henry  Baldwin,  Jr.,  at  fourteen  years,  was  employed 
by  Jones  &  Woodward,  later  Wilham  Woodward  &  Co.,  and  still 
later,  in  1844,  when  Mr.  Baldwin  became  a  partner,  it  took  the  name 
still  held,  Woodward,  Baldwin  &  Co.  The  death  of  Mr.  Woodward, 
in  1896,  left  Mr.  Baldwin  senior  member.  He  founded  the  Maryland 
Savings  Bank,  and  was  its  first  president.  He  was  of  the  board 
of  Eutaw  Savings  Bank,  Maryland  Trust  Co.,  Merchants  National 
Bank  and  The  American  Fire  Insurance  Co.;  president  of  the 
Mercantile  Library;  member  of  Merchants  and  Manufacturers 
Association;   and,  lastly,  the  owner  of  Savage  Factory. 

In  1859,  he  married  Mary  P.  Rodman,  daughter  of  Samuel,  of 
Rhode  Island.  Their  son,  Frank  Gambrill  Baldwin,  is  of  the  same 
firm.  Carroll  Baldwin  represents  the  New  York  branch.  The 
daughters  are  Misses  Maria  Woodward  and  Salhe  Rodman  Baldwin. 

Mr.  Baldwin  was  a  vestryman  of  Grace  Church.  He  died 
October,  1902,  and  was  interred  at  Baldwin's  Memorial  Church, 
near  Waterbury. 

James  Baldwin,  oldest  son  of  Edward,  through  his  son  Edward, 
had  granddaughters,    Eilzabeth — Joseph  Tate;  Lydia — John  Sewell. 

Francis  Baldwin,  of  James, — first,  Sarah  Duvall,  of  Ephriam, 
and  second,  Mary  Sewell,  of  Augustine.  He  died  at  "  Boyd's  Chance," 
an  inheritance  from  his  father,  James.  His  heirs  were,  Mary  Pitts, 
Sarah,  Susan,  John  and  Thomas  Pitts  Baldwin. 

\^  PITTS: 

Thomas  Pitts,  of  Wilham,  settled  at  "Pitts'  Orchard,"  Anne 
Arundel,  and  married  Susannah  Lusby.  Issue,  Thomas,  Charles, 
John,  Elizabeth,  Susan,  Henrietta,  Ann  and  Mary  Pitts.  Thomas 
Pitts,  Jr., — Sarah  Sewell,  of  John.     Issue,  Thomas  and  Achash. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      161 

Mary — Augustine  Sewell;  Elizabeth — Charles  McElfresh,  of 
Frederick  County;  Ann — Mordecai  Stewart,  of  South  River.  Third 
daughter,  Eleanor, — Philip  McElfresh.  Rev.  Thomas  Pitts,  of 
Thomas, — Elizabeth  Hall,  of  Nicholas,  of  New  Market.  Their  sons 
were  Nicholas,  John  Lusby,  Thomas,  William  and  Charles  H.  Pitts, 
the  gifted  lawyer  of  Baltimore.  He  married  Miss  Reynolds,  and  had 
Charles,  Edward,  Glen  and  Martha  Pitts,  who  became  Mrs.  John 
Nicholson, 

CAPTAIN  JOHN  NORWOOD. 

After  leaving  the  Glebe  Land  of  Elizabeth  River  Church, 
Captain  John  Norwood  located  upon  the  Severn,  by  the  side  of  the 
Dorseys  and  Howards.  He  became  the  first  Sheriff  of  the  new 
settlement  of  Providence. 

The  following  records  show  that  he  was  a  man  of  influence 
among  the  Virginia  settlers:  "John  Norwood  demands  six  hundred 
acres  for  transporting  self,  wife  and  two  children,  John  and  Andrew, 
and  two  servants,  John  Hays  and  Elizabeth  Hills,  in  1650." 

In  1657,  another  record  reads:  "John  Norwood  demands  lands 
for  transporting  three  other  servants,  Thomas  Hill,  1654,  and  George 
Barrett  and  Elizabeth,  in  1657.  Ivane  Barrington,  John  Heild, 
Franc  Evans,  Amy  Severie,  Mary  Webb,  Demetrius  Cartrite,  Mary 
Browne  and  Edward  Pyres  were  transported  by  him  in  1661.  He 
assigned  these  rights  to  Richard  Cheary.  He  demands  land,  also, 
for  transporting  John  Horrington  into  the  province  in  1662,  and 
assigned  the  same  to  Susanna  Howard,  for  the  use  of  her  son,  Charles 
Stephens,  son  of  Charles  Stephens,  deceased." 

In  1661,  a  commission  was  issued  to  Captain  John  Norwood,  of 
the  Severn,  to  command  all  the  forces  from  the  head  of  the  river  te 
the  south  side  of  the  Patapsco. 

Captain  Norwood  and  Edward  Dorsey,  gentleman,  took  up 
lands  together  on  the  Severn  in  1650. 

The  archives  contain  the  following  record  of  Captain  John 
Norwood  as  sheriff  of  Providence:  "Mr.  John  Norwood,  sheriff  of 
Providence,  hath  petitioned  this  Court,  that,  whereas,  Wm.  Evans, 
Thomas  Trueman,  Captain  William  Stone,  Mr.  Job  Chandler,  Ed- 
ward Packer,  George  Thompson,  Robert  Clarke,  Henry  Williams 
and  John  Casey  owe  him  for  charges  and  fees  due  to  him  from  said 
persons  when  they  were  prisoners  upon  the  last  rebellion  of  Captain 
William  Stone  (as  the  said  sheriff  hath  deposed  in  Court),  it  is 
ordered,  that,  if  said  persons  shall  not  satisfy  the  several  sums  to 
said  John  Norwood,  the  sheriff  of  those  counties  shall  seize  by 
distress,"  etc. 

Andrew  Norwood,  of  Captain  John,  was  one  of  the  commis- 
sioners for  laying  out  the  town  of  Annapolis.  He  married  Elizabeth, 
daughter  of  Captain  Cornelius  Howard.  Their  daughter,  Ehzabeth, 
married  John  Beale,  the  attorney. 

From  this  marriage  came  Ann,  wife  of  Thomas  Rutland,  and 
Elizabeth  Nicholson,  wife  of  Richard  Dorsey,  of  "Hockley." 


162      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

COLONEL  NICHOLAS  GREENBERRY,  KEEPER  OF  THE 
GREAT  SEAL. 

This  name  has  been  handed  down  in  nearly  every  family '^f 
Anne  Arundel. 

Nicholas  Greenberry,  his  wife  Anne,  their  two  children,  Charles 
and  Katherine,  and  three  servants,  arrived  in  the  ship  "Constant 
Friendship,"  in  1674.  In  1680,  he  acquired,  by  purchase  from 
Colonel  William  Fuller,  son  of  Captain  William  Fuller,  a  tract  of 
land  called  "Fuller";  later  known  as  "White  Hall."  This  he 
resurveyed  as  "Greenberry  Forest." 

Five  years  later,  he  sold  a  portion  of  this  tract  to  Captain  John 
Worthington;  and,  in  1685,  bought  the  tract  of  two  hundred  and 
fifty  acres  known  as  "Towne  Neck."  This  became  later,  "Green- 
berry Point.".  The  history  of  its  transfers  has  already  been  given 
in  the  early  settlement  of  Anne  ArundeL  Upon  this  tract  Colonel 
Greenberry  died. 

Colonel  Greenberry  was  one  of  the  commissioners,  in  1683,  to 
lay  out  "towns  at  Towne  Land  at  Proctor's — att  South  River  on 
Colonel  Burgess'  Land  and  att  Herring  Creek  on  the  Towne  Land." 

He  rose  to  prominence  during  the  transfer  of  the  proprietary 
government  to  King  William  and  Queen  Mary.  In  1690,  he  was  a 
staunch  follower  of  Captain  John  Coode,  and  signed  the  address  to 
King  William.  Took  the  desposition  of  John  Hammond  concern- 
ing the  alleged  treasonable  words  of  Richard  Hill,  in  reference  to 
the  Prince  of  Orange. 

During  that  year,  John  Coode  was  made  commander-in-chief 
of  his  majesty's  forces  in  the  province,  with  Major  Nicholas  Green- 
berry, and  Colonel  Nicholas  Gassaway  as  two  of  his  lieutenants. 
They  were  a  prominent  part  of  the  committee  of  twenty,  who  held 
political  sway  in  Anne  Arundel.  In  1691,  Major  Greenberry  was 
one  of  the  seventeen  citizens  who  signed  articles  of  impeachment 
against  my  Lord  Baltimore.  That  same  year  he  was  appointed 
one  of  the  Judges  of  the  Provincial  Court.  As  a  member  of  the 
Governor's  Council  under  Sir  Lionel  Copley,  he  attended  all  of  its 
meetings  with  great  punctuality. 

In  1692,  as  one  of  the  military  commanders.  Colonel  Nicholas 
Greenberry  was  authorized  to  erect  three  forts  against  invading 
Indians;  being  especially  in  charge  of  the  one  in  Anne  Arundel. 
He  was  further  authorized  to  press  all  smiths  in  cleansing  and  fixing 
the  public  arms.  Colonel  Ninian  Beale,  of  Calvert,  then  in  charge 
of  all  the  provincial  forces,  was  ordered  to  offer  Colonel  Nicholas 
Greenberry  all  necessary  assistance  in  erecting  the  several  forts. 

On  the  death  of  Sir  Lionel  Copley,  in  1693,  Colonel  Greenberry, 
as  president  of  the  Council,  became  Acting-Governor  of  the  Province, 
until  superseded  by  Sir  Edward  Andros. 

Colonel  Greenberry's  letter  to  Sir  Lionel  Copley,  captain  general 
and  governor  of  Maryland,  strikes  thus  at  the  opposition  in  the 
province:    "Sir, — I  have  been  creditably  informed  lately  of  a  great 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      163 

cabal  in  our  county,  held  by  the  Grand  Leaders  of  the  Jacobite 
Party,  viz.:  Colonel  Coursey,  Major  Sayer,  Colonel  Darnall,  Major 
Dorsey,  Richard  Smith,  Samuel  Chew  and  John  Hanson.  Their 
rendezvous  was  at  Darnall's,  Chew's,  Dorsey's  and  one  Mareen 
Duval's,  but  the  occasion  of  their  meeting  is  not  to  be  known." 

Signed.     Nicholas  Greenberry. 
Severn  River,  July  25th,  1692. 

During  that  same  year,  he  addressed  a  letter,  signed  by  the 
members  of  the  Council,  reflecting  on  the  loyalty  of  Governor  Francis 
Nicholson.  Charges  of  misconduct  in  office  were  also  brought  by 
him  and  other  members  of  the  Council,  against  Sir  Thomas  Lawrence, 
Thomas  Bland  and  Colonel  Jowles. 

Colonel  Greenberry  died  1697,  aged  seventy  years.  His  widow, 
Ann,  died  1698.  Both  were  buried  at  "Greenberry  Point  Farm," 
on  the  north  side  of  the  Severn  River,  opposite  Annapolis. 

His  tombstone  bears  this  inscription:  "Here  lie^b  interred,  the 
body  of  Colonel  Nicholas  Greenberry,  Esq.,  who  dooarted  this  life 
the  17th  day  of  December,  1697.     Aetatis  suae  .seventy." 

The  will  of  Colonel  Greenberry,  stamped  wjrh  ,,  remarkable  seal, 
left  his  dwelling  plantation  to  his  beloved  wife.  Aim;  after  her  death 
to  son  Charles;  in  case  of  his  death  without  isaue,  to  go  to  his  three 
daughters,  Catherine,  Ann  and  Elizabeth ,  forever.  "  I  give  to  son 
Charles,  my  plantation  '  White  Hall.'  The  remainder  of  my  per- 
sonal estate  here  and  in  the  Kingdom  of  England,  after  my  wife's 
third  part  thereof  is  deducted  therefrom,  to  be  divided  by  equal 
portions  to  son  Charles  and  daughters,  with  this  proviso:  as  to  my 
daughter,  Ann,  in  case  her  husband,  John  Hammond,  be  not  seized 
in  fee  simple  of  the  plantation  on  which  he  now  dwells,  or  any 
other,  then  in  that  case,  my  portion  to  her  shall  remain  in  my 
executors'  hands  till  the  death  of  said  John  Hammond,  as  a  reserve 
for  her  support  in  widowhood.  If  she  die  before  her  husband, 
then  my  bequest  to  her  children.  Wife  Ann  and  son  Charles 
executrix  and  executor.  March  5th,  1697-8.  Nich.  Greenberry. 
(Seale.) " 

The  colonel's  home  tract  was  later  held  by  Mr.  Palmer,  the 
recent  Register  of  Wills  of  Anne  Arundel  County.  It  is  now  owned 
by  Mr.  Charles  E.  Remsen, 

Colonel  Greenberry's  letters  show  him  to  have  been  a  man  of 
marked  intelligence.  As  president  of  the  Council,  and  Chancellor, 
he  was  Keeper  of  the  Great  Seal,  and  Judge  of  the  High  Court  of 
Chancery. 

His  only  son,  Colonel  Charles  Greenberry,  bore  many  of  the 
busy  characteristics  of  his  father.  He  was  the  life  and  support  of 
St.  Margarets  Church,  to  which  he  left  his  estate,  "White  Hall," 
after  the  death  of  his  wife,  Rachel  Stimpson. 

Colonel  Charles  Greenberry  went  before  the  special.  Court  for 
restoring  the  records  which  had  been  destroyed  in  1704,  and  entered 
all  the  transfers  of  his  family  connections,  including  those  of  his 
brother-in-law,  Henry  Ridgely.     From  deeds  transferred  to  his  wife, 


164      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

we  learn  that  she  was  the  daughter  of  Thomas  Stimpson,  by- 
Rachel  Clark,  daughter  of  Richard  Beard,  of  South  River.  Her 
history  is  fully  recorded  in  the  sketch  of  Richard  Beard. 

Colonel  Charles  Greenberry  had  one  daughter,  Ruth,  who 
became  Mrs.  Williams.  A  silver  dram  cup  and  other  memorials  were 
given  her  by  Mrs.  Rachel  Killburne. 

Colonel  Charles  Greenberry  died  in  1713.  His  widow  married, 
in  1715,  Colonel  Charles  Hammond,  son  of  Charles  and  Hannah 
(Howard)  Hammond.  Colonel  Charles  Greenberry,  in  his  will,  left 
his  estate,  "White  Hall,"  to  his  wife;  to  descend,  at  her  death,  to 
the  vestry  of  Westminster  Parish,  for  the  maintenance  of  a  minister. 

He  named  his  sister,  Katherine  Ridgely's  children,  Henry, 
Nicholas,  Ann  and  Elizabeth  Ridgely;  his  sister,  Elizabeth  Golds- 
borougu    and  his  sister,  Anne  Hammond.'.^ 

His  brother-in-law,  John  Hammond,  Jr.,  was  made  an  executor 
with  his  wife. 

^  BROWNE,  OF  ANNE  ARUNDEL. 

Upon  an  original  will,  at  Annapolis  is  the  stamp  of  a  Stork. 
Burke  traces  tb  ^  LeBrune  name,  which  is  fiftieth  on  the  Battle 
Abbey  Roll  to  Sir  Stephen,  oldest  son  of  Hugh,  one  of  the  Lords  of 
Wales.  His  wife  was  Eva,  sister  of  Griffith,  Prince  of  Wales.  His 
descendants  were  Sir  John  of  Essex,  and  Thomas  Browne,  of  London, 
from  whom  descended  Thomas  Browne,  heir,  and  John  Browne, 
second  son,  of  London. 

Their   crest,  says   Burke,  is  a  Stork.    This   John   Browne,  of 
London,  is  upon  our  records  in  the  following  letter: 
To  Philip  Calvert, 
Hon.  Sir: 

These  are  to  certify,  that  whereas,  George  Goldsmith  hath 
promised  me  to  procure  me  a  parcell  of  land  if  I  could  get  a  warrant, 
these,  therefore,  are  to  desire  that  you  will  be  pleased  to  grant  me  a 
warrant  upon  the  rights  hereunder  written.  I  shall  remain,  your 
ever  loving  friend  to  command. 

John  Browne. 
January  ye  16th,  1659. 

For  bringing  into  the  province  John  Browne,  James  Browne. 
John  Browne  (and  two  others.)  "  Warrant  issued  to  lay  out  500 
acres  of  land  for  John  Browne  upon  the  rights  entered  as  above. 
Return  the  last  day  of  August,  next.       Signed  by  the 

Governour." 

In  1673,  "John  Browne,  mariner,  of  London,"  bought  two 
tracts  "Hope"  and  "Increase,"  near  Round  Bay.  These  tracts, 
showing  the  history  of  their  purchase  are  to  be  seen  in  our  Record 
Office,  in  the  name  of  Richard  Warfield  and  at  his  request,  were  so 
recorded  among  the  restored  records  after  the  burning  of  the  State 
House.  As  no  transfers  attended  the  record,  the  inference  is  clear 
they  came  into  Warfield's  possession  through  his  wife,  Elinor  Browne, 
the  heiress  of  Captain  John  Browne,  of  London.     Captain  Browne 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      165 

was  closely  allied  to  Robert  Proctor,  who  held  the  Port  of  Annapolis, 
known  then  as  "Proctor's  Landing."  In  1690,  Captain  Browne  sold 
Proctor's  interest  in  Abington  and  Freeman's  Lands,  to  John  Gaither, 
a  brother-in-law  of  Proctor.  Captain  Browne  and  Peregrine  Browne, 
his  brother  were  earnest  advocates  of  the  Proprietary  during  the 
Revolution,  which  placed  King  William  in  control  of  Maryland  in 
1690-91.  Their  vessels  were  anchored  in  the  harbor  of  Plymouth, 
when  Captain  John  Coode,  the  leader  of  the  King's  adherents  in 
Maryland,  came  on  board  with  a  packet  of  letters  for  his  allies  in 
Maryland. 

Colonel  Coursey,  Captain  Hynson,  Mr.  Lillington,  Mr.  Lingan  and 
Richard  Warfield,  all  loyal  subjects  of  the  Proprietary,  were  ori  board 
of  these  vessels,  bound  for  the  Province.  Captain  Coode  gave  his 
packet  to  Benjamin  Ricand  for  delivery.  During  tb<^  passage  the 
packet  disappeared  and  upon  an  investigation,  in  wUi":  there  were 
many  depositions,  no  light  was  thrown  on  the  sul  .,c,  but  Coode 
was  successful  in  his  rebellion.  When  Coode  had  oaused  the  dismissal 
of  Captain  Richard  Hill  from  the  Council  b  ise  the  latter  had 
urged  the  people  of  Anne  Arundel  not  to  -;«Ti  ,  delegates  to  Coode's 
Assembly,  telling  them  that  their  property,  came  to  them  through 
the  grant  of  the  Proprietary  and  they  1)  H  better  not  risk  it  by  rush- 
ing to  the  support  of  the  King,  who  ..  .i^tit  not  be  able  to  hold  the 
Province.  Captain  John  Browne  viote  in  defence  of  Captain  Hill 
the  following: 

"Captain  Richard  Hill  is  a  Scotchman,  bold  in  speech,  who 
spoke  what  others  only  dared  to  think.  On  returning  to  our  vessels 
we  came  across  him  in  the  woods.  He  seemed  much  cast  down.  I 
trust  his  past  usefulness  in  this  Province  will  be  taken  into  considera- 
tion and  hope  you  will  be  able  to  restore  him  to  his  former  position. 

Your  friend, 

Jno.  Browne  and  others. 

The  friends  of  the  King  were  equally  as  severe  on  Captain  James 
Frisby,  "a  brother  of  Captain  Peregrine  Browne  and  his  brother, 
John  Browne,  refusing  to  admit  him  to  his  appointed  seat  in  the 
Council  of  1692,  on  the  ground  that  all  three  were  enemies  to  the  King. 

From  their  records.  Captain  Browne  seems  to  have  made  his 
residence  while  in  Maryland  with  Richard  Warfield  and  with  him 
was  summoned  as  a  witness  in  the  Chancery  case  of  Dorsey  vs. 
Bland. 

'    Captain  John  Browne  was  closely  allied  to  Thomas  Browne,  an 
adjoining  neighbor  of  Richard  Warfield. 

Thomas  Browne  was  the  son  of  Thomas  Browne,  Sr.,  who  took  up 
lands  in  1650,  adjoining  Edward  Lloyd.  John  Browne,  his  brother, 
also  took  up  adjoining  lands  to  Edward  Lloyd,  both  coming  up 
with  the  Virginia  settlers  of  1650.  John  Browne  was  in  the  Severn 
contest  of  1655.  They  both  died  about  1673.  In  1674,  Thomas 
Browne,  Jr.,  heir-at-law  sold  his  father's  plantation  to  his  father-in- 
law,  William  Hopkins. 


166      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Thomas  Browne  married  Katherine  Harris,  aunt  to  Katherine 
Howard,  wife  of  Samuel.  Their  issue  were,  Thomas,  John,  Valen- 
tine and  Joshua. 

In  1692,  Thomas  Browne  was  appointed  a  "Patuxent  Range" 
from  Mr.  Snowden's  plantation  to  the  limits  of  the  Patuxent. 
He  thus  saw  the  many  beautiful  tracts  along  that  river  and  surveyed 
about  thirty.  His  "  Brown's  Chance"  and  Captain  Dorsey's  "  Friend- 
ship" at  Clarksville,  "Brown's  Forest"  at  Columbia,  "Brown's 
Adventure,"  1,000  acres  and  "Ranter's  Ridge,"  near  Woodstock  are 
magniticent  bodies  of  land.  When  Doughoregan  Manor  was  sur- 
veyed iii  .1701,  Thomas  Browne's  plantation,  adjoining  it  was  the 
only  habitation.  In  1713,  he  mortgaged  all  these  tracts  to  Amos 
Garrett,  the  Annapolis  merchant  and  banker,  and  died  in  1715,  before 
redemption,  leaving  his  equity  to  his  sons. 

His  homes-eatl,  upon  which  stood  "the  large  house  of  Thomas 
Browne,"  was  on  i:<ie  Severn,  It  was  known  as  "Clink"  and 
descended  to  John  Browne,  his  executor.  "Brown's  Forest"  went  to 
Valentine;  "Ranter's  Pvidge"  to  Joshua.  Both  succeeded  in  redeem- 
ing them. 

John  Brown  recovered  a  iai,3;e  part  of  the  Severn  estate  and  in 
1728,  surveyed  "  Brown's  Pm  chase,"  near  Guilford. 

"Clink,"  after  the  death  of  his  wife,  Rebecca  (Yieldhall) 
Brown,  descended  to  son  John,  who  also  inherited  "Providence" 
adjoining  "Norwood's  Fancy,"  running  with  the  late  Richard 
Warfield's  to  Round  Bay.  A  large  amount  of  stock,  six  negroes,  .a 
man's  saddle  with  green  seat  and  housing,  guns,  pistols,  sword, 
furniture,  a  nine-hogshead  flat,  a  twelve-hogshead  flat  and  a  yawl 
were  also  given  to  son  John. 

"To  my  daughter  Katherine,  I  give  'Grimes'  Hill,'  now  a  part  of 
'Providence,'  adjoining  Edward  Hall.  Household  goods,  a  trooper's 
saddle,  four  negroes  were  given  also.  To  my  daughter,  Margaret,  I 
give  200  acres  of  'Brown's  Purchase,'  lying  on  the  south  side  of 
Ridgely's  branch,  four  negroes,  stock  of  all  kinds,  a  woman's  saddle. 
To  my  daughter,  Ruth  Brown,  200  acres  of  'Brown's  Purchase,' 
stock,  furniture,  negroes  and  saddle.  To  daughter  Ann  Brown,  200 
acres  of  'Brown's  Purchase,'  negroes,  stock,  furniture  and  saddle. 

Signed  John  Brown." 

His  signature  dropped  the  final  e,  though  his  father  always 
added  it.  His  witnesses  were  Absolute  Warfield,  John  Hall,  Benja- 
min Yieldhall.     His  wife  was  Rebecca  Yieldhall. 

Margaret  Brown  (of  John)  married  her  cousin,  a  son  of  Valentine 
Brown  and  in  her  will  of  1774,  named  her  son  Amos  Brown  to  whom 
she  gave  "My  part  of  'Brown's  Purchase,'  north  side  of  Ridgely's 
Branch.  To  son  Valentine,  over  and  above  what  I  shall  hereafter 
give  him,  six  negroes  and  money." 

Elizabeth  Brown,  widow  of  Valentine,  refers  in  her  will  to  "  her 
grandson,  Amos  Brown." 


r 

Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Coui^TiEs.      167 

"Brown's  Purchase"  adjoins  the  old  homestead  of  Nicholas 
Greenberry  Ridgely,  between  Savage  and  Guilford.  Sarah  Ridgely 
(of  Nicholas  Greenberry)  married  Nicholas  Griffith,  whose  daughter 
Sarah  married  Amos  Brown,  father  of  Colonel  Ridgely  Brown,. 
Confederate  State's  Army. 

"  John  Brown  (of  John) "  held  the  homestead  of  the  Severn  and 
in  his  will  of  1773,  recorded:  "To  my  son  John,  I  give  the  homestead 
and  'Brown's  Purchase.'  To  Basil  I  give  'Providence.'  To  Benja- 
min and  Philemon,  the  remaining  part  of  '  Providence'  and  *  Salmon's 
Hills' — wife  Elizabeth  Brown,  executrix."  She  was  Elizabeth 
Yieldhall,  granddaughter  of  Elizabeth  (Sisson)  Brown. 

In  1774,  she  became  the  wife  of  Vachel  Worthington,  reserving 
by  marriage  contract,  her  own  property  for  William  Yieldhall. 

Vachel  Worthington  became  the  guardian  of  John  Brown's 
sons  with  Captain  Philemon  Warfield  (of  Alexander)  their  surety. 

Valentine  Brown  (of  Thomas)  heir  of  "Brown's  Forest," 
evidently  received  his  name  from  Valentine  Browne,  one  of  the  audi- 
tors of  Her  Majesty's  Exchequer,  previously  a  Commissioner  in  Ireland 
and  Scotland  for  Edward  VI  and  Mary  I.  His  arms  were  granted 
him  in  1561.  The  funeral  entry  of  Sir  Thomas  Browne,  Knight  of 
Hospitall,  records  him  the  third  son  of  Sir  Valentine  Browne,  Knight 
of  Crofts,  by  Thomascine,  his  second  wife,  sister  of  Sir  Nicholas 
Bacon,  Lord  Keeper  of  England. 

Valentine  Brown  (of  Thomas)  took  possession  of  his  estate  upon 
"Brown's  Forest,"  near  Columbia.  He  left  no  will,  but  his  name- 
sake and  relative,  Valentine  Brown  of  1713,  left  his  estate  in  the 
Province  to  a  merchant  and  goldsmith,  of  Dublin. 

EHzabeth  Brown,  widow  of  Valentine  (of  Thomas)  named  her 
sons  Valentine  and  John.  Her  daughters  were  Sarah,  Sidney  and 
Elizabeth  Pierpoint.  She  named  her  grandson  Amos  Brown  and 
made  her  daughter  Sidney  her  executrix. 

Sidney  Brown  was  a  witness  to  the  will  of  Mrs.  Ely  Dorsey,  her 
neighbor.  Her  will  of  1783,  named  her  nephew,  Valentine,  son  of 
Thomas,  nephew  William,  son  of  brother  John  and  niece  Sidney 
Brown. 

"Brown's  Forest"  descended  to  John  (of  Valentine)  who  left  it 
J  to  his  wife  in  1805.  It  adjoined  Rezin  Hammond  on  [the  Patuxent 
^  in  Howard  County.  It  descended  to  Valentine  and  Joshua  and  still 
sj  later,  was  sold  to  Nicholas  Worthington  (of  John).  William,  E  isha 
«v    and  Charles  Brown  received  lands  near  Fulton,  where  they  still  have 

tmany  descendants. 
Joshua  Brown  (of  Thomas)    located    upon    the   lower   part    of 
"Ranter's  Ridge."    The  upper  part  was  bought  by  John  Dorsey,  of 
^   Edward,  and  given  to  his  son  Nathan. 

^  Here  later  lived   Governor  George   Howard.^?  Joshua   Brown 

'  _jnarried  a  daughter  of  Christopher  Randall  and  from  lands  of  his 
estate  surveyed  "Brown's  Addition."  In  1757,  he  and  Roger 
Randall  sold  "Good  Fellowship"  to  Benjamin  Browne. 


,N 


168      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

In  his  will  of  1774,  Joshua  Brown  left  "Ranter's  Ridge"  to  his 
son  John  Browne.  "To  Joshua  Browne,  Jr.,  was  given  'Whole 
Gammon'  and  'Half  Pone.'  His  daughter  Hannah,  became  Mrs. 
Hipsley.  She  inherited  her  brother  Joshua's  estate,  including 
'Brown's  Loss'  and  'Dorsey's  Gain.'" 

ABELL   BROWNE. 

This  name  is  not  on  the  list  of  our  early  settlers,  yet  he  came 
from  Dumfries,  Scotland.  He  was  Sheriff  of  Anne  Arundel  during 
the  exciting  revolutions  preceding  the  transfer  of  the  Province  to 
King  William. 

Finding  it  impossible  to  make  collections  of  the  levies  for  county 
expenses  and  not  wishing  to  resort  to  harsh  measures,  he  used  his 
own  means  to  meet  necessary  expenses.  The  Archives  contain  his 
petition  for  an  extension  of  official  tenure  in  order  that  he  might 
recover  his  outlays. 

The  Commissioners  made  an  arrangement  with  his  successor  for 
the  relief  of  the  petitioner. 

Abell  Browne  -in  1692,  was  one  of  the  Associate  Justices  of 
Anne  Arimdel.  He  married  first,  a  daughter  of  Samuel  Phillips,  of 
Calvert  County,  a  sister  of  Mary,  wife  of  Michael  Taney,  who  with 
Abell  Browne,  was  an  executor  of  their  brother-in-law,  Ambrose 
Landerson,  of  Calvert. 

Samuel  Browne,  son  of  Abell,  appeared  later  in  a  petition  con- 
cerning his  father's  claim  to  "  Harwood,"  a  tract  upon  Rhode  River. 
In  that  petition,  Robert  Browne  appears  as  another  son  of  Abell 
Browne.  He  was  issue,  of  the  second  wife,  the  heir  of  "  Harwood," 
which  by  Abell  Browne's  will  of  1702,  was  left  to  son  Robert  as  also 
"Abell's  Lot"  on  Bush  River. 

The  testator  further  added :  "  Should  Robert  die  without  heirs, 
the  above  property  is  to  go  to  "my  nephews,  Samuel  and  James 
Browne,  sons  of  my  brother  James,  of  Bermuda."  This  nephew 
Samuel  is  claimed  by  the  Browne  family  to  be  the  Naval  officer  of 
1692,  commander  of  the  Phenix  from  South  River  to  London.  There 
is  no  other  record  of  Samuel  Browne,  first  son  of  Abell,  by  his  Phillips 
wife,  but  as  Samuel  Phillips  was  a  commander  of  a  vessel  and  left 
his  property  to  his  nephew  Samuel  Browne,  the  inference  seems  to 
point  to  the  latter  as  the  commander.  One  of  these  was  on  Bush 
River. 

Accepting,  however,  the  family  record,  Mr.  Samuel  Browne 
seems  to  have  located  in  Baltimore  County,  on  Bush  River  as  early 
as  1689,  where  with  Major  Edward  Dorsey  he  signed  a  petition  to 
King  William,  in  favor  of  restoring  the  Province  to  Lord  Baltimore. 
From  his  son  Samuel  likely  descended  Benjamin  Browne,  of  "Good 
Fellowship,"  near  Woodstock,  the  family  homestead  still. 

The  earliest  will  in  Baltimore  County  is  that  of  Samuel  Browne, 
of  1713.    He  named  his  sons  Samuel,  James  and  Absolom. 

The  above  testator  was  evidently  related  closely  to  James 
Brown,  the  nephew  of  Abel,  and  was  no  doubt  the  other  nephew. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      169 

Robert  Browne,  of  Abell,  sold  "  Harwood,"  and  bought  of  Mr. 
Chapman,  a  tract  on  the  Patuxent,  taken  up  by  Mr.  Wright,  and 
named  "Wrighton."  By  his  wife,  Mary,  daughter  of  Thomas  Tin- 
dale,  who  granted  her  "Dinah's  Beaver  Dam,"  on  Herring  Creek, 
he  had  the  following  heirs  named  in  his  will  of  1728:  Abell,  John, 
Robert,  Joseph  and  Benjamin.  This  last  son  had  a  daughter,  Eliza- 
beth Browne,  who  married  Jacob  Carr.  They  joined,  in  1772,  in 
deeding  their  interest  in  "Wrighton"  to  John  Browne,  of  Robert, 
who  bought  out  the  remaining  heirs. 

Abell  Browne,  the  eldest  son  of  Robert,  settled  in  the  neigh- 
borhood of  Sykesville.  He  upset,  by  a  case  in  chancery,  the  sale 
of  "Harwood"  by  his  father,  and  sold  his  interest  in  the  same,  in 
1786,  to  Vachel  Dorsey,  of  Vachel.  His  wife,  Susannah  Browne, 
joined  him.  Samuel  Browne,  of  Abell,  by  Elizabeth,  his  first  wife, 
was  one  of  the  "Minute  Men"  of  Governor  Thomas  Johnson.  Five 
of  his  relatives  were  killed  in  the  Revolution. 

The  issue  of  Abell  and  Susannah  Browne  were  Elias,  Moses, 
Ruth,  wife  of  Thomas  Cockey,  and  Rebecca,  wife  of  George  Frazer 
Warfield.  Elias  Brown — Ann  Cockey,  and  had  Thomas  Cockey 
Browne,  Stephen  Cockey  Browne,  who  was  a  lieutenant  on  the 
Canadian  frontier  in  the  War  of  1812,  and  died  from  consumption 
by  exposure;  Elias  Brown,  Jr.,  the  congressman,  and  William 
Browne  were  the  four  sons. 

Elias  Browne,  Sr.,  died  a  young  man,  in  1800.  His  brother, 
Moses  Browne — Mary  Snowden.  Issue,  Frank — Lucinda  Edmonds- 
ton,  and  had  Moses,  of  Missouri. 

Susanna,  of  Moses,  was  the  wife  of  Elias  Browne,  the  Congress- 
man; Ellen  Browne  was  the  wife  of  Edward  Dorsey,  brother  of 
Chief  Justice  Thomas  Beale  Dorsey.  Their  daughter.  Comfort,  mar- 
ried Gilchrist  Porter,  member  of  Congress  from  Missouri;  and  their 
daughter,  Mary — James  A.  Broadhead,  United  States  Senator  and 
Minister  to  Switzerland.  Ann  Browne,  of  Moses,  married  Colonel 
Steele,  of  Kentucky.  Their  daughter,  Florence,  is  now  the  widow 
of  Senator  Vance,  of  North  Carolina.  Mary  Ann  Browne,  of  Moses, 
— Westley  Bennett,  whose  daughter,  Susan  Ann — Stephen  Thomas, 
Cockey  Browne,  father  of  Ex-Governor  Frank  Browne.  Rebecca 
Browne,  of  Moses, — Dr.  Benjamin  Edmondston,  brother  of  Frank 
Browne's  wife.  Theresa  Browne,  of  Moses, — Larkin  Lawrence.  All 
of  these,  viz.:  Edward  Dorsey,  Frank  Browne,  Colonel  Steele,  Dr. 
Edmondston,  and  a  number  of  other  relatives,  went  west  in  1831. 

They  formed  a  great  caravan  of  wagons,  with  their  children, 
negroes  and  cattle.  Some  went  to  Kentucky,  some  to  Illinois,  and 
others  to  Missouri,  then  the  far  West. 

Thomas  Cockey  Browne,  of  Elias  and  Ann  Cockey, — Susan 
Snowden,  sister  of  Mrs.  Moses  Browne.  Their  issue  were  Lewis  H. 
Browne,  Stephen  T.  C.  Browne  and  Prudence  Patterson. 

William  Browne  was  the  father  of  Mr.  Benjamin  Browne,  of 
Washington,  to  whom  I  am  indebted  for  information. 


170      FouNDEES  OF  Anne  Arundel  and  Howaed  Counties. 

Mr.  Chas.  T.  Cockey,  of  Pikesville,  descends  from  Ruth  Browne, 
of  Abell,  wife  of  Thomas  Cockey. 

Rebecca  Browne,  of  Abell,  became  the  wife  of  George  Frazer 
Warfield,  son  of  Azel  and  Susannah  (Magruder)  Warfield,  half- 
brother  of  Dr.  Chas.  Alexander  Warfield.  His  Frazer  name  came 
from  the  Scottish  Clan  of  Frazer,  descendants  of  McGregor. 

Lord  Lovat  was  chief  of  that  clan  when  George  Frazer  Warfield 
was  named.  The  latter  became  a  merchant  of  Baltimore,  and 
built  "Groveland"  at  Sykesville.  Their  issue  were  Dr.  George 
Warfield,  Lewis,  William,  Henry,  Rebecca,  Susanna,  Ann  EHzabeth. 

Rebecca — Richard  Holmes,  a  Virginia  gentleman  of  large  wealth, 
who  removed  to  Maryland,  and  settled  near  Norbeck.  Their  son, 
George  Holmes,  bequeathed  $5,000  to  Hannah  Moore  Academ3\ 
Ella  Holmes — Jno.  R.  D.  Thomas,  of  the  Baltimore  Bar. 

Susanna  Warfield  was  an  authoress  and  accomplished  musician. 
She  composed  the  ode  used  in  the  inauguration  of  President  Wil- 
liam Henry  Harrison.  Her  homestead,  "Groveland",  descended  to 
her  brother,  Lieutenant  William  Henry  Warfield,  a  graduate  of 
West  Point,  a  devout  Christian,  who  devised  it,  after  the  death  of 
his  sister,  to  the  Episcopal  Church,  It  is  now  known  as  Warfield 
College. 

Ann  Elizabeth  Warfield  bcame  Mrs.  John  Wade,  residing  for 
many  years  at  the  St.  James  Hotel;  dying  without  issue  in  her 
eighty  sixth  year. 

Dr.  George  Warfield  removed  south  for  liis  health.  He  married 
Sarah  Brooke  Bentley,  daughter  of  Caleb.  Their  son,  the  late  Lewis 
M.  Warfield,  of  Savannah,  married  Phebe  D.  Wayne,  grandniece 
of  Judge  James  Wayne  ,of  the  Supreme  Court  of  United  States,  and 
daughter  of  Thomas  Smyth  Wayne.  Issue,  Louis  M.  Warfield,  Jr., 
graduate  of  Johns  Hopkins  University,  and  Edith  Wayne  Warfield, 
of  Savannah. 

Other  descendants  of  Samuel  Brown,  the  naval  officer,  will  be 
found  in  the  history  of  Howard  County. 

/  COL,  NICHOLAS  GASSAWAY. 

Nicholas  Gassaway  came  to  South  River  in  1650.  He  came 
with  Richard  Owens  and  his  wife,  Mary,  who  settled  in  the  same 
neighborhood. Nicholas  Gassaway  assigned  the  lands  due  him  unto 
Thomas  Bradley,  stating  therein  that  he  came  in  1650. 

In  1663,  a  tract  of  land  called  "Poplar  Ridge,"  on  the  north 
side  of  South  River,  was  laid  out  for  him.  It  adjoined  Captain 
Thomas  Besson,  whose  daughter,  Hester,  as  shown  in  Captain  Bes- 
son's  will,  became  the  wife  of  Nicholas  Gassaway.  John  Besson, 
her  brother,  had  "lands  adjoining  son  Nicholas  Gassaway."  In 
1677,  Mr.  Gassaway  took  up  "Charles  His  Purchase,"  on  the  Gun- 
powder, and  "Gassaway's  Ridge"  in  1679;  "Gassaway's  Addition" 
in  1688.  In  1678,  he  was  Captain  of  the  Provincial  Mihtia;  in  1681, 
was  Major.  The  archives  give  his  letter  concerning  the  insolency  of 
the  Indians.     In  1684,  with  others,  he  was  a  commissioner  to  establish 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      171 

ports  of  entry;  was  Justice  in  1684.  In  1687,  he  joined  Major 
Edward  Dorsey  and  Captain  Edward  Burgess  in  a  letter  refuting  the 
pretended  invasion  of  the  Indians.  In  1691,  he  was  assistant  Com- 
mander of  the  Rangers,  and,  at  the  same  time,  one  of  "  The  Quorum." 
He  was  also  a  lieutenant  under  Colonel  John  Coode. 

Colonel  Gassaway  came  into  possession  of  "  Edward's  Neck," 
taken  up  by  John  Edwards.  In  transferring  that  tract  to  Mr. 
Anthony  Ruley,  he  recorded,  "That  it  came  to  him  by  inheritance." 

His  will  of  1691  reads:  "First.  I  give  to  son  Nicholas,  my 
dwelling  and  lands  in  "Love's  Neck,"  and  seven  negroes;  to  son 
John,  three  hundred  acres  in  the  Gunpowder,  and  after  his  sister 
Hester  Groce's  (Grosse)  decease,  the  land  she  lives  on  and  fifty 
pounds  and  furniture.  To  son  Thomas,  lands  upon  South  River 
and  nine  negroes.  To  sons  Nicholas  and  Thomas,  seven  hundred 
and  eighty  acres  on  Gunpowder,  in  two  tracts,  to  be  divided  equally 
between  them.  To  my  daughter,  Hester  Groce,  ten  pounds 
sterling.  I  give  to  my  daughter,  Ann  Watkins,  two  negroes;  to  my 
daughter,  Jane  Gassaway,  £200  sterling;  to  my  daughter,  Margaret 
Gassaway,  £200  sterling,  and  a  negro  each.  (This  daughter  married 
Thomas  Larkin,  of  John.)  I  give  to  my  grandchildren,  John  Wat- 
kins  and  Elizabeth  Groce,  the  sum  of  ten  pounds  sterling,  per  year, 
to  be  paid  out  of  'fund  left  me  by  my  uncle,  John  Collingwood,  of 
London,  merchant,  and  in  possession  of  my  cousin,  Samuel  Beaver.' 
My  son,  Thomas,  to  be  under  the  tuition  of  his  brother  and  sister, 
John  and  Ann  Watkins,  until  he  come  of  age.  My  sons,  Nicholas 
Gassaway,  John  Watkins  and  his  wife,  and  my  son,  Thomas 
Gassaway,  to  be  executors." 

This  will  was  proved  at  a  Court  held  at  Captain  Nicholas 
Gassaway 's,  on  the  27th  of  January,  169  L  This  act  shows  his 
importance  in  the  province. 

Captain  Nicholas  Gassaway,  Jr.,  was  a  merchant  of  South  River. 
He  sold,  in  1698,  lot  No.  28  in  Londontown,  to  Thomas  Ball,  of  Devon, 
England,  merchant.  His  wife,  Anne  Gassaway,  survived  him,  and 
became  Mrs.  Samuel  Chambers,  who  continued  the  business  at 
Londontown.  At  "Gresham,"  on  South  River  neck,  the  home  of  Cap- 
tain Nicholas  Gassaway,  was  placed  a  stone  which  reads:  "Here 
lyeth  interred,  the  body  of  Nicholas  Gassaway,  son  of  Colonel  Nich- 
olas Gassaway,  who  departed  this  life  the  10th  day  of  March,  anno 
dom.,  1699,  and  in  the  81st  year  of  his  age." 

"Gresham"  later  became  the  property  of  Commodore  Maj^o, 
and  is  now  owned  by  Mrs.  Thomas  Gaither,  of  Baltimore.  The 
stone,  with  her  permission,  has  been  removed  by  Mr.  Louis  Dorsey 
Gassaway,  to  the  grounds  of  St.  Anne's  Church,  Annapolis. 

John  Gassaway,  next  son  of  Colonel  Nicholas,  in  1698,  married 
Elizabeth  Lawrence,  daughter  of  Benjamin  and  Elizabeth  Lawrence, 
the  Quakers.  Their  son  and  executor  was  Nicholas  Gassaway.  Cap- 
tain John  Gassaway  was  buried  in  All  Hallows,  1697. 


172      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties, 

His  widow,  Elizabeth  Gassaway,  married  John  Rigby,  and  was 
buried  in  the  Quaker  burial  ground,  one  mile  west  of  Galesville,  on 
West  River,  in  1700.  Nicholas  Gassaway,  the  son,  will  be  noticed 
in  Howard. 

Captain  Thomas  Gassaway,  youngest  son  of  Colonel  Nicholas, 
married  Susannah  Hanslap,  daughter  of  Major  Henry  Hanslap.  His 
will,  of  1739,  names  his  heirs:  "I  give  to  my  wife,  Susannah,  my 
plantation  for  life;  after  her  decease,  to  son  Henry:  to  son  John, 
all  remaining  lands  adjacent  to  him:  to  Thomas,  500  acres  where 
he  now  lives  in  Baltimore  County:  to  Nicholas,  280  acres  on  the 
Gunpowder:  to  daughter  Elizabeth  Howard^  250  acres  in  Balti- 
more County  called  "James'  Forrest':  to  my  grandson,  John  Beale 
Howard,  one  lot  in  Annapolis:  to  Gassaway  Watkins,  100  acres  on 
which  he  now  lives.     Wife  and  son,  John,  executors." 

John  Gassaway,  executor  of  the  estate,  married  Sarah  Cotter. 
Their  heirs  were  named  in  his  will,  and,  also,  in  the  records  of  "  All 
Hallows." 

From  notes  in  possession  of  the  Boyle  family,  the  following 
references  to  Captain  John  Gassaway  are  given: 

"Annapolis,  June  17th,  1763. — Last  Thursday,  died  at  his 
plantation  near  South  River,  after  a  long  and  tedious  indisposition, 
in  the  55th  year  of  his  age.  Captain  John  Gassaway,  a  gentleman 
who  was  for  a  number  of  years  in  the  Commission  of  the  Peace; 
three  years  sheriff  and  eight  years  one  of  the  representatives  for 
this  county;  in  all  which  public  trusts  he  gained  applause.  He  was 
exemplary  in  his  several  relations  of  husband,  parent,  master,  friend 
and  neighbor,  and  has  left  behind  him  the  character  of  an  honest 
and  upright  man." 

His  daughter,  Ann,  married  Gassaway  Rawlings.  Their  daugh- 
ter, Ann, — Samuel  Maccubbin,  in  1788.  Eliza  Gassaway  Rawlings 
became  Mrs.  Sanders  and  Mrs.  Richard  Alexander  Contee.  Eliza 
Gassaway  Contee — Dennis  Magruder. 

By  Captain  John  Gassaway's  will,  of  1762,  the  home  planta- 
tion was  to  be  held  by  wife  Sarah,  and  then  by  Nicholas,  heir-at- 
law.  Nicholas  heired,  also,  the  plantation  of  his  uncle,  William 
Cotter,  on  Rhode  River,  and  two  other  tracts  purchased  of  Thomas 
Rutland  and  James  Cadles.  To  him,  also,  "  I  give  my  silver  spurs. 
To  my  daughter,  Ann  Chapman,  a  lot  of  negroes.  To  son,  Thomas 
a  lot  of  negroes  and  my  silver  hilted  sword.  To  my  granddaughter, 
Sarah  Johns,  negroes  and  my  stone  studs  set  in  gold,  also  a  lot  of 
stock.  To  my  beloved  wife,  my  silver  watch."  He  directs  his 
executors  to  sell  several  tracts  of  land,  and  appoints  his  wife  and 
Thomas  executrix  and  executor. 

Nicholas  Gassaway,  heir-at-law,  made  no  objection.  Mrs.  Sarah 
Gassaway  renounced  the  administration  and  asked  for  her  third 
part  of  the  estate. 

The  will  of  Captain  Thomas  Gassaway,  the  executor  of  Captain 
John,  shows  a  liberal  guardian  of  the  poor.  "To  my  wife,  Mary, 
my  dwelling  plantation  during  life.     To  brother  Nicholas,  my  gold 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      173 

seal  and  silver-hilted  sword,  and  all  my  lands  purchased  of  Charles 
Stewart.  To  my  cousin,  Thomas,  son  of  Henry;  to  cousin  Henry, 
son  of  uncle  Nicholas;  to  cousins  Susannah  and  Elizabeth  Howard; 
to  my  uncle,  Henry,  all  the  money  he  is  owing  me;  to  Rebecca 
Welsh,  widow;  to  John  Jacobs,  my  teacher;  Elizabeth  Purdy,  a 
widow;  Sarah  Burgess,  widow;  Ann  Stewart,  widow,  all  twenty 
pounds,"  with  as  many  more  legacies  to  the  needy.  His  personal 
estate  was  left  to  his  nephews  and  nieces.  His  wife,  Mary,  execu- 
trix, in  1773.  Through  his  deed,  of  1768,  the  grounds  of  the  Parish 
Church  of  "All  Hallows,"  were  granted  to  Rev.  David  Love,  rector; 
Henry  Hall,  Richard  Williams,  Jr.,  Wm.  I  jams,  Richard  Watkins, 
Lewis  Lee,  Richard  Beard,  Jr.,  vestrymen,  and  Hummer  I  jams  and 
Richard  Burgess,  church  wardens. 

Nicholas  Gassaway,  of  Captain  John  of  South  River,  in  1791, 
named  his  son,  John,  to  whom  he  gave  all  his  real  estate,  provided 
he  did  not  marry  before  twenty-one  years  old.  His  daughters  were 
likewise  required  to  remain  single  until  twenty-one  years.  To  John, 
"I  give  my  clock,  watch,  gold  seal,  my  silver  spurs,  one  silver 
strainer  and  one  silver  tankard."  To  his  daughters,  Mary  and  Sarah 
Cotter  Gassaway,  he  also  left  silver  memorials,  and  all  bonds,  notes 
and  open  accounts,  equally.  "  Doctor  Robert  Pottenger,  my 
relative,  to  be  my  executor." 

Dr.  John  Gassaway,  son  of  the  above  testator,  in  1800,  made 
the  following  will,  which  was  probated,  1812:  "Intending  shortly 
to  go  to  Europe,  I  desire  to  record  my  will.  I  wish  to  be  buried 
in  my  graveyard  on  my  place  called  'Cotter's  Desire  to  Wm.  Gass- 
away,' in  Prince  George  County.  I  wish  a  sermon  by  some  respect- 
able devine  of  the  Protestant  religion.  I  give  all  my  personal  and 
real  estate,  except  what  I  give  to  my  daughter  Caroline,  (daughter 
of  Eliza  Newman:)  First,  one-half  of  my  real  and  personal  estate 
to  my  sister  Mary  Gassaway,  during  life;  the  other  half,  with  above 
exception,  to  my  sister  Sarah  Cotter,  while  during  life.  I  give  to 
my  daughter  Caroline,  the  sum  of  fifteen  pounds  per  annum,  until 
fifteen,  and  ten  pounds  until  twenty.  Whenever  she  marries,  I  give 
her  thirty  pounds,  to  be  paid  by  my  two  sisters,  or  their  h^eirs. 

Henry  Gassaway,  oldest  son  of  Major  Thomas  and  Susannah 
(Hanslap)  Gassaway,  was  the  founder  of  the  Annapolis  branch. 

He  took  up  "  Wrighton,"  and  sold  it  to  Horatio  Sharpe;  he 
sold  his  interest  in  the  homestead  to  his  brother,  John,  Horatio 
Sharpe  and  Joseph  Dick,  and  removed  to  Annapolis. 

His  first  wife  was  Rebecca  Chapman  Gassaway.  Their  son, 
Thomas,  born  1747,  was  the  legatee  of  his  cousin  Thomas.  Thomas 
Gassaway,  of  Henry,  was  Deputy  Sheriff  and  Register  of  Wills  at 
Annapolis  prior  to  1790,  when  his  widow,  Elizabeth  Brice  Gassaway, 
made  a  deposition  concerning  the  Rutland  estate.  He  was 
succeeded  by  his  half-brother.  General  John  Gassaway,  an  officer 
in  charge  at  Annapoils  during  the  War  of  1812. 

Louis  C.  Gassaway,  of  Thomas,  was  an  attorney,  and  trustee  in 
numerous  transfers  and  estates.     In  1811,  John,  Henry  and  Louis  C. 


174      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Gassaway  were  voters  in  Annapolis,  when  electors  for  Senators  were 
chosen.  In  1818,  John  and  Louis  Gassaway  voted  for  Representa- 
tives in  Congress,  and  for  two  delegates  to  the  General  Assembly. 

The  marriage  register  at  Annapolis  shows  the  following  records: 
"  1787,  Henry  Gassaway  and  Margaret  Selman;  1788,  John  Gass- 
away and  Mary  Quynn;  1791,  John  Gassaway  and  Ehzabeth  Price; 
1807,  Henry  Gassaway  and  Levinia  Killman." 

General  John  Gassaway  left  an  only  daughter,  Louisa,  who 
left  her  house  and  lot  in  Annapolis  to  "her  dear  friend.  Miss  Whit- 
tington."  Louis  C.  Gassaway — Rebecca  Hendry.  Issue,  Louis 
Gardner,  Charles,  John,  Augustus,  Thomas  R.,  Sophia  and  Amelia 
Gassaway,  Rebecca,  Hester,  Wm.  Hendry  and  Mary  Ehzabeth. 

Louis  Gardner  Gassaway — Ellen  Brewer.  Issue,  Rebecca — 
Wm.  Bryan;  Hester — Nicholas  B.  Worthington.  Issue,  Ann — 
I.  H.  Hopkins;  Mary  Eliza  and  William  Hendry — Emily  Clayton, 
Augustus  Gassaway — Emily  Whittington.     Issue,  Renna — Mr.Caulk. 

Louis  Gardner  Gassaway,  Jr.,  only  child — Marion  B.  Dorsey, 
daughter  of  Michael,  of  Howard  County.  They  had  only  two 
children,  Louis  Dorsey  Gassaway  and  Ellen  Brewer,  wife  of  Lieu- 
tenant Ronald  Earle  Fisher,  United  States  Cavalry,  who  has  only 
recently  returned  from  the  PhiUppines. 

Louis  Dorsey  Gassaway  is  assistant  cashier  of  the  Farmers 
National  Bank,  of  Annapolis,  and  recorder  of  the  ancient  South 
River  Club.  He  married  Miss  Mary  Brooke  Iglehart,  daughter  of 
Wm.  T.  Iglehart,  of  Annapoils,  whose  mother  was  a  descendant  of 
the  first  Thomas  Harwood,  of  South  River.  Through  her,  Mrs. 
Gassaway  is  connected  with  descendants  of  Rev.  Henry  Hall,  the 
first  rector  of  St.  James  Parish  (1698) :  descended,  also,  from  Colonel 
Ninian  Beale,  of  Calvert  County  (1676) :  from  Colonel  Joseph  Belt, 
of  Prince  George.  Her  mother  was  Katherine  Spottswood  Berkeley, 
of  Virginia. 

The  head  of  the  Berkeley  family  in  England,  is  the  Earl  of 
Berkeley,  of  Berkeley  Castle,  Gloucestershire.  One  of  the  Maryland 
family  was  entertained  there,  and  taken  into  the  dungeon  where 
Edward,  the  Second,  was  murdered,  and  where  his  bed  still  stands. 

Mrs.  Iglehart  and  Mrs.  Gassaway  are  thus  descended  from 
Governor  Spottswood,  of  1710;  from  King  Carter;  from  the  first 
Nelson,  father  of  the  governor;  from  Robert  Brooke,  of  the 
Virginia  branch  of  Brookes. 

^  WILLIAM  RICHARDSON,   OF  WEST  RIVER, 

ANNE   ARUNDEL  COUNTY, 

A  friend  of  Wilham  Penn,  he  came  to  Virginia  in  the  "Paul," 
of  London,  in  1634.  He  removed  to  Maryland  in  1666,  and  became 
a  member  of  the  Lower  House  of  the  Assembly  from  1676  to  1683. 
He  was  frequently  the  bearer  of  messages  to  the  Upper  House  with 
instructions  from  Parliament. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      175 

During  his  service,  he  was  upon  the  Committee  of  Security 
and  Defense  of  the  Province,  and  of  the  Committee  upon  Laws  for 
the  Province.  With  Henry  Ridgely,  Edward  Darcy,  Nicholas  Gass- 
away  and  others,  he  was,  in  1683,  also,  upon  a  committee  to  erect 
a  building  for  the  Courts  and  Assembly,  and  for  keeping  the  records 
of  the  Secretary's  office  in  this  Province. 

On  December  19th,  1682,  William  Penn  met  Lord  Baltimore 
at  West  River,  and  after  an  interview  upon  their  divisional  line, 
Penn  set  out,  the  Lord  Baltimore  accompanying  him  several  miles, 
to  the  house  of  William  Richardson,  and  from  thence  two  miles 
further  to  a  religious  meeting  of  his  friends,  the  Quakers,  at  the 
house  of  Thomas  Hooper. 

William  Richardson  married  Elizabeth  Talbot,  widow  of 
Richard,  and  daughter  of  Matthias  Scarborough.  She  brought  to 
him  "Talbott's  Ridge"  adjoining  "His  Lordship's  Manor,"  surveyed 
in  1662. 

Among  the  early  land  grants  at  Annapolis,  lire  those  in  the 
name  of  George  Richardson,  for  transporting  himself  in  1661;  and 
Lawrence  Richardson,  about  the  same  time.  The  latter  was  upon  the 
Severn.  His  will,  of  1666,  named  his  daughter,  Sarah  Richardson, 
and  sons,  John  and  Lawrence  Richardson. 

Sarah  Richardson  became  the  wife  of  Joshua  Dorsey,  of  "  Hock- 
ley," who  sold  his  interest  to  his  brother,  Hon.  John,  and  removed 
to  the  estate  of  his  wife.  This  descended  to  their  only  son,  John 
Dorsey,  by  whom  it  was  sold,  his  wife,  Comfort  Stimpson,'  assent- 
ing, to  Amos  Garrett. 

John  Richardson  came  from  London  and  took  up  a  series  of 
grants  aggregating  13,000  acres. 

Thomas  Richardson  took  up  some  5,000  acres.  He  is  believed 
to  have  been  the  proprietor  of  Thomas  and  Anthony  Richardson, 
of  White  Haven,  in  1722-41. 

Wills  of  six  William  Richardsons  are  on  record  at  Annapolis, 
running  from  1698  to  1775.  William  Richardson  held,  in  1677,  one 
thousand  acres  in  Anne  Arundel.  All  of  this  family  were  men  of 
means  and  education,  holding  important  positions  in  the  province. 

They  had  issue,  William,  born  1668;  Daniel,  1670;  Sophia 
Elizabeth,  died  young,  and  Joseph,  born  1678,  married  Sarah  Thomas. 
There  were,  also,  two  twin  daughters,  Sophia  and  Elizabeth,  born 
1680.  William  Richardson,  Sr.,  died  1697,  and  his  will  is  probated 
at  Annapolis. 

William  Richardson,  Jr.,  married  Margaret  Smith.  Daniel 
Richardson  married  Elizabeth  Welsh,  daughter  of  Major  John 
Welsh  by  his  second  wife,  Mary,  step-daughter  of  Nicholas  Wyatt. 
They  had  issue,  John,  Lauranah,  Daniel — all  dying  young.  The 
remaining  heirs  were,  William,  Elizabeth — Wm.  Harrison,  and 
Sophia — Charles  Dickinson,  of  Talbott  County,  1725.  Daniel  Rich- 
ardson married,  second,  Ruth  (Ball)  Leeds,  widow  of  John  Leeds, 
of  Talbot  County.     Issue,  Daniel  and  Benjamin. 


176      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

William  Richardson,  of  Daniel  and  Elizabeth  Welsh,  resided  in 
Talbot  County,  and  married  Ann  Webb,  daughter  of  Peter  Webb, 
of  Anne  Arundel  County.  Issue,  Peter  and  Wilham,  who  was 
Colonel  of  the  Flying  Camp,  in  the  Revolution.  He  married  Eliza- 
beth Green:  was  Treasurer  of  the  Eastern  Shore,  and  lived  to  be 
ninety-two  years  old,  with  many  great-grandchildren. 

William  Richardson,  of  William  and  Elizabeth  Talbot,  had  by 
Margaret  Smith,  five  sons  — Joseph,  Daniel,  Richard,  Nathan  and 
Thomas;   and  two  daughters — Sarah  Hill  and  Sopha  Galloway. 

Sarah  Hill  was  the  mother  of  Henry  Hill  and  Margaret  Hill, 
both  mentioned  in  the  will  of  William  Richardson.  Sarah  Richard- 
son, wife  of  Henry  Hill,  was  grandmother  of  Priscilla  Dorsey,  of 
Belmont,  and  of  Mary  Gillis.  In  connection  with  these,  the  will 
of  Sarah  Hill,  mother-in-law  of  Joseph  Hill,  named  her  daughter, 
"Elizabeth,  now  wife  of  Thomas  Sprigg,  two  kinswomen.  Sarah  Hop- 
kins and  Elizabeth  Bankston,  daughters  of  my  cousin,  Cassandra 
Giles.  My  sister,  Margaret  Richardson,  my  wearing  apparel.  To 
my  five  cousins  (nephews  and  niece),  sons  of  my  sister,  Margaret 
Richardson,  Sarah  Hill,  Joseph  Richardson,  Daniel  Richardson, 
Richard  Richardson  and  Nathan  Richardson,  all  of  my  plate.  Sarah 
Hill  to  have  my  silver  skillet  and  porringer  that  cover  it  as  her  part. 
To  my  cousin  (niece),  Sophia  Galloway,  daughter  of  my  aforesaid 
sister  Margaret,  another  memorial.  To  Richard  Sprigg,  son  of 
Thomas  Sprigg,  my  spice  box.  To  Henry  Hill,  son  of  Dr.  Richard 
Hill,  a  colored  man.     Son-in-law,  Joseph  Hill,  executor." 

Witnesses,  Mary  Gillis,  John  Gilhs,  John  Davidge. 

The  will  of  Joseph  Hill,  in  1761,  named  his  daughter,  Mary 
Wilkinson,  a  spinster,  to  whom  he  gave  " Folly  Point."  "To  grand- 
daughter, Henny  Margaret  Hill, '  Horn  Neck,' '  Piney  Point,' '  Yeate's 
Come  by  Chance,'  'Yeate  Addition'  and  'Hill's  Forest,'  in  Balti- 
more County.  If  without  heirs,  to  go  to  cousin  (nephew),  Henry 
Hill.  To  my  sister,  Mary  Gillis,  Priscilla  Dorsey  and  sister  Milcah, 
cousin,  Joseph  Richardson,  all  personal  property.  To  cousin  Nathan 
Richardson,  two  hundred  acres  of  '  Hill's  Forest,'  in  Baltimore 
County.  To  cousin,  Joseph  Richardson,  three  hundred  acres  of 
"Hill's  Forest.'  To  brother  Richard  Hill,,  personal  estate.  To 
Elizabeth  Hill,  land  in  Anne  Arundel  County.  To  brother-in-law^ 
Joseph  Richardson,  £10  for  the  Quakers.  To  Sophia  Galloway, 
personal  estate.  To  John  Ruley,  'Edward's  Neck'  and  'Ruley's 
Search.'  Thomas  Sprigg  and  Robert  Pleasant,  personal  estate  and 
executors  of  my  will." 

Daniel  and  Joseph  Richardson,  brothers  of  William,  Jr.,  also 
remained  in  Anne  Arundel  County,  and  owned  parts  of  "Hickory 
Hill,"  about  1707. 

Joseph  Richardson,  Jr.,  bought  "Moneys  True  Dealing,"  of 
John  Edmondson,  in  Dorchester. 

He  married  Dorothy  Eccleston,  daughter  of  General  John 
Eccleston,  of  Dorchester  County. 


Founders  of  Anne  Akundel  and  Howard  Counties.      177 

In  1789,  Joseph  Richardson  married  EHzabeth  Noel,  of  Dor- 
chester. He  was  Justice  of  the  County  Court,  in  1775,  and  one  of 
the  commissioners  to  settle  disputed  boundaries  of  Dorchester,  by 
Frederick  Calvert. 

The  arms  of  the  Richardsons  are  those  of  the  Richardsons  of 
"Rich  Hill."  Crest  a  dexter  arm,  erect,  coupled  below  the  elbow, 
holding  a  dagger  in  the  hand.     Motto:  "Pro  Deo  et  Rege." 

JOHN  MACCUBIN; 

John  Maccubin,  of  the  Lowlands  of  Scotland,  known  in  the 
Highlands  as  McAlpines,  claiming  descent  from  Kennith  II,  who, 
having  imited  the  Scots  and  Picts  into  one  government,  became 
the  first  King  of  Scotland,  came  to  the  Severn  with  the  Howards, 
and  married  Susan,  daughter  of  Samuel  Howard.  He  took  up 
"Timber  Rock,"  and  left  by  his  first  wife,  John,  Samuel  and  Eliza- 
beth Maccubin,  all  named  by  Samuel  Howard  in  1703. 

John  Maccubin  married  again,  Elinor,  and  died  in  1686,  leaving 
a  will  in  which  he  named  his  wife,  Elinor,  executrix,  and  sons,  Samuel, 
Wilham,  Zachariah  and  Moses  inheritors  of  his  tract,  ''Wardrope." 
His  son,  John,  to  inherit  the  homestead,  "  Bramton,"  after  the  death 
or  marriage  of  his  widow.  She  became  the  second  wife  of  John 
Howard,  without  issue. 

Zachariah  Maccubin,  her  son,  married  Susannah  Nicholson, 
daughter  of  Nicholas  and  Hester  Larkin.  The  former  was  the  son 
of  Sir  John  Nicholson,  of  Scotland,  and  the  latter,  (said  to  be  the 
first  child  born  in  Anne  Arundel),  was  the'  daughter  of  John 
Larkin,  from  whose  family,  also,  came  the  wives  of  Colonel 
Edward  Dorsey,  Judge  Samuel  Chase  and  Judge  Townley  Chase. 

The  issue  of  Zachariah  and  Susannah  Maccubin  were  Nicholas 
and  James  Maccubin  (with  others).  Nicholas — Mary  Clare  Carroll, 
only  daughter  of  Dr.  Charles  Carroll  and  Dorothy  Blake.  The  former 
was  the  immigrant  son  of  Charles  Carroll  and  Clare  Dun,  of  the  old 
Irish  houses  of  Ely  O'Carroll  and  Lord  Clare.  The  latter  was  the 
daughter  of  Henry  Blake  and  Henrietta  Marie  Lloyd,  daughter  of 
Colonel  Philemon  and  Henrietta  Marie  Lloyd.  An  interesting  view 
of  these  two  famiUes  may  be  found  in  a  chancery  case  of  Carroll 
vs.  Blake. 

Mary  Clare  (Carroll)  Maccubin,  was  the  sole  heiress  of  her 
father's  and  brother's  immense  estate,  which  included  "  The  Plains," 
west  of  Annapolis;  nearly  all  of  the  southeastern  portion  of  An- 
napolis; "Mt.  Clare"  and  "The  Caves,"  near  Baltimore.  To  her 
sons,  who  assumed  the  name  of  Carroll,  it  was  willed  by  Charles 
Carroll,  the  Barrister,  her  brother.  Her  son,  Nicholas  Carroll, 
married  Ann  Jenings,  daughter  of  Thomas  Jenings,  Attorney- 
General  of  Maryland. 

Nicholas  and  Ann  Jenings  Carroll  held  their  homestead  upon 
the  site  of  the  present  public  school,  in  Annapolis.  Their  son,  John 
Henry    Carroll,    inherited    "The    Caves."     He    married    Matilda 


178      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Hollinsworth,  of  Horatio  and  Emily  Ridgely,  daughter  of  Judge 
Henry  and  Matilda  (Chase)  Ridgely.  Their  son  is  General  John 
Carroll,  of  "The  Caves." 

James  Carroll,  son  of  Nicholas  Maccubin  and  Mary  Clare 
Carroll,  has  been  elsewhere  recorded  in  the  families  of  Henry 
Dorsey  Gough  and  General  Charles  Ridgely,  of  Hampton. 

Mrs.  Elinor  Maccubin,  widow  of  John,  was,  as  I  believe,  of  the 
family  of  Dr.  Charles  Carroll,  and  James  Carroll,  of  "All  Hallows" 
Parish;  both  of  whom  were  witnesses  to  her  will,  in  1711.  Her 
daughter,  Sarah  Maccubin,  became  the  wife  of  William  Griffith, 
and  the  mother  of  Orlando  and  Captain  Charles  Griffith,  of 
Anne  Arundel. 

Charles  Carroll,  barrister,  son  of  Dr.  Charles  and  Dorothy 
(Blake)  Carroll,  was  born  1723.  He  was  educated  at  Eton  and 
Cambridge  and  studying  law  in  Middle  Temple,  returned  to 
Annapolis  in  1746.  He  was  an  elegant,  able,  fluent  speaker,  and  a 
terse  writer.  Many  State  papers  were  the  porduct  of  his  pen.  He 
wrote  the  "Declaration  of  Rights";  was  on  the  Committee  of  Cor- 
respondence; president  of  the  Maryland  Convention;  in  the  Council 
of  Safety;  member  of  the  Convention  which  asked  Governor  Eden 
to  vacate;  he  helped  to  form  the  government;  he  was  elected  to 
Congress,  but  declined  the  office  of  Chief  Judge  of  the  General  Court 
of  Maryland;   a  member  of  the  Maryland  Senate. 

He  married  Margaret  Tilghman,  daughter  of  Matthew.  They 
left  no  children. 

He  died  at  Mt.  Clare,  near  Baltimore.  His  tomb  is  in  St. 
Anne's  grounds,  at  Annapolis. 

His  estate  went  to  his  sister's  sons,  the  Maccubin  boys,  who 
changed  their  name  to  Carroll  at  the  command  of  the  barrister,  to 
perpetuate  his  distinguished  name. 

HAMMOND. 

John  Hammond,  author  of  "  Leah  and  Rachel,"  was  in 
Maryland  during  the  Severn  Contest,  in  1655.  From  him  several 
quotations  have  already  been  made. 

The  next  immigrant  in  Anne  Arundel  County,  was  John  Ham- 
mond, of  the  Severn.  His  estate  joined  the  Howards,  and  he  was 
a  brother-in-law  of  them,  having  married  Mary  Howard,  and  not 
Mary  Dorsey,  as  the  will  of  Samuel  Howard  shows. 

In  1689  he  was  a  member  of  the  Provincial  Court  of  Anne  Arun- 
del, and  one  of  "The  Quorum."  In  1692,  he  was  elected  a  delegate 
to  the  Lower  House,  with  Colonel  Henry  Ridgely  and  Hon.  John 
Dorsey.  Still  later  he  was  appointed  by  the  royal  administration, 
with  whom  he  was  in  favor.  Judge  of  the  High  Court  of  Admiralty. 

A  concise  history  of  his  career  is  recorded  in  the  annals  of  St. 
Anne's  Church,  as  an  obituary  notice.  He  was  one  of  the  vestry 
at  the  time  of  his  death,  and  was  an  ardent  member  of  the  Church 
of  England.     He  gave,  in  1695,  a  deed  for  a  church  site  upon  "Severn 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      179 

Heights"  to  his  friends,  members  of  Westminster  Parish.  The 
only  consideration  was,  "the  love  he  bore  his  neighbors."  He 
acquired  a  large  estate  in  both  the  City  of  Annapohs,  and  upon  the 
Severn.  He  was  a  witness  and  executor  of  his  brother-in-law,  Cap- 
tain Cornelius  Howard,  and  was  considered  a  lea'Hing  man  in  the 
county. 

It  has  frequently  been  written  that  his  English  progenitors  were 
men  of  eminence  in  both  medicine  and  politics. 

St.  Anne's  records  upon  his  death,  in  1707,  read:  "Hon.  John 
Hammond,  Esq.,  Major-General  of  the  Western  Shore  of  Mary- 
land, one  of  her  majesty's  most  honorable  Council  and  Judge  of 
the  High  Court  of  Admiralty  in  the  Province  of  Maryland,  was 
buried  the  29th  of  November,  1707." 

In  St.  Anne's  grounds  his  tombstone  now  rests.  Long  after 
all  vestiges  of  his  old  homestead  upon  the  Severn  had  disappeared, 
this  memorial  was  found  and  removed  to  the  church  grounds  of  his 
devotion.  St.  Anne's  Church  has,  also,  a  well-preserved  Bible,  pur- 
chased by  the  vestry  from  a  legacy  of  £10  left  by  him  to  the  church. 

General  Hammond's  will  reads:  "I  leave  my  home  plantation 
to  my  wife,  Mary.  My  eldest  son,  Thomas,  my  plantation  called 
'Mt.  Airy  Neck.'  To  son,  John,  the  plantation  where  he  lives,  a 
part  of  'Swan  Neck';  to  son,  William,  the  other  part.  Son  Charles 
Flushing,  *  Deer  Creek  Point,' '  Rich  Neck'  and  '  Harnmond's  Forest." 
To  my  first  three  sons,  my  houses  and  lots  in  Annapolis.  My  four 
sons  to  be  my  executors." 

General  Hammond  was  one  of  the  commissioners,  in  1694,  to 
lay  out  lots  and  organize  the  town  of  Annapolis.  All  of  these 
commissioners  saw  the  coming  capital;  each  took  up  several  lots  in 
the  town. 

Thomas  Hammond  was  a  neighbor  of  his  uncle.  Captain, 
Cornelius  Howard.  He  married  Mary  Heath,  daughter  of  Thomas, 
whose  will  distinctly  shows  that  her  daughter,  Mary  Hammond,  was 
the  wife  of  Cornelius  Howard,  Jr.,  Helen,  her  other  daughter,  be- 
came the  wife  of  the  second  John  Worthington,  the  rich  merchant. 
She  bore  him  a  long  and  distinguished  line  of  sons  and  daughters. 

John  Hammond,  Jr.,  was  the  executor  of  his  uncle,  Samuel 
Howard,  under  the  title  of  "cousin" — clearly  shown  to  mean 
"nephew.  "He  married  Ann  Greenberry,  youngest  daughter  of 
Colonel  Nicholas.  She  bore  him  two  daughters,  Comfort  and 
Rachel,  and  two  sons,  Thomas  John  and  Nicholas. 

Colonel  William  Hammond  left  his  inheritance  on  "Swan's 
Neck"  and  became  the  Baltimore  merchant.  His  store  was  one 
of  Henry  Dorsey  Gough's  row,  near  Light  Street,  on  Baltimore. 
He  had  a  distillery  at  Elk  Ridge  and  a  forge  mill  at  "Hockley," 
near  the  Relay.  He  was  a  member  of  the  vestry  of  St.  Paul's 
Church,  Baltimore.  His  wife  was  Elizabeth  Ravin.  Their 
daughter,  Mary  Hammond,  married  Colonel  John  Dorsey,  another 
Baltimore  merchant,  and  member  of  St.  Paul's  vestry. 


180      Founders  of  Anne  Aeundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Colonel  William  Hammond  died  at  forty,  and  lies  buried  at 
"Hammond's  Ferry."     Mordecai  and  William  Hammond  were  sons. 

Charles  Hammond,  next  son  of  General  John,  took  up  his  resi- 
dence near  Gambrill's  Station.  It  was  evidently  the  same  site,  if 
not  the  present  house,  of  Major  Philip  Hammond,  now  owned  by 
Mr.  George  A.  Kirby. 

Charles  Hammond  married  his  first  cousin,  Hannah  Howard, 
daughter  of  Philip  and  Ruth  Baldwin.  They  left  a  long  and  wealthy 
line,  viz.:  Colonel  Charles,  the  treasurer;  Philip,  the  big  merchant; 
Nathaniel,  the  planter;  Rezin,  bachelor;  John,  the  big  planter  of 
Elk  Ridge;  and  two  daughters,  Hamutel  and  Ruth  Hammond.  His 
will,  of  1713,  was  witnessed  by  his  neighbors,  John,  Richard,  Alex- 
ander and  Ruth  Warfield,  all  of  the  neighborhood  of  Millersville. 

Colonel  Charles  Hammond  was  State  Treasurer.  Having 
married  Mrs.  Rachel  (Stimpson)  Greenberry,  widow  of  Colonel 
Charles,  they  resided  at  "White  HaU." 

His  will,  of  1772,  named  his  daughter  Mrs.  Ann  Govane;  his 
granddaughter,  Ann  Marriott;  grandsons,  Thomas  and  James  Home- 
wood  Marriott;  William,  Ann  and  Hamutel  Bishop,  children  of  his 
granddaughter  Rebecca  Bishop;  grandson,  Charles  Homewood.  All 
were  legatees  of  "Meritor's  Fancy,"  a  tract  that  came  through  his 
wife. 

"Madam  Rachel  Hammond,  the  worthy  consort  of  Colonel 
Charles  Hammond,"  records  the  Maryland  Gazette,  "died  last 
Saturday  night,  February  25th,  1769." 

Colonel  Charles  Hammond's  death  was,  also,  recorded  thus: 
"On  Sunday  night,  September  3rd,  1772,  died  Hon.  Charles 
Hammond,  Esq.,  president  of  the  Council  and  treasurer  of  the 
Western  Shore." 

After  the  death  of  Mrs.  Hammond,  "White  Hall"  passed  to 
the  vestry  of  St.  Margaret's  Church.  By  an  act  secured  by  Governor 
Sharpe  it  was  later  sold  to  him.  Among  the  Ridout  papers  are 
letters  between  Governor  Sharpe  and  Colonel  Charles  Hammond, 
negotiating  for  a  portion  of  his  daughter's  estate  adjoining. 

Philip  Hammond,  of  Charles  and  Hannah  Howard,  inherited 
the  Annapolis  portion  of  his  father's  estate.  He  was  a  leading 
import  merchant,  having  his  warerooms  in  "Newtown,"  a  recent 
addition  to  the  Port  of  Annapolis.  He  was,  also,  prominent  in 
legislative  and  church  affairs.  His  wife  was  Rachel  Brice,  daughter 
of  Captain  John  Brice,  of  Annapolis. 

His  will,  of  1753,  probated  in  1760,  names  his  heirs.  "To  son^ 
Charles,  all  the  cargo  of  goods  in  store  in  this  coimtry  at  Newtown. 
He  is  to  manage  the  estate,  not  only  the  goods  now  here,  but  such 
as  are  to  come.  My  brother,  John,  to  be  employed  to  assist  him. 
My  daughter,  Ann  Hammond,  is  to  be  paid  £1000.  All  the  rest  of 
my  estate  to  be  divided  among  my  six  sons,  Charles,  John,  Philip, 
Denton,  Rezin  and  Matthias." 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      181 

The  last  four  were  bachelors,  Charles  was  known  as  Colonel 
Charles,  of  Curtis  Creek.  He  does  not  appear  to  have  succeeded 
in  settling  up  the  estate.  He  resigned,  and  at  the  time  of  his  death, 
was  recorded  as  "Colonel  Charles  Hammond,  of  Curtis  Creek." 

He  married  Rebecca  Wright  and  left  sons,  Rezin,  Charles,  Philip, 
John;  and  one  daughter,  Hannah.  His  estate  extended  from  Curtis 
Creek  to  Elk  Ridge.     He  died  in  1772.. 

•'■"John  Hammond,  of  Philip,  the  merchant,  married  Henrietta 
Dorsey,  of  Henry  Hall  Dorsey.  His  will,  of  1784,  named  his  son, 
William,  to  whom  he  left  "Champion  Forest,"  extending  from  the 
Severn  to  Elk  Ridge,  and  "Hammond's  Search,"  and  "Support." 

"To  Doctor  Pue,  my  attending  physician,  my  tract  at  Henry 
Dorsey 's  mine  bank,  called  'Prospect.'  "  Named  his  three  daugh- 
ters, Henrietta,  Sarah  and  Mary  Hammond,  to  whom  he  left  a  long 
list  of  tracts,which,  in  case  of  failure  in  heirs,  were  to  go  to  Dr. 
Thomas  Wright  Hammond.  "To  my  daughter,  Elizabeth  Ann 
Hammond,  my  South  River  Quarter  composed  of  '  Abington'  and 
Hereford.'  " 

To  his  son,  William,  he  left,  also,  all  of  his  interest  in  the  un- 
collected claims  of  the  late  Philip  Hammond.  To  his  housekeeper. 
Miss  Anne  Walker,  for  her  kind  attention  and  education  of  his 
children,  he  gave  several  tracts  and  several  negroes  to  wait  on  her. 

To  son,  Thomas  Hammond,  a  large  list  of  tracts  at  the  head 
of  the  Severn.  Finally,  tired  of  naming  them,  he  stopped  with  the 
hope  of  being  spared  to  finish  his  lengthy  will  of  six  or  eight  pages, 
but  he  died  before  finishing  it.  His  amanuensis,  Mr.  Thomas  Pitts, 
completed  it  from  a  schedule  left  for  him  by  the  testator.  It  pro- 
vided for  his  daughter,  Henrietta,  a  long  list  of  tracts.  To  daughter, 
Sarah  Hammond,  another  long  list,  and  to  daughter,  Mary,  a  still 
longer  one,  including  all  of  his  lands  in  Annapolis. 

The  four  bachelor  sons  of  Philip  and  Rachel  (Brice)  Hammond, 
handed  their  estates  down  successively  to  their  remaining  brothers. 
By  the  side  of  their  father  and  mother  their  tombs  may  yet  be  seen 
at  the  early  homestead,  near  Gambrill's  Station,  Annapolis  &  Elk 
Ridge  Railroad. 

The  father  is  recorded  "a  just  and  good  man." 

Denton  Hammond  died  in  1782,  leaving  twenty-eight  different 
tracts  of  land,  many  negroes,  and  much  stock  to  his  brothers  and  to 
the  children  of  his  late  sister,  Mrs.  Anne  Hopkins.  Philip  Hammond, 
Jr.,  died  in  1783,  leaving  twenty-seven  tracts  to  his  brothers  and 
nephews.  Matthais  and  Colonel  Rezin  were  the  Revolutionary 
patriots  in  conventions  and  the  Council  of  Safety.  The  former 
died  in  1789,  leaving  his  estate  to  his  surviving  brother.  Colonel 
Rezin  Hammond,  whose  English  brick  house  stood  north  of  Millers- 
ville. 

Colonel  Rezin,  in  1809,  left  several  tracts  to  William  Hammond 
Marriott,  and  his  nephew,  Philip  Hammond  Hopkins.  "  To  Denton 
Hammond,  son  of  my  nephew  Philip,  2,348  acres  of  'Hammond's 
Inheritance,'  1,877  acres  of  'Hammond's  Enlargement,'  a  part  of 


182      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

'Brown's  Addition'  and  300  acres  of  'Hammond's  Ridge.'  To 
Matthias  Hammond,  son  of  my  nephew  Phihp,  636  acres  of 
'Finland/  1,680  acres  of  'Hammond's  Inclosure,'  1,200  acres  of 
'Hammond's  Plains,'  773  acres  of  '  Piney  Plains'  and  parts  of 
'Hickory  Ridge'  and  'Marsh's  Forest.'  " 

After  setting  free  a  number  of  his  most  faithful  servants,  with 
land  and  houses  for  their  use,  Colonel  Rezin  gives  all  his  remaining 
hosts  of  negroes,  stock,  farming  utensils,  crops  and  money  to  these 
two  heirs;    making  them  his  executors. 

The  above  "nephew  Phillip"  was  the  son  of  Colonel  Charles, 
of  Curtis  Creek,  better  known  as  Major  Philip,  inheritor  of  the  old 
Hammond  homestead;  parts  of  which  are  still  as  well-preserved  as 
when  built  by  him.  Five  fields  of  a  portion  of  that  home  still  bear 
their  original  names.  One  known  as  "  Deer  Park "  fed  the 
celebrated  herd  of  deer  which  adorned  Major  Hammond's  Park. 

Major  Philip  Hammond  married  Elizabeth  Wright.  His  ten 
thousand  acres  were  divided  into  one  thousand  acre  tracts  among 
his  sons.  His  will,  of  1822,  granted  to  his  wife,  Elizabeth,  "  '  Ham- 
mond's Connexion,'  adjoining  Rezin  Hammond's  lands;  to  descend 
to  son  Thomas,  and,  if  no  issue,  to  George  Washington.  Son  Philip, 
to  hold  the  'Sixth  Connexion';  Rezin  to  hold  'Warfield's  Forest,' 
'Owen's  Range'  and  'Hammond's  Connexion';  John  to  hold  'Ham- 
mond's Green  Spring';  Henry  'Snow  Hill';  Matilda  'Hammond's 
Fifth  Connexion';  Harriet,  a  mortgage  of  $10,000." 

Dr.  Thomas  Hammond,  of  Major  Phihp,  was  a  member  of  the 
legislature  at  the  time  of  his  death,  in  1856.  His  wives  were  Mar- 
garet Boone  and  Mary  Ann  Wesley,  and  his  heirs  were  Phihp  T.  A., 
William  Edger,  Charles,  Arthur,  Silas  Wright,  Mary  Ann  and 
Arabella. 

Philip  and  Arthur  married  sisters  of  Mr.  Geo.  A.  Kirby,  present 
owner  of  the  Hammond  Manor  House. 

The  other  sons  of  Major  Philip  were  John — Harriet  Dorsey; 
Charles  —  Achash  Evans;  Henry,  died  single;  Denton  —  Sarah 
Baldwin;  Philip — Julia  Ann  Hammond  Rezin;  — Ann  Mewburn; 
Matthias  —  Ehza  Brown;  Ehzabeth  —  Dr.  Mewburn;  Harriet  — 
Henry  Pue;  Matilda — Rev.  Richard  Brown;  Mary  Ann — John  W. 
Dorsey,  father  of  the  late  Judge  Reuben  Dorsey,  of  Howard. 

Denton  Hammond,  in  1805,  married  Sarah  Hall  Baldwin, 
daughter  of  Lieutenant  Henry  Baldwin  by  his  wife,  Sarah  Hall 
Rawlings.  Their  daughters  were  Mrs.  Richard  Cromwell  and 
Camilla,  wife  of  Dr.  Thomas  Snowden  Herbert,  and  mother  of 
General  James  R.  Herbert,  C.  S.  A.,  ex-commander  of  the  Fifth 
Regiment  of  Maryland  Militia,  and  ex-police  Commissioner. 

Matthias  Hammond,  in  1810,  married  Ehza  Brown.  Their 
sons  were  Denton  and  Matthias,  who  inherited  all,  but  were  to  pay 
their  sister,  Caroline  Brown  Hammond,  $5,000.  Rezin  Hammond, 
brother  of  the  testator,  was  executor.  Philip  Hammond,  Sr.,  and 
Philip  Hammond,  Jr.,  were  witnesses. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      183 

Matthias  Hammond,  of  Matthias,  in  1846,  a  resident  of  Anne 
Arundel,  left  all  of  his  lands,  bank  accounts,  to  his  wife,  Margaret 
D.  Hammond,  son  Henry  and  daughter  Elizabeth. 

NATHAN  HAMMOND. 

This  son  of  Charles  and  Hannah  Hammond  started  with 
"Hammond's  Forest,"  and  became  very  rich  in  lands  and  negroes. 

His  wife  was  Captain  John  Welsh's  daughter,  Ann,  who  bore 
him  seven  sons  and  six  daughters.  Philip,  their  son,  married  Bar- 
bara Wright,  and  in  1799,  named  his  heirs  Nathan,  Philip,  Lloyd 
Thomas,  George,  Walter  Charles,  Ariana  Mackelfresh  and  Mary  Ann 
Hammond. 

Dr.  Lloyd  Thomas  Hammond  held  an  estate  near  the  Pine 
Orchard,  in  Howard.  His  neighbor  was  Colonel  Matthias  Hammond, 
with  one  thousand  acres  in  one  body.  Dr.  Lloyd  T.  Hammond,  in 
1806,  was  one  of  the  building  committee  of  the  Old  Brick  Church. 
He  married  a  daughter  of  Thomas  Beale  Meriweather.  Issue, 
Reuben  T.  Hammond,  Judge  Edward  Hammond  and  Mrs.  Dr.  Wm. 
Magruder. 

Rezin  Hammond,  of  Nathan,  left  all  of  his  lands  on  the  Patapsco 
to  Rezin,  his  son,  wife  and  daughter,  both  named  Rebecca.  Rezin 
Hammond,  Jr.,  named  his  sister,  Rebecca  Gist,  and  his  brother 
Matthias  Hammond,  to  whom  he  left  his  estate  in  Delaware  Bottom, 
near  Abel  Browne.     Matthias  willed  his  to  brother,  Nathan. 

Captain  Thomas  Hammond,  of  the  Revolution,  made  the  fol- 
lowing will  on  the  eve  of  his  departure:  "As  I  am  ordered  in  a  day 
or  two,  to  join  General  Washington's  army,  and  if  it  should  please 
our  Supreme  Judge  that  I  should  not  return,  I  make  the  following 
will: 

"To  my  son,  Thomas  Hughes  Hammond,  my  dwelling  and  lots 
on  Howard's  Hill,  in  Baltimore,  whereon  is  a  small  wooden  house. 
If  he  die  without  issue,  it  is  to  go  to  my  brother  Andrew.  My  lot 
of  ground  purchased  of  Henry  Gough,  and  part  of  my  lot  on 
Howard's  Hill  to  be  sold." 

WiUiam  Hammond,  of  WilHam,  began  his  will  thus:  "Glory  be 
to  God  on  high,  peace  and  love  among  men."  His  lands  at  Liberty, 
devised  to  him  by  his  uncle,  Hon.  Upton  Sheredine,  had  been  sold 
to  General  Richard  Coale.  His  sons  were  Larkin  and  William 
Hammond. 

WilHam  Hammond,  a  famous  attorney  and  writer  of  Annapolis, 
built,  in  1770,  one  of  the  historic  houses  of  Annapolis,  now  known 
as  the  Harwood  House,  on  Maryland  Avenue,  nearly  opposite  the 
"Chase  Mansion."  The  foundation  walls  are  five  feet  thick.  Its 
parlor  has  a  carved  wainscot  surrounding  it.  Its  mantel  piece,  win- 
dow, door  frames,  shutters  and  doors  are  carved  in  arabesque,  the 
handsomest  specimen  in  Maryland. 

Mr.  Hammond  built  it  for  an  intended  bride,  and  had  even 
visited  Philadelphia  in  search  of  furniture,  when  the  engagement 
was  broken  and  Mr.  Hammond  remained  a  bachelor. 


184      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

In  1811,  the  house  and  grounds  extending  from  King  George 
Street  to  Prince  George  Street,  were  purchased  by  Chief  Justice 
Chase  for  his  oldest  daughter,  Francis  Townley,  wife  of  Richard 
Lockerman.  She  designed  and  laid  off  its  garden  and  planted 
its  box  walk.  It  descended  to  Mrs.  William  Harwood,  granddaugh- 
ter of  Judge  Jeremiah  Townley  Chase,  and  is  still  held  by  descendants. 

DULANY; 

The  Dulany  records  of  Maryland,  Virginia  and  Kentucky,  make 
mention  of  two  Delany  brothers  and  three  sisters,  from  Cork, 
Ireland,  landing  near  the  town  of  Bellhaven,  now  Alexandria,  about 
1700.  The  eldest  brother,  William,  moved  to  Culpepper,  Virginia, 
and  returned  to  Wye  in  Queen  Annes,  Md.,  and  there  died. 

The  Maryland  record  mentions  William  and  Daniel  Delany, 
brothers,  sons  of  Thomas  and  Sarah  Delany,  from  Queen  County, 
Ireland,  who,  in  1700,  changed  the  spelling  to  Dulany,  after  their 
arrival. 

In  support  of  these  traditions,  we  find  the  will  of  Thomas 
Delany  on  record  in  Baltimore,  dated  1738.  It  names  Wm.  Delany, 
to  whom  was  left  "  Wright's  Forest,"  and  Daniel  Delany,  to  whom 
one  shilling  was  given.  There  were  two  more  sons,  Thomas  and 
Dennis. 

In  the  biography  of  Daniel  Dulany,  of  Annapolis,  we  find  him 
at  the  time  of  the  above  will  of  Thomas,  quite  a  prominent  man  in 
the  province;  for  he  was  then  commissioner.  Still  later,  by  the 
influence  of  Colonel  Plater,  into  whose  family  he  is  said  to  have 
married,  Daniel  Dulany  rose  to  Attorney-General  and  judge  of 
admiralty;  ending  as  commissary  general,  agent  and  receiver,  in 
addition  to  being  in  the  Provincial  Councils  of  Governor  Bladen, 
Ogle  and  Sharpe.  He  was  for  several  years  the  leader  of  the  country 
party  in  the  Lower  House. 

His  second  wife  was  Rebecca  Smith,  daughter  of  Colonel  Walter 
Smith.  In  the  grounds  of  St.  Anne's,  at  Annapolis,  his  elevated 
tomb,  erected  to  his  wife  before  1753,  pays  a  marked  tribute  to  her 
memory.  He  died  in  1753,  and  his  official  title  is  added  to  the 
marble  slab  of  the  same  tomb. 

The  issue  by  her  was  Hon.  Daniel  (the  younger),  Walter  and 
Rebecca — Jas.  Paul  Heath;  Rachel — first,  William  Knight,  second. 
Rev.  Henry  Addison;  Dennis,  clerk  of  Kent  County;  Mary — first, 
Dr.  Hamilton,  of  Annapoils,  second,  William  Murdock;  and  Lloyd 
Dulany. 

Walter  Dulany  succeeded  him  as  commissary-general.  He 
married  Mary  Grafton,  daughter  of  Richard.  His  letters  to  her, 
and  her  letters  to  him  during  the  critical  period  of  the  Revolution, 
have  been  preserved  as  interesting  bits  of  history  in  the  work  of 
Miss  Murray,  of  West  River,  in  her  biography  of  Rev.  Walter 
Dulany  Addison,  entitled,  "One  Hundred  Years  Ago." 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      185 

The  family  ,as  a  whole,  belonged  to  the  Tories  of  the  Revolu- 
tion, and  as  such  lost  their  vast  estate  by  confiscation.  The  sisters, 
Rebecca,  Mary,  Kitty  and  Peggy  Dulany  were  later  allowed  four 
hundred  acres  by  Congress. 

These  ladies  have  become  corner  stones  of  very  important 
family  buildings  in  Maryland  history. 

Rebecca  Dulany  became  the  wife  of  Thomas  Addison,  Jr.,  of 
"Oxon  Hill."  Much  has  been  written  of  his  coach  and  four,  with 
liveried  outriders;  of  his  handsome  English  coach  horses,  and  of 
the  truly  magnificent  display  of  this  planter. 

The  oldest  son  of  this  marriage  was  Rev.  Walter  Dulany 
Addison,  the  friend  of  Washington  and  founder  of  the  first  church  in 
Washington  City,  to  which  flocked  the  aristocratic  parishioners  in 
their  stylish  outfits.     He  also  built  Addison  Chapel. 

Miss  Murray  has  given  us  an  interesting  sight  into  the  Dulany 
homestead,  which  then  stood  at  the  water's  edge  of  the  Naval 
Academy. 

The  letters  of  Miss  Rebecca  Dulany  to  her  three  sisters,  tell 
of  a  boat  excursion  to  "Rousby  Hall";  of  her  dinner  at  Colonel 
Fitzhughs;'  of  her  ride  in  Colonel  Taylor's  vessel,  to  Colonel  Platers; 
of  the  garden  walks  and  guitar  concerts;  of  the  handsome  entertain- 
ment at  Mrs.  Platers;  of  a  dinner  next  day  at  Colonel  Barnes,  to 
which  she  went  in  Colonel  Platers'  chariot  and  four,  where  there 
were  a  great  number  of  gentlemen  whose  names  she  would  not 
reveal. 

The  son  of  the  above  writer,  tells  also,  of  his  experience  upon 
arriving  at  Annapolis,  from  his  school  in  England.  He  was  invited 
to  an  evening  party  at  the  Dulany  homestead.  Soon  after  dinner 
he  took  a  ride  in  his  English  costume  of  yellow  buckskin,  blue  coat, 
red  cassimere  vest  and  fine  top-boots.  Returning,  he  presented 
himself  at  the  door,  but  was  met  by  his  grandmother  (Mrs.  Mary 
Grafton  Dulany) ,  in  highly  offended  dignity.  "  What  do  you  mean, 
Walter,  by  such  an  exhibition?  Go  immediately  to  your  room  and 
return  in  a  befitting  dress." 

He  next  appeared  in  silk  stockings,  embroidered  vest,  etc. ;  and, 
to  his  amazement,  was  ushered  into  an  apartment  splendidly  adorned, 
filled  with  elegantly  dressed  ladies  and  gentlemen.  The  scene 
equalled  anything  he  had  seen  in  London.  This  view  of  Annapolis 
was  just  at  the  close  of  the  Revolution,  when  the  French  officers 
who  had  aided  us  were  lions  in  society. 

The  daughters  of  Mr.  Walter  Dulany  and  Mary  Grafton,  were 
Rebecca  Addison  Hanson,  Mrs.  Mary  Fitzhugh,  Mrs.  Kitty  Belt, 
Mrs.  Peggy  Montgomery. 

HON.  DANIEL  DULANY.     (THE  YOUNGER). 

Both  father  and  son  were  leading  men  in  political  affairs,  but 
the  son  eclipsed  the  father.     Yet  the  father  decided  most  of  the 


186      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Chancery  records  I  have  reviewed.  The  son  was  educated  at  Eton 
and  Clare  Hall  in  Cambridge.  He  entered  the  Temple  and  retm-ning 
was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1727. 

He  became  a  member  of  the  Council,  and  Secretary  of  the 
Province.  His  celebrated  essay  against  the  Stamp  Act  made  him 
renowned,  but  the  position  he  took  in  the  debate  with  Charles 
Carroll,  of  Carrollton,  classed  him  among  the  enemies  to  American 
Independence. 

His  wife  was  Rebecca  Tasker,  daughter  of  Hon.  Benjamin  and 
Ann  (Bladen)  Tasker. 

Their  three  children  were  Daniel,  Barrister  of  Lincoln's  Inn, 
London;  Colonel  Benjamin  Tasker  Dulany,  aid  to  General 
Washington.  He  married  Eliza  French,  whose  daughter  Eliza 
French  Diilany  became  the  wife  of  Admiral  French  Forrest,  of  the 
Confederate  Navy. 

Ann  Dulany  (of  Hon.  Daniel)  married  M.  De  la  Serre,  whose 
daughter  Rebecca,  was  married  at  the  residence  of  Marquis  of 
Wellesley,  to  Sir  Richard  Hunter,  physician  to  the  Queen. 

McMahon,  the  historian,  pays  Hon.  Daniel  Dulany  the  follow- 
ing tribute: 

"For  many  years  before  the  downfall  of  the  Proprietary  Gov- 
ernment, he  stood  confessedly  without  a  rival  in  the  Colony,  as  a 
lawyer,  a  scholar,  and  an  orator,  and  we  may  safely  regard  the  asser- 
tion, that  in  the  high  and  varied  accomplishments  which  constitute 
these,  he  has  had  amongst  the  sons  of  Maryland  but  one  equal  and 
no  superior.  The  legal  arguments  of  Mr.  Dulany  that  yet  remain, 
bear  the  impress  of  abilities  too  commanding,  and  of  learning  too 
profound  to  admit  of  question.  For  man}^  years  before  the  Revolu- 
tion, he  was  regarded  as  an  oracle  of  the  law.  It  was  the  constant 
practice  of  the  Courts  of  the  Province  to  submit  to  his  opinion  every 
question  of  difficulty  which  came  before  them  and  so  infallible  were 
his  opinions  considered,  that  he  who  hoped  to  reverse  them  was 
regarded  as  'hoping  against  hope.' 

"Nor  was  his  professional  reputation  limited  to  the  colony.  I 
have  been  creditably  informed  that  he  was  occasionally  consulted 
from  England  upon  questions  of  magnitude,  and  that,  in  the  Southern 
coimties  of  Virginia,  adjacent  to  Maryland,  it  was  not  unfrequent 
to  withdraw  questions  from  their  Courts  and  even  from  the  Chan- 
cellor of  England,  to  submit  them  to  his  award.  Thus,  unrivalled 
in  professional  learning,  according  to  the  representations  of  his 
contemporaries,  he  added  to  it  all  the  power  of  the  orator,  the 
accomplishments  of  the  scholar,  the  graces  of  the  person,  the 
suavity  of  the  gentleman. 

"Mr.  Pinkney,  himself,  the  wonder  of  his  age,  who  saw  but  the 
setting  splendor  of  Mr.  Dulany's  talents,  is  reputed  to  have  said  of 
him,  that  even  amongst  such  men  as  Fox,  Pitt  and  Sheridan,  he  had 
not  found  his  superior. 

"Whatever  were  his  errors  during  the  Revolution,  I  have 
never  heard  them  ascribed,  either  to  opposition  to  the  rights  of 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      187 

America,  or  to  a  servile  submission  to  the  views  of  the  Ministry,  and 
I  have  been  creditably  informed,  that  he  adhered,  throughout  life, 
to  the  principles  advanced  by  him  in  opposition  to  the  Stamp  Act. 
The  conjecture  may  be  hazarded  that  had  he  not  been  thrown  into 
collision  with  the  leaders  of  the  Revolution,  by  the  proclamation 
controversy  and  thus  involved  in  the  discussion  with  them,  which 
excited  high  resentment  on  both  sides,  and  kept  him  at  a  distance 
from  them  until  the  Revolution  began,  he  would,  most  probably, 
have  been  found  by  their  side,  in  support  of  the  measures  which  led 
to  it.  Mr.  Dulany  was  Secretary  of  the  Province  when  he  conducted 
the  famous  controversy  with  Charles  Carroll,  of  Carrollton.  He  was 
also  a  member  of  the  Upper  House,  under  the  Proprietary  Govern- 
ment. 

"Rewrote  under  the  name  of  ''Antilon"  in  opposition  to  'First 
Citizen.'  Full  copies  of  that  discussion  are  still  extant  in  the  Mary- 
land Gazette  of  our  Maryland  State  Library.  The  political  differ- 
ences which  it  engendered  survived  the  close  of  the  Revolution.  Mr. 
Dulany  held  no  pubhc  office  after  it,  and  the  brilliancy  of  his  talents 
displayed  alone  in  the  forum  of  Provincial  Courts,  did  not  shed  its 
effulgence  in  National  Councils,  and  his  fame,  reflected  from  the 
humble  pedestal  of  State  history,  has  not  depicted  to  the  Nation 
the  phenominal  proportions  of  his  intellect.  Mr.  Dulany  died  in 
Baltimore,  March  19th,  1797,  aged  seventy-five  years  and  was 
buried  in  St.  Paul's  Cemetery,  corner  of  Lombard  and  Fremont 
Streets."— (Riley). 

The  Dulany  mansion  in  Annapolis  stood  in  the  present  Naval 
Academy  grounds,  and  for  a  number  of  years  was  occupied  by  the 
Superintendent. 

Lloyd  Dulany's  old  homestead  is  now  the  pubhc  school  building. 
The  famous  bowl  which  was  brought  over  in  the  Peggy  Stewart 
belonged  to  him.  A  few  evenings  after  its  arrival,  Mr.  Dulany  gave 
an  entertainment  in  which  he  explained  how  the  bowl  was  saved 
when  the  vessel  was  burnt.  Charles  Carroll,  of  Carrollton,  in  reply 
to  Mr.  Dulany's  explanation,  remarked,  "we  will  accppt  your 
explanation  provided,  this  bowl  always  furnishes  this  same  kind 
of  tea." 

Daniel  Dulany  (of  Walter)  married  Mary  Chew,  widow  of 
Governor  Paca.  Their  son  Lloyd  was  killed  by  Rev.  Bennett 
Allen,  former  Rector  of  St.  Anne's.  Walter  Dulany  was  a  brother. 
To  get  a  definite  idea  of  the  all-prevailing  influence  of  the  Dulany 
name  in  legal  quarters,  study,  as  I  have  done,  the  Chancery  records, 
wherein  their  opinions  were  the  power  behind  the  throne. 

JUDGE  SAMUEL  CHASE. 

Samuel  Chase  known  in  history  as  "The  Torch  of  the  Revolu- 
tion," was  born  in  Somerset  County,  in  1741.  His  father  was  the 
Rev.  Thomas  Chase  of  the  Church  of  England,  half  of  whose  salary 
was  cut  off  by  an  Act  supported  by  his  son. 


188      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Samuel  Chase  studied  law  in  Annapolis.  He  joined  the  "Sons 
of  Liberty."  When  Zachariah  Hood's  property  was  destroyed  in 
revenge  for  his  attempting  to  distribute  stamps  in  the  Colony, 
Chase  was  an  active  participant.  Hood's  friends  who  were  promi- 
nent and  distinguished  families,  resented  Chase's  conduct,  saying, 
"  Chase  was  a  busy-body,  restless  incendiary,  a  ring-leader  of  mobs, 
a  foul-mouthed  and  inflaming  son  of  discord  and  faction — a  pro- 
moter of  the  lawless  excesses  of  the  multitude."  To  these  charges 
Chase  replied  in  a  vehement  address,  in  which  he  admitted  his 
agency,  but  justified  his  conduct.  Fierce,  vehement,  fearless,  he 
bore  a  tinge  of  harshness  which  was  redeemed  by  noble  and  generous 
qualities — but  the  adherents  of  the  Maryland  Court  looked  upon 
him,  then,  as  a  dangerous  fanatic.  He  was  a  delegate  to  the 
Continental  Congress  in  1774,  and  continued  until  1778.  He  was  a 
signer  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence.  In  1783,  was  sent  to 
England  to  collect  a  bank  claim;  recovered  $650,000  of  it.  In  1778, 
was  made  Judge  of  the  newly  established  Criminal  Court  in  Balti- 
more. Colonel  John  Eager  Howard  induced  him  to  remove  to  Balti- 
more and  granted  him  a  whole  square,  now  in  the  centre  of  the  city. 

He  was  a  member  of  the  State  Convention  that  adopted  the 
Federal  Constitution;  he  thought  it  not  democratic  enough.  In 
1791,  he  became  Chief  Justice  of  the  General  Court  of  Maryland, 

In  1794,  on  the  occasion  of  a  riot,  he  had  arrested  two  of  the 
rioters.  They  refused  to  give  bail  and  the  Sheriff  was  afraid  of  a 
rescue,  if  he  took  them  to  jail.  "Call  out  a  posse  comitatus,  then" 
said  the  Judge — "Sir,  no  one  will  serve."  'Summon  me,  then  'I  will 
be  posse  comitatus.  I  will  take  them  to  jail."  Instead  of  presenting 
the  rioters,  the  grand  jury  indicted  the  Judge  for  holding  a  place  in 
two  Courts  at  the  same  time. 

In  1796,  President  Washington  appointed  Judge  Chase  an 
associate  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Coiu-t. 

In  1804,  he  was  impeached  for  misdemeanor.  He  was  defended 
by  Luther  Martin,  Attorney-General  of  Maryland,  who  in  that 
defence  was  thus  pictured.  "  Rolicking,  witty,  audacious  Attorney- 
General,  drunken,  generous,  slovenly,  grand  —  shouting  with  a 
school  boy's  fun  at  the  idea  of  tearing  John  Randolph's  indictment 
to  pieces  and  teaching  Virginia  Democrats  some  law."  His  address 
was  never  exceeded  in  "powerful  and  brilliant  eloquence,"  in  the 
forensic  oratory  of  the  country." 

It  defeated  the  impeachment,  for  the  two-third  majority  could 
not  be  secured. 

Judge  Chase's  temper  was  better  fitted  for  the  bar  than  the 
bench,  yet  his  courage  and  ardor  were  needed  where  he  held  sway. 

Judge  Chase  married  first,  Ann  Baldwin,  by  whom  he  had  two 
sons  and  two  daughters.  His  second  wife  was  Hannah  Kitty  Giles, 
of  Kentbury,  England.     He  died  June  19th,  1811. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      189 

JUDGE  JEREMIAH  TOWNLEY  CHASE. 

Judge  Jeremiah  Townley  Chase,  was  born  in  Baltimore,  in  1748, 
and  removed  to  Annapolis  in  1779.  He  was  Mayor  of  Annapolis  in 
1783,  and  there  delivered  an  address  of  welcome  to  General  Wash- 
ington upon  his  resignation  of  this  commission.  Judge  Chase  also 
welcomed  LaFayette  to  Annapolis,  in  1825.  He  was  upon  the  Com- 
mittee of  Safety  for  Baltimore  and  was  a  private  in  the  first  military 
company. 

In  1775,  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the  convention  from  Balti- 
more County  to  frame  a  Constitution  and  was  a  member  of  the  body 
which  framed  the  declaration  for  Maryland.  He  served  in  Governor 
Thomas  Johnson's  council ;  was  a  member  of  Congress  in  1783  ;  in 
1789,  was  Chief  Judge  of  the  Third  District  and  Chief  Judge  of  the 
Court  of  Appeals,  from  which  he  resigned  in  1824.  He  was  firm, 
dignified,  impartial,  kind,  temperate,  and  a  sincere  Christian. '  He 
married  Hester  Baldwin,  name-sake  and  descendant  of  Hester 
Larkin,  daughter  of  John  Larkin,  of  South  River.  As  the  widow  of 
Nicholas  Nicholson  she  married  John  Baldwin,  Jr.  She  died  in  1749, 
aged  one  hundred  years  and  is,s\ipposed  to  be  one  of  the  first  persons 
born  in  Anne  Arundel  County.,  > 

She  left  a  long  line  of  distinguished  dcscendents,  one  of  whom, 
Hester  Ann  Chase  Ridout,  daughter  of  Thomas  Chase  (of  Judge 
Townley)  presented  the  Chase  mansion  to  the  Episcopal  Church. 
Judge  Chase  died  in  1828,  and  was  buried  in  the  City  Cemetery. 

THE  REVOLUTION  OF   1688. 

There  were  several  contributing  causes  in  Maryland  which  helped 
to  swell  the  Revolution  of  1688  in  England.  The  Proprietary  rule 
of  the  Province  had  suffered  greatly  from  the  fact  that  during  its 
whole  existence,  with  the  exception  of  the  few  years  between  1675 
and  1684,  and  the  one  short  period  of  1732,  all  the  proprietors  and 
their  secretaries  resided  in  England.  The  Province  was  held  by 
representatives  not  always  faithful,  not  even  always  discreet,  but 
always  in  conflict  through  their  varying  responsibilities.  They  were 
the  Governor,  Secretary,  Commissary-General,  two  Judges  of  the 
Land  Office,  and  an  Attorney-General,  aided  by  many  more  minor 
appointees. 

Cecilius,  son  of  the  first  Lord  Baltimore,  was  a  trained  adminis- 
trator, discreet,  politic,  able,  deeply  interested  in  the  project  for 
which,  it  is  estimated,  he  must  have  spent  some  £40,000  sterling  with 
but  little  received  in  return.  His  representative  Governor,  Leonard 
Calvert,  was  likewise  an  able  and  well-disposed  administrator,  but 
Charles  Calvert,  son  of  Cecilius,  a  busy  man  of  strong  personality, 
succeeding  in  1675,  was  not  the  able  diplomat  that  his  father  had 
been.  Succeeding  his  uncle,  Philip,  as  Governor,  there  was  at  once 
jealousy  and  dissension. 

It  is  true  he  suppressed  the  Fendall  rebellion,  but  he  was  not 
able  to  suppress  the  men  engaged  in  it. 


190      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Lacking  the  gentleness,  sympathy  and  persuasive  appeal  of  his 
father,  he  was  charged  with  being  cold,  stern  and  self-interested. 

He  married  the  widow  of  his  secretary,  Henry  Sewall,  and  gave 
her  children  and  other  members  of  his  family  some  of  the  most 
important  offices  in  the  Province.  He  restricted  the  suffrage  and 
endeavored  to  keep  the  leaders  of  the  opposition  out  of  the  House  of 
Delegates  by  not  summoning  them,  when  elected.  When  the  house 
was  obstinate  he  did  not  hesitate  to  use  personal  influence  to  secure 
reluctant  assent. 

Only  a  few  years  subsequent  to  a  fall  of  more  than  fifty  per  cent, 
in  the  price  of  tobacco,  the  rent  of  all  lands  after  1670,  was  doubled, 
and  further,  while  a  large  per  cent,  of  the  people  were  Protestants, 
the  government  was  under  the  control  of  Catholics.  Added  to  this, 
he  left  the  province  in  1684  to  his  minor  son  and  a  board  of  deputy 
governors,  at  the  head  of  which  was  his  cousin,  the  notorious  George 
Talbott,  to  be  followed  later  by  William  Joseph,  a  quaint  fanatic,  to 
succeed  him,  whose  ideas  of  "divine  right"  were  not  well  received, 
but  in  reality  brought  on  a  rebellion  in  the  lower  House  of  the 
Assembly  (Mereness).  A  crisis  was  now  at  hand,  not  only  in  the  prov- 
ince, but  in  the  mother  country — it  ended  in  the  revolution  of  1688, 
which  drove  King  James  from  the  throne  and  placed  William  and 
Mary  in  control 

Enemies  of  the  Proprietary  now  began  a  contest  for  control 
under  the  false  cry  that  Catholics  were  plotting  with  Indians  to 
murder  Protestants.  Col.  Henry  Darnall;  Colonel  Pye  and  Mr.  Boar- 
man  were  charged  with  conspiring  with  the  Seneca  Indians  for  that 
purpose,  and  it  was  only  by  the  prompt  action  of  Colonel  Darnall  in 
hurrying  from  place  to  place,  convincing  the  people  of  the  falsity  of 
the  rumor,  that  an  uprising  was  quelled  in  its  early  stage.  Certain 
Protestants,  viz. :  Henry  Hawkins,  Captain  Edward  Burgess,  Colonel 
Nicholas  Gassaway,  Captain  Richard  Hill  and  Major  Edward 
Dorsey,  addressed  a  letter  to  Colonel  Digges,  of  Lord  Baltimore's 
council,  to  know  if  there  was  any  truth  in  the  rumor.  Colonel  Digges 
replied  by  a  total  denial  of  the  charge,  assuring  the  writers  that  Colonel 
Jowles,  Colonel  Darnall  and  Major  Ninian  Beale  would  scour  the 
woods  to  see  if  any  Indians  could  be  found.  His  reply  satisfied  the 
writers  who  then  joined  in  letters  to  the  people  and  to  the  Council 
announcing  their  belief  in  the  falsity  of  the  charges,  and  they  were 
rewarded  by  military  appointments,  viz. :  Mr.  Edward  Dorsey,  Major 
of  Horse;  Mr.'^Nicholas  Gassaway ,Major  of  the  Foote;  Mr.  Nicholas 
Greenberry,  Captain  of  the  Foote,  in  the  room  of  Captain  Richard 
Hill;  Mr.  Edward  Burgess,  Captain  of  the  Foote;  Mr.  Henry  Hans- 
lap,  Captain  of  the  Foote;  Mr.  Henry  Ridgely,  Captain  of  the  Foote. 
Captain  John  Coode  was  the  leading  spirit  in  this  revolutionary  move- 
ment against  the  lord  proprietary.  He  had  been  suppressed  by 
Charles  Calvert  during  an  earlier  attempt  at  rebellion,  but  his  spirit 
was  still  undaimted.  He  and  Captain  Josias  Fendall  had  been  tried 
for  revolt.  Coode  had  married  a  daughter  of  Thomas  Gerrard,  who 
had  been  a  Councillor  under  Fendall.     He  was  first  a  Catholic  and 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      191 

then  a  Protestant,  and  although  once  a  clergyman,  he  was  considered 
vain,  unprincipled,  caring  nothing  for  Protestantism,  but  using  it 
only  as  a  pretext  in  his  revenge  against  the  lord  proprietor.  With 
such  a  man  as  leader,  was  organized,  in  1689,  a  Protestant  Association 
to  put  William  and  Mary  in  control  of  the  province.  The  records 
were  seized  by  Colonel  Coode,  head  of  the  militia.  The  officers  of 
the  Proprietor  could  only  collect  a  force  of  eighty  men,  who  surren- 
dered without  a  shot. 

This  association  met  with  but  little  approval  by  the  Protestants 
of  Anne  Arundel  County,  who  even  refused  to  send  delegates  to  a 
convention  at  St.  Mary's.  Captain  Richard  Hill,  of  Anne  Arundel, 
urged  the  inhabitants  to  think  well  before  renouncing  the  proprietors 
who  had  given  them  their  property,  to  rush  to  a  government  which 
might  not  be  able  to  hold  it.  For  that  effort  he  was  denounced  by 
Captain  Coode  and  driven  from  power.  In  his  defence.  Captain  John 
Browne,  of  Anne  Arundel,  wrote:  "  Captain  Hill  is  a  Scotchman,  bold 
in  speech,  who  spoke  what  others  only  dared  to  think."  But  the 
Association  was  successful;  Coode  was  put  in  command  of  the  King's 
forces,  assisted  by  Colonel  Nicholas  Greenberry.  The  new  monarchs 
were  proclaimed,  an  assembly  was  called  and  all  the  offices  filled  with 
Protestants.  Each  of  the  counties,  except  Anne  Arundel,  sent  an 
address  to  the  King  in  support  of  the  movement,  beseeching  him  to 
take  the  government  into  his  own  hands,  but  counter  addresses, 
denouncing  Coode  and  his  followers,  were  also  sent.  The  signatures 
to  the  former,  however,  numbered  twice  as  many  as  the  latter. 

Charges,  strong  and  forceful,  were  brought  against  the  govern- 
ment of  the  Proprietor.  The  King  approved  the  measures  of  the 
Association,  but  the  opinion  of  Lord  Chief  Justice  Holt  in  1690  was, 
''  I  think  the  King  may  constitute  a  governor  whose  authority  will 
be  legal,  though  he  must  be  responsible  to  the  Lord  Baltimore  for 
the  profits." 

The  royal  government,  however,  was  established  in  1692  and 
continued  for  nearly  a  quarter  of  a  century  in  control  of  the  province. 

Sir  Lionel  Copley  was  appointed  Governor.  He  summoned  a 
General  Assembly  which  met  May  10,  1692,  O.  S.,  at  St.  Mary's.  The 
first  act  was  to  acknowledge  William  and  Mary,  and  the  next  to 
establish  the  Episcopal  Church  as  the  State  church  of  Maryland. 
Every  county  was  divided  into  parishes  and  taxes  were  levied  upon 
the  people,  without  distinction,  for  the  support  of  the  ministers,  the 
repair  of  the  old  and  the  building  of  new  churches.  In  1704  an  act 
was  passed  "  to  prevent  the  growth  of  popery,"  by  which  it  was  made 
a  penal  offence  for  a  priest  of  the  Catholic  Church  to  say  mass  or  to 
perform  any  of  their  sacred  functions,  or  for  any  Catholic  to  teach  a 
school.  This  was  subsequently  modified  in  allowing  Catholic  priests 
their  functions  in  private  houses.  This  led  to  the  custom  of  building 
chapels  connected  with  the  dwellings  of  Catholic  families;  nor  were 
Catholics  alone  so  deprived.  All  dissenters  were  alike  treated,  even 
the  gentle  Quakers.     In  1702  the  English  toleration  act  for  "Dis- 


192      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

senters"  was  extended  to  Maryland,  and  in  1706  relief  was  granted 
to  the  "Quakers"  or  "Friends." 

The  Assembly  next  attempted  to  deprive  the  Proprietary  of  his 
rights  in  the  province.  He  was  still  entitled  to  all  of  the  imsettled 
lands,  with  the  right  of  making  grants  for  them,  to  the  quit  rents  and 
certain  duties,  not  connected  with  the  government,  viz. :  port  duties 
of  two  shillings  per  hundred  on  all  tobacco  exported  from  the  colony. 
The  Assembly  disputed  his  claim,  but  Lord  Baltimore  having 
appealed  to  the  King,  the  latter,  by  royal  letter,  authorized  him  to 
collect  his  revenues  in  the  province.  The  Assembly  finally  yielded 
up  to  the  Proprietary  his  port  and  tonnage  duties  and  entered  into 
a  compromise  in  issuing  land  patents.  The  Assembly  now  turned  its 
attention  to  the  location  of  the  State  Capital. 

St.  Mary's  was  the  home  of  the  Catholic  element  of  the  province 
and  it  was  now  too  remote  for  a  convenient  meeting  place.  Both  of 
these  reasons  were  made  effective.  All  prayers  for  retaining  the  gov- 
ernment upon  its  historic  ground  were  laughed  at  and  rejected.  The 
capital  was  removed  to  "the  town  land  at  Proctors,"  which  was 
henceforth  to  be  called  Annapolis,  and  so,  in  a  few  years,  old  St. 
Mary's,  "  in  the  very  State  to  which  it  gave  birth,  in  the  land  which 
it  redeemed  from  the  wilderness,  now  stands  a  solitary  spot  dedicated 
to  God  and  a  fit  memento  of  perishable  man"  (McMahon).  Its  suc- 
cessor, rising  upon  its  ruins,  grew  into  an  attractive  centre  of  wealth. 
A  portion  of  St.  Mary's  population  followed  the  government  to  the 
new  capitol.  The  very  first  record  of  this  new  seat  shows  that 
progress  had  been  made  for  a  coming  city. 

There  is  one  venerable  building  on  State  House  Hill  which  must 
have  been  built  as  the  Court  House  for  the  Port  of  Entry  in  1683.  It 
is  the  time-honored  Treasury  building.  When  it  was  repaired  during 
the  administration  of  Treasurer  Spencer  Jones,  a  special  search  was 
made  to  get  its  date  of  erection,  but  nothing  could  then  be  found. 
The  present  efficient  Chief  Clerk  of  the  Land  Office,  Mr.  George 
Schaeffer,  had  a  picture  of  it  from  a  New  York  journal  showing  the 
members  of  the  Assembly  in  continental  dress  standing  about  it  under 
the  shade  trees  surrounding  it.  Mr.  David  Ridgely,  in  his  excellent 
"Annals  of  Annapolis,"  published  in  1841,  tells  us  that  the  Lower 
House  met  in  the  larger  room  and  the  Upper  House  in  the  smaller 
one,  but  when  that  meeting  took  place  was  left  to  conjecture. 

The  first  Assembly,  by  the  records,  met  in  Major  Dorsey's  house, 
which  a  living  historian,  Mr.  Elihu  S.  Riley,  thinks  was  probably 
the  house  No.  83  Prince  George  Street,  now  Mrs.  Marchand's. 

The  first  State  House  was  built  in  1697,  when  the  Assembly 
met  there  until  its  destruction  by  fire  in  1704,  after  which  Major 
Dorsey's  house  was  again  occupied  imtil  the  completion  of  the  second 
State  House  in  1706.  We  have  a  record  of  the  Armory  which  stood 
north  of  it;  of  King  William's  School,  which  stood  south  of  it,  but 
no  mention  of  the  Treasury  building.  Even  when  the  third  State 
House  was  projected  in  1772  and  its  corner  stone  was  laid  by  Gover- 
nor Eden,  the  clap  of  thunder  from  a  clear  sky  was  noted,  but  still 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      193 

no  mention  of  this  quaint  little  building,  which  must  have  then  taken 
the  place  of  the  second  State  House  for  a  season  until  the  completion 
of  the  third. 

Judging  from  the  want  of  record  after  1694,  the  inference  is  clear 
that  our  historic  little  Treasury  building  was  built  after  the  organiza- 
tion of  Anne  Arundel  Town  as  a  port  of  entry  in  1683,  and  at  the 
time  of  Governor  Nicholson,  was  the  house  in  which  he  called  his 
Council  together  for  the  organization  of  the  capital 

GOVERNOR  NICHOLSON. 

In  1694  Governor  Nicholson  met  in  Council  at  the  Court  House 
in  Anne  Arundel  Town  and  issued  an  order  for  the  removal  of  the 
records  from  the  city  of  St.  Mary's  to  Anne  Arundel  Town,  to  be  con- 
veyed in  good,  strong  bags,  to  be  secured  with  cordage  and  hides, 
and  well  packed,  with  guards  to  attend  them  night  and  day,  and  to 
be  delivered  to  the  Sheriff  of  Anne  Arundel  County,  at  Anne  Arundel 
Town.     This  removal  took  place  in  the  winter  of  1694-5. 

The  first  Assembly  was  held  in  a  house  of  Major  Edward  Dorsey 
on  28th  February  1694,  O.  S.,  and  in  1695,  the  town  became 
Annapolis,  with  a  resident  naval  officer  and  a  public  ferry  across 
the  Severn. 

A  contract  was  made  with  Casper  Herman,  a  burgess  from  Cecil, 
for  building  the  parish  church,  school  house  and  State  house,  all  from 
brick  made  near  Annapolis. 

The  foundation  of  the  first  State  House  was  laid  April  30,  1696. 
In  June,  1697,  the  building  was  so  well  advanced  as  to  be  set  apart 
for  pubHc  use.  The  officers  in  charge  were  Governor  Nicholson,  Hon. 
Sir  Thomas  Lawrence,  Baronet,  Secretary;  Hon.  Henry  Jowles, 
Chancellor;  Hon.  Ken  elm  Cheseldyne,  Commissary-General.  Struck 
by  lightning  in  1699  and  entirely  consumed  by  fire  in  1704,  the  first 
State  House  had  but  a  brief  existence.  This  gave  Governor 
Seymour  occasion  to  say,  "I  never  saw  any  public  building  left 
solely  to  Providence  but  in  Maryland." 

Major  Dorsey's  house  was  again  rented  for  the  Assembly  Hall 
until  a  new  State  House  could  be  built. 

Governor  Nicholson  was  a  man  of  integrity,  liberal  in  views,  firm 
in  purpose.  ^ 

When  John  Coode,  the  apostate  clergyman,  had  been  elected  a 
burgess,  Governor  Nicholson  was  determined  that  he  should  not  sit, 
because  no  clergyman  had  ever  sat  in  the  Assembly.  The  House 
stood  on  its  privileges,  but  Nicholson  would  not  swear  him,  and  having 
won  the  cause,  Coode  retired  to  swear  vengeance  on  the  Gov- 
ernor. In  the  face  of  it  the  burgesses  thus  addressed  the  Governor, 
"  We  have  not  the  least  doubt  of  our  rights  or  liberties  being  infringed 
by  our  gracious  Sovereign  or  our  noble  and  worthy  Governor,  and 
we  do  sincerely  acknowledge  that  his  Excellency  governs  by  the 
fairest  measures  and  freest  administration  of  the  laws  we  are  capable 
of  understanding,  and  therefore,  have  not  the  least  apprehension  of 
his  invading  our  rights  or  privileges." 


194      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

A  Commission,  consisting  of  Major  John  Hammond,  Major 
Edward  Dorsey,  Mr.  John  Bennett,  Hon.  John  Dorsey,  Mr.  Andrew 
Norwood,  Captain  Philip  Howard,  Mr.  James  Saunders  and  Colonel 
Nicholas  Greenberry  laid  out  the  town.  Four  of  these  were  property 
holders  on  the  North  Severn  side  and  four  were  residents  of  Middle 
Neck.  They  were  authorized  to  buy,  or  condemn,  all  that  parcel  of 
land  within  the  present  Grave  Yard  Creek  and  Spa  Creek,  to  be  fenced 
in  and  called  the  Town  Common,  or  Pasture;  Governor  Nicholson's 
lot  was  within  this  enclosure,  which  ran  along  East  Street  to  State 
House  Circle.  His  house  was  of  curious  and  ancient  design.  It 
stood  on  the  corner  of  Hyde  and  Cornhill  Streets  and  was  for  many 
years  occupied  by  Mrs.  Richard  Ridgely  (Riley). 

During  Governor  Nicholson's  administration  in  1695,  a  public 
post,  extending  from  the  Potomac,  through  Annapolis  to  Philadelphia 
was  organized.  The  post-man  was  required  to  traverse  it  eight 
times  a  year,  to  carry  all  public  messages,  to  deliver  letters  and  pack- 
ages, for  which  service  he  received  £50  a  year.  This  was  succeeded, 
in  1710,  by  a  general  post  throughout  the  colonies. 

A  picture  is  extant  of  a  house.  No.  83  Prince  George  Street, 
Annapolis,  which  tradition  decides  is  a  part  of  the  house  owned 
by  Major  Edward  Dorsey,  which  became  the  first  Governor's  mansion, 
being  later  occupied  by  Governor  Nicholson.  The  house  is  well 
preserved  and  is  of  solid  architecture.  It  was  formerly  the  residence 
of  Judge  A.  B.  Hagner  and  is  now  owned  by  Mrs.  Francis  T. 
Marchand.  An  addition  was  made  some  years  ago  on  the  right 
wing. 

Annapolis  lately  retained  three  more  Governor's  mansions. 

In  1696  the  Assembly  of  Annapolis  appointed  His  Excellency,  Sir 
Francis  Nicholson,  Sir  Thomas  Lawrence,  Hon.  Nicholas  Greenberry, 
Hon.  Thomas  Tench,  Major  Hammond,  Major  Edward  Dorsey, 
Mr.  James  Saunders  and  Captain  Richard  Hill  a  Commission 
"for  keeping  good  rules  and  orders,"  making  them  a  body  corporate 
for  the  new  capital.  Mr,  Richard  Beard,  surveyor,  made  a  map  of 
the  place.  This  body  was  authorized  to  erect  a  market  house  and 
hold  a  fair  yearly;  a  new  State  House  was  ordered  to  be  built,  and 
if  any  one  would  build  it  a  "  Bridewell"  was  proposed.  This  was  not 
built,  but  a  handsome  pair  of  gates  was  ordered  to  be  placed  at  the 
"  coming  in  of  the  town"  and  two  triangular  houses  built  for  rangers. 

"  To  have  the  way  from  the  gate  to  go  directly  to  the  top  of  the 
hill  without  the  towne,  to  be  ditched  on  each  side  and  set  with 
'quick  setts,'  or  some  such  thing. 

"  That  part  of  the  land  which  lye  on  ye  creeke  by  Major  Dorsey's 
house,  whereby  His  Excellency  at  present  lives,  be  sett  aside  for 
public  buildings,  and  if  in  case  the  same  happen  to  come  within  any 
of  ye  said  Major's  lotts — we  propose  that  land  be  given  him 
elsewhere  for  it." 

A  forty-foot  water  front  for  warehouses  was  reserved,  and  a  com- 
mittee was  appointed  to  consider  the  erection  of  a  chm-ch.  Major 
Edward  Dorsey,   of  that  committee,  reported  a  fund  already  in 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      195 

"banck"  amounting  to  £458.  The  carpenter's  estimate  was  £250; 
brick  maker,  £90;  bricklayer,  having  all  stuff  upon  the  place,  £220. 
The  entire  charge  would  amount  to  £1,200.  The  Assembly  imposed 
a  three-pence  tax  on  tobacco  to  be  continued  until  May  12,  1698,  to 
be  applied  to  building  a  church  at  Annapolis.  The  Assembly 
employed  Mr.  Gaddes,  sent  by  the  Bishop  of  London,  to  read 
prayers  in  some  vacant  parish,  for  which  10,000  pounds  of  tobacco 
were  appropriated  in  remuneration.  The  next  act  was  the  founding 
of  "King  William  School."  The  valuable  library  presented  by  the 
King  was  increased  by  Governor  Nicholson,  who  used  a  portion  of 
the  public  revenue  in  the  purchase  of  necessary  books.  Many  of  the 
volumes  presented  by  the  King  to  Annapolis  are  now  in  the  library 
of  St.  John's  College. 

Following  these  was  the  erection  of  a  jail  on  the  corner  of  a  lot 
belonging  to  the  Episcopal  parsonage.  When  completed,  Annapolis 
was  made  the  chief  seat  of  justice,  where  all  writs  were  made 
returnable. 

In  1700  a  general  visitation  of  the  provincial  clergy  was  held  on 
May  23rd.  Anne  Arundel  was  represented  by  Rev.  Henry  Hall,  of 
St.  James  Parish;  Rev.  Joseph  Colback,  of  All  Hallows,  and  Rev. 
Edward  Topp,  of  St.  Anne's. 

This  convocation  inaugurated  the  first  missions  of  the  province. 
Rev.  Ethan  Allen's  History  of  St.  Anne's  Parish  has  given  consider- 
able light  upon  early  Annapolis,  but  the  loss  of  the  first  twelve  pages 
of  the  parish  records  leaves  the  completion  of  the  church  to  conjec- 
ture. Referring  to  the  early  Puritans  at  Annapolis,  he  adds,  "  It  is 
not  known  that  there  were  any  other  than  Puritans  among  the  resi- 
dents in  1657.  There  were  the  Lloyds,  the  Maccubins,  the  Ridgelys, 
the  Griffiths,  the  Greenberrys,  the  Worthingtons  and  others,  nearly 
all  of  Welsh  descent.  Their  place  of  worship  was  "Town  Neck." 
In  1683,  he  further  adds,  "  And  that  there  was,  thus  early,  Church  of 
England  families  in  the  neighborhood,  is  unquestionable.  Such  we 
take  to  have  been  the  Warfields,  the  Gassaways,  the  Norwoods,  the 
Elands,  the  Howards,  the  Dorseys,  and  the  Hammonds." 

The  Assembly  Act  of  1692,  organizing  thirty  parishes  in  the 
Province,  required  returns  from  existing  churches.  In  1696  Rev. 
Mr.  Coney,  rector  of  St.  Anne's,  reported  374  contributors  and  named 
the  following  vestry:  Thomas  Bland,  Richard  Warfield,  Laurence 
Draper,  Jacob  Harness,  William  Brown  and  Cornelius  Howard.  In 
1704,  its  second  vestry,  reported  by  Rev.  Mr.  Topp,  its  second  rector, 
and  by  Rev.  James  Wootten,  its  third,  were  Colonel  John  Hammond, 
Mr.  William  Bladen,  Mr.  William  Taylord,  Mr.  Amos  Garrett,  Mr. 
John  Truman  and  Mr.  Samuel  Norwood.  The  entries  upon  the 
parish  records  of  that  date  show  the  chiu-ch  then  finished.  The  site, 
the  most  attractive  and  interesting  in  the  city  of  Annapolis,  was 
selected  by  Governor  Nicholson  and  was  bought  of  Benjamin  and 
Henry  Welsh,  for  £130.  The  church  was  built  in  the  shape  of  a  T. 
The  principal  entrance  was  from  the  east.  One  lot  of  the  selected 
ground  was  designed  for  the  rector,  one  for  the  sexton  and  the  third 


196      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties, 

for  the  vestry  clerk.  Within,  and  outside  of  the  present  circle  was 
the  cemetery,  now  removed  to  Cemetery  Creek.  A  few  remaining 
memorials  may  yet  be  read  in  the  sacred  enclosure. 

The  second  State  House  was  finished  in  1706.  It  stood  upon 
the  site  of  the  present  stately  building.  It  was  in  form  an  oblong 
square,  entered  by  a  hall;  a  cupola  surmounted  it.  On  the  north 
side  of  it  stood  an  armory  which  was  also  the  ballroom.  On  the 
south  side  of  the  State  House  was  King  Wilham  School. 

To  restore  the  land  records  destroyed  by  the  fire  of  1704,  a 
special  commission  was  organized  to  hear  and  determine  claims  for 
land  grants.  Colonel  William  Holland  was  Chief  Commissioner. 
The  report  of  that  Commission  now  forms  a  part  of  the  land  records 
of  Annapolis. 

GOVERNOR  BLACKISTON. 

Governor  Blackiston,  who  succeeded  Governor  Nicholson,  on 
account  of  his  health,  did  not  long  remain,  and  Hon,  Thomas  Tench, 
President  of  the  Council,  acted  as  Governor  until  1703,  when 
Governor  John  Seymour  was  appointed. 

GOVERNOR  SEYMOUR. 

Finding  the  Assembly  averse  to  granting  a  charter  tO  the  em- 
bryo city,  the  Governor,  in  1708,  granted  one  in  his  own  name.  This 
act  created  much  resentment  among  the  landed  officials.  They  were 
ready  to  admit  such  power  was  given  by  the  charter  to  the  Proprie- 
tary, but  in  no  manner  could  a  royal  Governor  claim  it.  The  two 
delegates  elected  under  the  charter  were  expelled  from  the  Assembly. 
The  Governor  tried  to  conciliate  the  opponents,  but  failing,  finally 
dissolved  them.  The  new  Assembly  was  of  the  same  sentiment.  Its 
first  act  was  to  demand  the  Governor's  authority  from  the  Queen  to 
erect  a  city.  A  compromise  was  finally  effected,  with  certain 
restrictions.  A  writer  from  Maryland,  who  saw  the  young  capital 
then,  recorded:  "There  are  several  places  for  towns,  but  hitherto  they 
are  only  titular  ones,  except  Annapolis,  where  the  Governor  resides. 
Colonel  Nicholson  has  done  his  endeavors  to  make  a  town  of  that 
place.  There  are  about  forty  dwelling  houses  in  it,  seven  or  eight  of 
which  can  afford  good  lodging  and  accommodations  for  strangers. 
There  are  also  a  State  House  and  a  free  school  built  of  brick,  which 
make  a  great  show  among  a  parcel  of  wooden  houses;  and  a  founda- 
tion of  a  church  is  laid,  the  only  brick  church  in  Maryland.  They 
have  two  market-days  in  a  week,  and  had  Governor  Nicholson  con- 
tinued there  a  few  months  longer,  he  had  brought  it  to  perfection." 

But  Annapolis  on  Proctor's  Landing  was  no  recent  production 
of  Governor  Nicholson.  As  early  as  1681,  Robert  Proctor,  writing 
to  Captain  Thomas  Francis,  of  Rhode  River,  asked  a  reply  to  be  made 
to  him  at  "town."  Major  Edward  Dorsey  was  then  living  at  Proc- 
tor's Landing  and  had  more  than  one  house  in  that  town  when  the 
Assembly  rented  his  house.  In  1705,  just  before  his  death,  he  sold 
to  Charles  Carroll  "a  row  of  houses  on  Bloombury  Square"  which  he 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      197 

had  designed  for  his  children,  but  on  account  of  a  lack  of  "tenants 
they  were  going  to  decay."  These  are  evidences  that  Annapolis, 
when  incorporated  the  capital,  had  a  claim  to  its  present  name  of 
"ancient  city."  Nor  was  Annapolis  the  only  town  then  existing. 
It  had  its  neighbor,  Westminster  Towne,  near  the  Magothy,  as  will  be 
seen  in  a  notice  of  Westminster  Parish,  which  was  named  for  the  town 
and  had  its  rival  down  on  South  River,  known  as  London  Town. 

In  visiting  the  site  of  this  once  prosperous  enterprise  on  the  beau- 
tiful South  River,  I  asked  an  officer  of  the  steamer  that  has  for  many 
years  made  almost  daily  trips  up  and  down  that  river,  if  he  could 
point  out  London  Town.  The  astonished  officer  replied,  "  I  never 
heard  of  it,"  and  yet,  in  1683,  this  town  was  made  a  port  of  entry. 

Upon  a  sloping  plateau  between  two  creeks,  just  at  the  present 
Almshouse,  rose  a  town  which  was  intended  to  rival  its  namesake. 
It  only  failed  because  of  the  death  of  its  projector.  Colonel  William 
Burgess,  in  1686..  It  was  his  gift  to  the  county,  and  his  son,  Captain 
Edward  Burgess,  was  a  Commissioner.  When  the  Lord  Proprietary 
determined,  in  1683,  "to  locate  the  Court  House  on  South  River  as 
soon  as  a  suitable  building  should  be  erected,"  Colonel  Burgess 
secured  a  Commission,  all  of  whom  were  large  land-holders  in  that 
section.  A  meeting  of  that  Commission  was  held  at  "The  Ridge" 
(John  Larkin's  house  where  the  Assembly  met),  just  west  of  South 
River.  After  that  meeting,  which  reported  progress,  the  Archives 
are  silent,  but  the  following  deed  shows  that  a  Court  House  was 
erected  and  John  Larkin  then  held  it.  In  1699  John  Larkin  sold  to 
John  Baldwin  "  two  lots  in  London  Town  with  all  houses,  outhouses 
and  other  improvements,  excepting  the  twenty-five-foot  house 
wherein  the  court  was  formerly  held,  as  also  as  much  ground  besides, 
between  the  said  house  and  the  water,  as  shall  be  sufficient  to  erect 
and  build  a  twenty-foot  house  upon." 

When  the  magnificent,  stately  old  building,  now  used  as  the 
Almshouse  was  built,  may  never  be  known,  but  its  appearance  and 
its  large  rooms  point  rather  to  public,  than  private  purposes.  It  is 
upon  the  town  site  of  London  Town,  described  in  Colonel  Burgess' 
will  of  1686.  An  official  of  Anne  Arundel,  now  seventy-five  years  of 
age,  tells  me  it  was  an  old  building  when  he  was  a  boy.  Near  it  stood 
a  store.  There  are  several  houses  upon  the  same  plateau  which  show 
kindred  age.  The  probabilities  are,  that  our  present  Treasury  Build- 
ing in  Annapolis  and  the  present  Almshouse  of  South  River  were 
both  built  as  Court  Houses  when  Proctor's  Landing  and  "  Colonel 
Burgess'  land  on  South  River"  were  made  into  ports  of  entry,  in  1683. 

London  Town  had  its  shipping  wharf  and  its  streets  named  in 
honor  of  the  most  important  land-holders.  Its  commission,  all  of 
whom  held  lots,  were  Colonel  Thomas  Taylor,  Colonel  William  Bur- 
gess, Major  John  Welsh,  Thomas  Francis,  Richard  Hill,  Nicholas 
Gassaway,  Henry  Constable,  Edward  Dorsey,  John  Sollers,  Henry 
Ridgely,  Richard  Beard  and  Edward  Burgess. 

Thomas  Gassaway  in  1718,  sold  Lot  No.  28  in  London  Town  to 
Thomas  Ball,  a  merchant  of  London.    It  adjoined  a  lot  granted  to 


198      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Coloner  Thomas  Taylor.  Honorable  George  Plater  and  Elizabeth, 
his  wife,  deeded  Lot  29  to  Thomas  Gassaway,  son  of  John,  in  1749; 
John  Burgess  and  Jane,  his  wife,  sold  a  lot  to  Stephen  West  before 
1733.  Alexander  Warfield  and  Francis  Pierpoint,  his  brother-in-law, 
sold  a  lot  to  William  Maccubbin,  in  1719,  which  lot  had  been  taken 
up  by  Francis  Pierpoint,  the  elder. 

Colonel  Henry  Ridgely  held  lots  in  London  Town,  which  he  sold 
before  his  death,  in  1710.  Many  other  transfers  of  lots  may  be  seen 
in  our  Record  Office. 

London  Town  was  a  port  of  entry  at  the  same  time  as  Annapohs. 
Surrounding  it  was  the  richest  agricultural  section  of  the  country. 
The  largest  land-holders  were  there  located.  Near  by  was  All  Hal- 
lows Church  and  the  South  River  Club,  both  still  in  existence  and 
both  bearing  abundant  evidence  of  their  dignified  age  and  eminent 
respectability. 

South  River  had  a  rector,  Rev.  Duell  Pead,  who  baptized  at 
Proctor  in  1682  and  preached  to  the  assembly  at  the  Ridge,  in  1683, 
as  recorded  in  "Old  Brick  Churches."  He  later  became  the  rector 
of  All  Hallows.  This  church  dates  from  1722.  Its  church-yard  has 
the  following  monuments  to  the  titled  men  who  dwelt  therein. 

A  tablet  with  his  coat  of  arms  announces  the  death  of  Samuel 
Peale,  of  London  Town,  in  1733.  A  Latin  inscription  in  1766,  records 
the  virtues  of  Margaret,  wife  of  James  Dick,  merchant  of  London 
Town.  The  oldest  inscription  is  that  of  Major  Thomas  Francis,  of 
Rhode  River,  a  pioneer  ranger  of  that  section.  Colonel  Burgess' 
memorial  tablet  follows  and  will  be  elsewhere  found.  Dating  back 
to  1733,  the  Anne  Arundel  Society  have  found  inscriptions  to  the 
following:  Greenberry,  Gassaway,  Ridgely,  Worthington,.; Newman, 
Homewood,  Howard,  Peele  of  Weshire,  Dick,  Allein,  Craggs,  Nor- 
wood, Rawlings,  Norris,  Davidson,  Maccubbin,  Hammond,  Graham, 
Curten,  Key,  Robinson,  Robosson,  Brewer  and  Carroll. 

Fapaily  records  ^  collected  are  Sellman,  Stockett,  Harwood, 
Griffith^  Worthington).,  Davis,  Riggs,  Frisby,  Dorsey,  Warfield, 
Humphrey.  \ 

All  Hallows  Church  is  entered  by  the  south  door  and  opens  into 
a  vestry  room  at  the  west  end  which  was  once  surmounted  by  a 
belfry  with  a  bell  bearing  date  1727.  The  floor  of  the  aisle  is  tiled 
and  lies  lower  than  that  of  the  pews.  The  windows  are  double  with 
segmental  arch. 

In  1727,  the  Bishop  of  London  sent  for  the  rector,  Rev.  Joseph 
Colbatch  to  come  to  England  for  consecration.  The  civil  authorities 
procured  a  writ  of  ne  exeat,  which  prevented  his  leaving  the  Pro- 
vince and  Maryland  had  no  bishop  until  the  consecration  of  Bishop 
Claggett. 

St.  James  Parish,  at  Herring  Creek,  had  a  church  that  needed 
repairs,  in  1695,  as  shown  by  the  following  record: 

"At  a  meeting  of  the  vestry,  April  1,  1695,  it  was  ordered  that 
the  Sheriff  pay  to  Morgan  Jones  eight  hundred  pounds  of  tobacco 
for  covering  the  old  church  and  finishing  the  inside  according  to 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties,      199 

agreement."  At  another  meeting  the  same  month,  an  order  was 
made  to  build  a  new  church  "  forty  feet  by  twenty-four  and  twelve 
feet  high,"  This  was  not  carried  out  until  1717,  when  the  vestry 
ordered  and  paid  for,  in  1718,  twenty  thousand  brick  made  on  the 
glebe — acquired,  in  1707,  from  James  and  Elizabeth  Rigby. 

The  vestry  of  St,  James  had  a  long  contest  over  a  tract  of  land 
containing  715  acres.  It  was  willed  by  Nicholas  Terret  to  St.  James 
Church.  Upon  it  was  a  town  Pig  Point.  It  was  known  as  Wrighton 
and  had  been  transferred  by  several  deeds  to  Robert  Browne,  of  Abel 
and  was  later  held  by  his  heirs.  The  vestry  resolved  to  sell  its 
interest  in  the  tract  to  purchase  a  glebe  elsewhere.  Pig  Point  lots  were 
to  be  reserved.  This  new  town  was  located  on  the  Patuxent.  Our 
modern  maps  have,  somehow,  lost  sight  of  it,  but  the  present  post- 
office  of  Bristol  is  near  or  upon  the  original  site. 

THE   SOUTH  RIVER  CLUB  HOUSE. 

The  South  River  Club  House,  near  All  Hallows  Church,  still 
stands  and  has  taken  on  new  life.  Its  founders  are  no  longer  known, 
but  there  is  a  record  of  a  deed,  dated  1740,  executed  between  John 
Gassaway,  on  the  one  part  and  Robert  Saunders,  a  trustee  on  the 
other,  confirming  a  previous  transaction  between  the  "Society"  or 
company,  called  the  South  River  Club  and  John  Gassaway's  father, 
acknowledging  the  receipt  by  the  latter  of  eight  pounds  current 
money  for  the  half  acre  of  land  and  club  house  standing  on  it.  A 
new  club  house  was  built  in  1742  and  from  that  date  a  list  of  members 
has  been  preserved.  The  following  recent  account  of  a  fourth  of 
July  dinner  will  here  be  of  interest.  It  is  taken  from  the  Baltimore 
Sun,  and  is  the  work  of  Mr.  L.  Dorsey  Gassaway,  Recorder  of  the 
Club: 

"At  the  historic  old  South  River  Club,  in  the  beautiful  First 
District  of  Anne  Arundel  County,  where  the  hillsides  show  Nature's 
beauty  and  giant  oaks  thrust  their  green  tops  high  in  the  sky,  there 
was  served  yesterday  as  delightful  a  Fourth-of-July  dinner  to  as 
congenial  a  company  as  ever  sat  down  together." 

The  club  house,  where  the  dinner  was  given,  is  a  little,  old  frame 
building,  white-washed  within  and  without.  No  carpet  adorned  the 
floor  and  the  walls  were  not  ornamented  with  paper;  yet  there  it 
has  stood  for,  not  years  but,  centuries.  Long  before  the  War  of  the 
Revolution,  before  even  the  city  of  Baltimore  was  in  its  infancy;  in 
the  days  when  there  was  a  desperate  hazard  in  being  a  Marylander, 
the  ancestors  of  the  diners  of  yesterday  gathered  at  this  little  build- 
ing and  founded  the  South  River  Club.  Records  show  that  it  was  in 
existence  with  a  long  list  of  members  in  1742,  and  there  is  a  tradition, 
that  its  organization  occurred  prior  to  1700.  Through  all  the  years 
that  followed  it  flourished,  with  occasional  breaks,  due  to  wars  and 
factional  strife,  but  the  early  settlers  of  Southern  Maryland  con- 
tinued to  meet  and  be  good  fellows.  The  same  esprit  de  corps  that 
existed  then  exists  now,  and  every  present  member  of  the  club  is 


200      Founders  of  Anne  Aeundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

firmly  convinced  that  it  is  the  oldest  social  organization  in  the  world, 
and  certainly  antedates  anything  of  the  kind  in  this  country. 

That  it  shall  never  die  and  the  spirit  that  has  maintained  it  so 
long  never  lessen  is  their  determination.  When  they  themselves  are 
gone  the  keeping  alive  of  the  South  River  Club  will  be  transmitted 
as  a  sacred  heritage  to  their  sons  and  grandsons.  . 

The  present  membership  is  limited  to  twenty-five,  all  of  whom 
are  lineal  descendants  of  former  members,  and  four  times  a  year  they 
meet  at  the  little  frame  house  to  dine,  to  renew  old  friendships  and 
talk  over  old  days.  Generation  after  generation  has  done  this  since 
the  founding  of  the  club,  and  it  is  the  purpose  of  the  members  to  have 
future  generations  follow  in  their  footsteps. 

Yesterday  the  host  was  Mr.  T.  Stockett  Sellman,  the  youngest 
member  of  the  club,  who,  however,  was  preceded  by  a  numerous 
array  of  ancestors.  Some  of  the  twenty-five  came  to  Annapolis  the 
night  before  the  Fourth,  others  came  down  on  morning  trains  and 
others  still  came  from  various  sections  of  the  country,  but  the  hour 
of  noon  found  them  assembled  beneath  the  great  branches  of  the 
magnificent  oak  that  stands  near  the  house. 

Horses  were  unharnessed  and  fed  and  the  guests  were  refreshed 
with  brimming  glasses  of  the  far-famed  South  River  punch.  There 
were  in  the  crowd  that  gathered  about  the  table  iiiside  the  humble 
little  cabin,  merchants,  bankers,  brokers,  members  of  the  Stock 
Exchange,  lawyers  and  farmers,  many  of  them  men  of  means  and 
mark,  but  all  imbued  with  an  intense  pride  in  the  South  River  Club. 

The  dinner  was  delightfully  served,  the  piece  de  resista?ice  being 
a  fine  young,  well-roasted  pig,  which  was  skillfully  carved  by  Mr. 
Harry  Brogden,  a  member  who  dates  his  election  from  1872. 

Judge  Alexander  Hagner,  chairman  of  the  club,  presided  over 
the  feast,  and  a  feature  of  the  dinner  was  the  presentation  to  the  club 
of  a  handsome  silver  loving  cup.  It  was  filled  with  the  famous  punch 
and  passed  around  the  board,  the  members  standing  as  they  drank. 

Mr.  John  Wirt  Randall  accepted  the  gift  in  behalf  of  the  club, 
saying  that  it  was  symbolical  of  the  love  and  affection  that  existed 
among  the  members  and  would  serve,  as  it  passed  from  hand  to  hand, 
to  strengthen  the  bond  between  them.  He  spoke  of  the  former  days 
of  the  club  and  of  the  fact  that  its  earliest  rule — not  to  discuss 
politics  or  religion  at  its  meetings — had  never  been  broken. 

Mr.  Brogden  spoke  of  the  pleasure  and  pride  in  the  club  taken 
by  its  members  and  of  their  appreciation  of  the  gift.  Mr.  Samuel 
Brooke  and  Mr.  Daniel  R.  Randall  also  spoke  in  a  similar  vein. 

Judge  Hagner,  in  response,  declared  it  to  be  an  honor  to  him 
that  the  cup  had  been  accepted.  He  recalled  the  historic  time  when 
members  of  the  club  drank  the  health  of  his  Royal  Highness  the 
Duke  of  Cumberland  in  that  very  room  because  of  his  victory  over 
the  Scotch  rebels.  He  made  an  impressive  plea  for  the  continuance 
of  the  spirit  that  had  kept  the  club  alive  all  these  years.  His  remarks 
were  enthusiastically  applauded. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      201 

The  speech-making  was  concluded  by  Mr.  John  M.  Nelson,  who 
told  of  his  admiration  for  the  club  and  of  the  fact  that  the  first  money 
he  had  ever  earned  had  been  in  that  county  by  driving  a  reaper  for 
Mr.  Iglehart  when  he  was  a  lad. 

The  health  of  Judge  Hagner  as  chairman,  of  Mr.  Sellman  as  host 
and  of  future  reunions  were  drunk.  The  loving  cup  passed  some 
several  times  and  good  fellowship  reigned  supreme. 

After  the  feast  a  business  meeting  was  held.  Judge  Hagner  was 
re-elected  chairman,  and  the  following  resolution,  offered  by  Mr. 
Daniel  R.  Randall,  was  adopted: 

"Resolved,  That  the  South  River  Club  accept  with  profound 
respect  and  thanks  the  gift  of  a  loving  cup  from  its  honored  chairman, 
Judge  Alexander  B.  Hagner;  and  further 

"Resolved,  That  in  accepting  this  beautiful  gift  the  club  fully 
realizes  and  appreciates  the  spirit  of  amity  and  fellowship  which  has 
always  actuated  this  member  in  his  relations  with  the  club  and 
prompted  this  gift  and  will  ever  keep  alive  that  loving  spirit  so  long 
as  this  club  exists." 

The  members  present  were:  Judge  Alexander  B.  Hagner,  Harry 
H.  Brogden,  John  Wirt  Randall,  Blanchard  Randall,  Daniel  R.  Ran- 
dall, T.  Stockett  Sellman,  Thomas  S.  Duckett,  Samuel  Brooke,  Louis 
Dorsey  Gassaway,  Beale  D.  Worthington,  Nevett  Steele,  Dr.  D. 
Miirray  Cheston,  Benjamin  Watkins,  John  T.  Parrott  and  Thomas 
S.  Iglehart,  Jr. 

The  invited  guests  were:  John  M.  Nelson,  Ramsay  Hodges,  Jr., 
O.  Bowie  Duckett,  R.  S.  Worthington  and  WilHam  L.  Amos. 

The  other  members  not  present  at  the  dinner  were:  Frank  H. 
Stockett,  George  H.  Stewart,  Dr.  James  D.  Iglehart,  Paul  Iglehart, 
Richard  B.  Sellman,  James  Middleton  Munroe,  Franklin  Weems, 
Richard  W.  Iglehart,  George  R.  Gaither,  Jr.,  and  William  Meade 
Holladay. 

The  officers  of  the  club  are:  Judge  A.  B.  Hagner,  chairman; 
Frank  H.  Stockett,  treasurer;   L.  Dorsey  Gassaway,  recorder. 

The  following  list  of  the  former  members  of  the  club  from  the 
year  1742  has  been  compiled  by  Mr.  Gassaway,  the  recorder.  In  the 
lists  are  names  of  men  whose  descendants  are  scattered  all  over  the 
State  and  who  have  had  much  to  do  with  shaping  affairs  in  Mary- 
land. The  list  follows:  Prior  to  1742,  Robert  Saunders,  Thomas 
Stockett,  James  Murat,  John  Gassaway,  Samuel  Jacobs,  Benjamin 
Stockett,  John  Howard,  Samuel  Burgess,  Samuel  Day,  Robert  Hard- 
ing, Thomas  Sparrow,  Rev.  William  Brogden,  Captain  Joseph  Cow- 
man, John  Watkins,  William  Chapman,  Turner  Wootton,  James  Dick, 
Samuel  Chambers,  Dr.  Samuel  Preston  Moore,  William  Chapman, 
Jr.,  Captain  Anthony  Beck,  James  Nicholson,  John  Brewer,  Captain 
Christopher  Grendall,  Zachariah  Maccubbin,  James  Hall,  Darby  Lux, 
Henry  Gassaway,  Jonathan  Sellman,  Charles  Steward  and  Richard 
Moore. 


202      Founders  of  Anne  Aeundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

John  Dixon,  1742;  Thomas  Cator,  1744;  Joseph  Brewer,  1744; 
John  Ijams,  1744;  WilHam  Reynolds,  1746;  Stephen  West,  Jr.,  1751  ;> 
John  Watkins,  1752;  John  White,  1755;  Rev.  Archibald  Spencer, 
1755;  Henry  Woodward,  1755;  Thomas  Gassaway,  1755;  John 
Dare,  1755;  Joseph  Cowman,  1755;  [Samuel  Chapman,  1756;  Wil- 
liam Strachan,  1756;  Richard  Bm-gess,  1757;  Joseph  Brewer,  1757; 
Lewis  Stockett,  1761;  Samuel  Watkins,  1762;  Thomas  Gassaway, 
1762;  Andrew  Wilkie,  1762;  Colonel  Richard  Harwood,  Jr.,  1762; 
Thomas  Stockett,  1763;  Captain  Thomas  Harwood,  1764;  Stephen 
Watkins,  1764;  Dr.  Thomas  Noble  Stockett,  1765;  Dr.  James  Thomp- 
son, 1765;  Rezin  Hammond,  1770;  Thomas  Harwood,  Jr.,  1770; 
Richard  Watkins,  1770;  Captain  Thomas  Watkins,  1770;  Dr. 
Thomas  Gantt,  1772;  Henry  Jones,  1775;  William  Harwood,  1775; 
William  Saunders,  1775;  Dr.  William  Murray,  1776;  John  L.  Brog- 
den,  1778;  William  Sellman,  Robert  John  Smith,  1780;  Edward 
Sefton,  1784;  Nicholas  Watkins,  1784;  Ferdinando  Battee,  1784; 
Charles  Stewart,  1784;  Benjamin  Howard,  1784;  Dr.  Robert  Welsh, 
1784;  Rev.  Mason  Locke  Weems,  1785;  John  Weems,  1785;  Solomon 
Sparrow,  1786;  Major  Jonathan  Sellman,  1786;  Mr.  Samuel  Maccub- 
bin,  1788;  Richard  Harwood,  1792;  David  Stewart,  1792;  Benjamin 
Watkins,  1792;  Samuel  Watkins,  1795;  Joseph  Watkins,  1795;  Dr. 
Robert  Welsh,  1798;  John  Bard,  1798;  Caleb  Stewart,  1798;  Thomas 
Purdy,  1798;  WilHam  Stewart,  1798;  James  Macculloch,  1798; 
Benjamin  Welsh,  1798;  Edward  Lee,  1798;  Solomon  Sparrow,  Jr., 
1798;  Major  Thomas  Harwood,  1798;  WiUiam  Brogden,  1798; 
Joseph  Cowman,  1798;  Robert  Welsh,  1803;  Osborn  S.  Harwood, 
1805;  WilHam  EHiott,  1805;  Richard  Stewart,  1805;  James  Noble 
Stockett,  1806;  John  Gassaway,  1806;  William  Sanders,  1807; 
Ferdinando  Battee,  1807;  John  B.  Weems,  1810;  Joseph  Harwood, 
1814;  John  Watkins,  1814;  Samuel  Harrison,  1814;  John  S.  Stockett, 
1818;  Thomas  Snowden,  1825;  Richard  Sellman,  1825;  Dr.  William 
Brogden,  1825;  John  Stevens  Sellman,  1826;  John  Mercer,  1826; 
^Virgil  Moxcey,  1826;  Thomas  Snowden,  1835;  O.  S.  Harwood,  1835; 
Richard  C.  Hardesty,  1835;  John  T.  Hodges,  1835;  Ramsey,  Waters, 
1835;  Colonel  Robert  W.  Kent,  1835;  Dr.  Benjamm  Watkins,  1835; 
Thomas  Welsh,  1835;  James.  H.  Harwood,  1835;  Alfred  Sellman, 
1835;  James  Harper,  1835;  W.  H.  Woodfield,  1835;  Edward  Clagett, 
1836;  David  McC.  Brogden,  1836;  Joseph  E.  Cowman,  1836;  Dr. 
Richard  Harwood,  1837;  James  B.  Smith,  1837;  Thomas  Hodges, 
1837;  John  Mercer,  1838;  Captain  Isaac  Mayo,  1842;  Thomas  S. 
Iglehart,  1842;  Charles  C.  Stewart,  1844;  George  Gale,  1844;  Wil-- 
Ham  O'Hara,  1844;  John  H.  Sellman,  1848;  R.  S.  Mercer,  1848; 
John  C.  Rogers,  1849;  Franklin  Deale,  1849;  James  Kent,  1849; 
'X  George  D.  Clayton,  1850;  Dr.  William  N.  PendeH,  1850;  Colonel  G. 
W.  Hughes,  1851;  Thomas  S.  Mercer,  1851;  Henry  Latrobe,  1851; 
Hamilton  Hall,  1852;  Charles  S.Contee,  1852;  N.  H.  Shipley,  1852; 
W.  R.  S.  Gittings,  1853;  Frank  H.  Stockett,  1856;  Dr.  Howard  M. 
DuvaU,  1859;  Nicholas  H.  Green,  1859;  WilHam  D.  Stewart,  1864; 
WiUiam  Mayo,  1872;  James  Boyle,  1872. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      203 

THE  DESERTED  RUINS  OF  MARLEY  CHAPEL. 

"In  some  pine  woods,  near  Marley,  nine  miles  from  Baltimore," 
says  Mrs.  Helen  Stewart  Ridgely,  "are  faithful  relics  of  the  past — 
the  ruins  of  an  Episcopal  chapel." 

The  ceiling  of  Marley  Chapel  is  a  segmented  arch  from  which 
much  of  the  plaster  has  fallen.  It  is  supported  by  wooden  cornices, 
and  the  brickwork  over  the  doors  and  windows  follows  the  same  curve. 
Between  the  windows  at  the  east  end  a  stretch  of  cleaner  plaster 
indicates  that  some  of  the  church  furniture  once  stood  there. 
The  bare  ground  enclosed  in  this  ruin  indicates  that  either  a  brick  or 
tile  pavement  covered  the  aisle  and  that  the  pews  were  raised  above 
the  pavement  and  probably  floored  with  boards.  There  remain 
only  a  few  beams  of  all  the  woodwork. 

GOVERNOR  EDWARD  LLOYD. 

During  the  time  between  the  death  of  Governor  Seymour  and 
the  appointment  of  his  successor,  Edward  Lloyd,  President  of  the 
Council,  became  acting  Governor.  He  was  the  son  of  Colonel  Phile- 
mon Lloyd,  whose  wife  was  Mrs.  Henrietta  Maria  (Neale)  Bennett, 
daughter  of  Captain  James  Neale,  a  former  representative  at  the 
Court  of  Spain.  Governor  Edward  Lloyd  inherited  from  his  grand- 
father, Commander  Lloyd,  in  1695,  the  celebrated  homestead,  "Wye 
House,"  ever  since  owned  by  an  Edward  Lloyd.  His  wife  was  the 
beautiful  Quakeress,  Sarah  Covington.  From  them  came  Edward 
Lloyd,  the  legislator  of  1739  and  husband  of  Ann  Rousby.  Their 
daughter,  Elizabeth,  married  General  Sam  Ringgold;  Henrietta 
Maria  became  Mrs.  Nicholson,  and  Richard  Bennett  Lloyd,  their 
brother,  married  the  charming  Joanna  Leigh,  of  the  Isle  of  Wight; 
his  brother,  Edward  Lloyd,  was  the  hero  of  the  Revolution,  rival  of 
Thomas  Sim  Lee  for  Governor,  the  husband  of  Elizabeth  Tayloe  and 
the  father  of  Governor  Edward  Lloyd  of  1809 — exactly  one  hundred 
years  later  than  his  ancestor,  the  royal  Governor  of  1709. 

McMahon  pays  this  tribute  to  Governor  Edward  Lloyd's 
administration  of  1709:  "It  is  as  conspicuous  in  our  statute  book, 
even  at  this  day,  as  the  blessed  parliament  in  that  of  England.  A 
body  of  permanent  laws  was  then  adopted,  which  for  their  compre- 
hensiveness and  arrangement,  are  almost  entitled  to  the  name  of 
a  code.  They  formed  the  substratum  of  the  statute  law  of  the 
Province,  even  down  to  the  Revolution." 

Secretary  Calvert,  in  his  correspondence  with  Governor  Lloyd, 
touched  upon  bills  of  exchange,  abuse  of  his  lordship's  manors,  rent 
rolls,  town  lands,  the  King's  temporary  line,  advancement  in  the 
value  of  his  lordship's  lands,  arrearages  of  rent,  the  Ohio  territory 
and  French  encroachments. 

Governor  Lloyd  was  succeeded  by  Governor  John  Hart,  the 
appointee  of  Leonard  Calvert,  endorsed  by  George  the  First. 


204      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

GOVERNOR  JOHN  HART. 

After  the  King  had  held  the  Province  from  1689  to  1715,  the 
fourth  lord  proprietor,  Charles,  the  sixteen-year-old  son  of  Benedict 
Leonard,  was  restored  as  a  Protestant.     He  was  represented  by  Gov- 
ernor John  Hart,  who  had  been  appointed  by  the  Crown  in  1714  and 
endorsed   by   both   King   and    Proprietor  in  1715.     Hart   was   an 
enthusiast,  but  failed  to  make  his  enthusiasm  useful.     He  tried  to 
improve  the  tobacco  trade;  recommended  the  growth  of  hemp;  called 
attention  to  the  need  of  better  roads;  urged  the  building  of  a  govern- 
ment house;   but  he  became  involved  in  a  contest  with  the  leading 
Catholics.     He  quarreled  with  Charles  Carroll,  who,  after  the  restora- 
tion, had  been  commissioned  "  chief  agent,  escheator,  naval  officer 
and  receiver-general  of  all  our  rents,  arrears  of  rents,  fines,  forfeitures, 
tobaccos,  or  monies  for  land  warrants;    of  all  ferries,  waifs,  strays 
and   decedents;    of   all   duties   arising  from  or  growing  due  upon 
exportation  of  tobacco  aforesaid,  tonnage  of  ships,  and  all  other 
monies,  tobaccos,  or  other  effects," and  also  authorizing  him"to  sell  or 
dispose  of  lands,  tenements,  or  hereditaments  to  us  now  escheated  or 
forfeited."     Governor  Hart,  the  new  Protestant  governor,  when  he 
learned  that  the  new  Protestant  Proprietor  had  permitted  a  strong 
Catholic  to  retain  so  much  power,  was  furious.     The  Assembly  stood 
by  the  Governor,  holding  that  no  private  employee  of  the  Proprietor 
should  receive  the  fines  imposed  by  the  Assembly.     A  petition  was 
sent  to  the  Proprietor  asking  the  restoration  of  the  Governor  to  his 
full  powers.     Mr.  Carroll  fixed  the  salary  of  the  Governor  and  even 
advised  him  not  to  assent  to  some  bills  awaiting  his  signature.     Mr. 
Carroll  held  his  agency,  but  was  not  continued  Register  of  the  Land 
Office.     Governor  Hart  was  also  involved,  as  Chancellor,  by  taking 
the  part  of  the  people  against  His  Majesty's  Surveyor-General  of 
Customs.     He  had  warm  supporters  among  Protestants,  but  before 
his  recall  in  1720,  was  broken  in  health. 

THE  CALVERT  GOVERNORS. 

Charles  Calvert,  his  successor,  was  a  cousin  of  the  Lord  Proprie- 
tor. During  his  administration  the  bad  condition  of  the  tobacco 
interest  led  the  Lower  House  to  begin  the  contest  over  "  officers'  fees." 

His  successor,  Benedict  Leonard  Calvert,  brother  of  the  Pro- 
prietor, became  a  still  weaker  supporter  of  the  proprietory  interests. 
His  hostility  to  the  clergy  was  now  the  controversy.  He  was  an 
open  enemy  of  two  such  leaders  as  Dulany  and  Bordley.  He  stood 
boldly  on  his  ancestry,  but  died  on  his  way  to  England. 

From  these  proceedings  it  is  seen  that  the  question  of  land  grants 
was  a  cause  of  dissatisfaction  thus  early  in  the  history  of  the  county 
— and  it  may  be  of  interest  to  give  here  an  able  review  of  this 
question  from  the  recent  historian,  Mereeness,  upon  Provincial 
Maryland. 

The  first  conditions  of  plantation  had  been  declared  before  the 
colonists  had  left  England.  The  size  and  rent  of  the  grant  frequently 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      205 

varied,  but  each  person,  so  entitled,  was  required  to  record  his  right 
in  the  Secretary's  office.  Following  this  came  the  demand  for  land, 
a  warrant  of  survey,  directed  to  the  Surveyor-General,  who  gave  his 
certificate,  which  was  embodied  in  a  patent  passed  by  the  Governor 
under  the  seal  of  the  Proprietor.  Still  later  this  simple  arrangement 
was  complicated  by  requiring  proofs  of  right,  sales  of  right,  petitions, 
caveats  and  resurveys. 

About  1670,  the  Proprietor  and  his  son,  Charles,  then  Governor, 
began  to  increase  their  revenues.  A  clerk  and  register,  out  of  the 
office  of  the  Secretary,  was  put  in  charge  especially  to  prove  rights, 
issue  land  warrants  and  draw  up  grants;  this  was  followed,  later,  by 
a  council  of  four,  consisting  of  members  of  State,  which  was  empow- 
ered to  hear  and  determine  all  matters  relating  to  land.  This  held 
until  1689,  when  the  Land  Office  was  closed,  only  to  be  opened  in 
1694.  Then  Henry  Darnall,  the  Proprietor's  cousin  and  Receiver- 
General,  was  put  in  charge  of  the  Land  Office,  dying  in  1712.  Charles 
Carroll,  Solicitor  and  Register  in  the  Land  Office,  became  Darnall's 
successor,  for  which  he  was  most  liberally  rewarded  by  magnificent 
manors. 

During  the  royal  administration  represented  by  Governor  Hart, 
a  dispute  arose  concerning  the  two  Proprietors  interests.  The 
Governor  and  his  Council  undertook  to  grant  numerous  petitions  for 
resurveys  and  to  decide  disputes.  Secretary  Sir  Thomas  Lawrence 
claimed  the  custody  of  all  papers  giving  evidence  of  land  titles,  and 
also  the  right  to  issue  warrants,  refusing  the  Proprietor's  agent  the 
right  to  search  the  records  without  the  usual  fee.  This  was  compro- 
mised by  leaving  the  records  in  the  Secretary's  office  but  granting  the 
Proprietor's  agent  to  use  them  to  correct  his  rent-rolls,  the  Secretary 
claiming  one-half  of  the  fees  for  land  warrants.  This  led  the  Pro- 
prietor to  increase  the  purchase  money  from  240  to  480  pounds  of 
tobacco  per  100  acres.  The  Assembly  now  came  into  the  contest 
with  a  demand  to  publish  the  changed  conditions  of  plantation  and 
laws  were  passed  requiring  surveyors  to  qualify  according  to  law. 
Upon  the  restoration  of  the  Proprietary  in  1715,  a  new  Commission 
was  issued  to  Charles  Carroll,  still  further  increasing  his  power,  which 
brought  on  the  contest  with  Governor  Hart,  ending  in  a  reduction 
of  the  fees  of  the  agent,  until  1733.  The  rent  rolls,  after  Carroll's 
death,  fell  into  confusion.  Governor  Ogle  was  now  in  office  and  the 
Land  Office  gave  him  much  trouble,  which  continued  to  grow  worse. 

In  1760,  Mr.  Lloyd,  in  charge  of  the  Land  Office,  was  required 
to  build  a  house  for  the  Receiver-General  to  contain  all  land  records. 
Upon  the  completion  of  the  building  in  1766,  a  Board  of  Revenue, 
consisting  of  public  officers,  was  authorized  to  audit  all  accounts  of 
the  Land  Office  and  make  a  report  to  the  Proprietor.  This  Board  of 
Revenue  was  comprised  of  the  Governor  and  leading  officers.  The 
Lower  House  charged  that  its  members  were  growing  independently 
rich.  The  Lower  House  even  urged  that  the  Proprietor  had  no  right 
to  dispose  of  vacant  lands  different  from  former  proclamations,  nor 
to  settle  the  fees  paid  for  services  performed  in  the  Land  Office,  claim- 


206      FouNDEES  or  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

ing  the  office  as  a  public  repository  of  the  first  evidence  of  every  man's 
title  to  his  real  estate;  they  asserted  that  the  records  had  been  made 
at  the  expense  of  the  people  and  were,  therefore,  considered  as  public 
records.  If  the  land-holders  have  no  right  to  have  copies,  except  at 
the  will  of  his  lordship,  or  on  terms  his  lordship  may  be  pleased  to 
allow  them,  they  are  but  tenants  at  will  of  the  Proprietor.  The  con- 
troversy remaining  unsettled,  was  absorbed  in  the  coming  struggle 
with  England.  Governor  Eden  conceded  that  the  Land  Office 
was  public  so  far  as  the  custody  of  the  records,  but  the  question  of 
public  or  private  control  remained  to  be  solved. 

The  continual  cultivation  of  tobacco  in  the  early  period  of  the 
Province  did  not  encourage  industrial  development  and  few  towns 
grew  up.  The  tobacco  trade  was  with  England  direct,  and  in  return 
English  goods  were  returned. 

Located  at  first  upon  navigable  waters,  planters  held  their  social 
intercourse  through  the  bay  and  its  tributaries,  and  roads  were  not 
made  until  the  back  country  became  settled.  Abundance  of  food 
was  furnished  in  the  bay,  and  the  backwoods  gave  wild  turkeys,  deer 
and  other  choice  meats.  With  the  lavish  gifts  of  nature  for  their 
support  and  the  money  returns  from  their  tobacco  crops,  but  little 
incentive  for  progress  existed. 

As  early  as  1663,  Governor  Charles  Calvert  had  begun  to  sow 
wheat,  oats,  peas  and  barley,  and  even  flax  and  hemp.  Tobacco 
planters  were  required  to  grow  at  least  two  acres  of  corn;  a  bounty 
for  raising  flax  and  hemp  was  offered. 

In  1715  Governor  Hart  addressed  both  Houses  of  the  Assembly 
upon  the  necessity  for  devoting  spacious  tracts  of  fertile  lands  not 
adapted  to  tobacco,  to  the  growth  of  hemp,  but  none  of  these  sug- 
gestions seemed  to  bring  the  Province  up  to  industrial  development 
until  1710,  when  the  fertile  soils  of  Howard  and  Frederick  Counties 
were  devoted  to  the  production  of  wheat. 

Liberal  inducements  had  been  offered  by  Charles  Calvert  to  Pala- 
tine settlers.  Two  hundred  acres  of  back  lands  were  offered  to  every 
family,  requiring  no  payment  of  quit  rent  for  three  years,  and  then 
only  four  shillings  per  hundred  acres. 

In  1735  Daniel  Dulany  induced  about  one  hundred  families  to 
settle  on  his  lands  in  Frederick  County.  In  1749  another  large  body 
arrived  and  were  offered  homes  upon  any  terms  agreeable.  At  the 
beginning  of  the  Revolution,  Frederick  County  had  a  population  of 
nearly  50,000,  about  one-seventh  of  the  whole  Province.  The  influ- 
ence of  their  sturdy  subduing  of  forests,  converting  them  into  wheat 
fields, was  extended  even  to  the  eastern  shore,  and  in  1770  the  Bordley 
wheat  field  of  300  acres  on  Wye  Island  became  an  object  lesson  to 
wealthy  planters. 

At  last  mines  opened  up.  Manufactures  of  iron  implements 
followed.  In  1749  there  were  eight  furnaces  for  making  pig  iron  and 
nine  forges  for  bar  iron. 

Public  roads  began  in  1739,  followed  by  an  act  of  Assembly  for 
clearing,  marking  and  improving  roads.     The  Assembly  also  loaned 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      207 

money  to  Howard  and  Anne  Arundel  to  open,  straighten  and  improve 
the  same.  The  result  was  that  before  entering  statehood,  wagons, 
drawn  by  eight  horses,  had  taken  the  place  of  post-horses  upon  roll- 
ing roads. 

Fifty  vessels  were  owned  in  1749  by  inhabitants  of  the  Province, 
transporting  then  about  28,000  hogsheads  of  tobacco,  in  addition  to 
£16,000  sterling  exports  of  wheat,  corn,  pig  iron,  lumber  and  furs. 
Twelve  years  later  the  tobacco  exports  had  decreased,  while  exports 
of  other  products  amounted  to  £90,000. 

In  1762  Philadelphia  offered  a  better  market  for  Maryland  prod- 
ucts than  could  be  found  in  Maryland  owing  to  the  scattered  ports 
of  delivery  in  the  Province. 

The  need  of  money  now  became  imperative.  Paper  currency 
came  and  with  it  a  law  for  inspection  of  tobacco,  added  to  the  devel- 
opment of  the  western  counties;  the  Province  at  last  began  to  be 
more  independent  of  the  mother  country.     (Mereness.) 

Now  there  were  many  evidences  of  advancement  in  the  Province. 

ANNAPOLIS  IN  J7I8. 

In  1718,  "  New  Town,"  upon  Powder  Hill,  was  added  to  Aimapo- 
lis.  It  was  ten  acres,  secured  by  a  Commission  of  Colonel  William 
Holland,  Colonel  Thomas  Addison,  Captain  Daniel  Mariartiee  and 
Mr.  Alexander  Warfield  for  the  encouragement  of  trade  in  the  city. 
The  lots  were  given  to  builders  who  did  not  hold  other  lots  in 
Annapolis.  Philip  Hammond,  the  merchant,  had  his  warehouse  in 
"New  Town." 

The  lotholders  of  Annapolis,  at  that  time,  were  Dr.  Charles  Car- 
roll, Samuel  Young,  Thomas  Bladen,  Patrick  Ogleby,  Robert  Thomas, 
Amos  Garrett,  the  merchant  and  ex-mayor,  Benjamin  Tasker,  James 
Carroll  and  Philip  Lloyd. 

In  1820  Benjamin  Tasker  laid  out  his  "Prospect  to  Annapolis" 
on  the  north  side  of  the  Severn. 

St.  Anne's  Church  was  now  so  crowded  a  gallery  had  to  be 
added  in  1723.  During  that  year,  too,  an  act  for  encouraging 
learning  was  passed  and  Rev.  Joseph  Colebatch,  Colonel  Samuel 
Young,  William  Locke,  Captain  Daniel  Mariartiee,  Mr.  Charles  Ham- 
mond, Mr.  Richard  Warfield  and  John  Beale  were  commissioned  to 
procure  land,  build  and  visit  schools  for  Anne  Arundel. 

In  1727  several  parishioners  of  St.  Anne's,  headed  by  Rev.  Alex- 
ander Frazier  were  authorized  to  build  a  chapel  in  the  upper  part  of 
the  parish.  The  site  selected  was  near  Indian  Landing;  its  patrons 
were  Vachel  Denton,  Thomas  Worthington,  John  Beale  and  Philip 
Hammond. 

William  Parks  was  authorized  to  print,  in  1727,  a  compilation 
of  the  laws  of  the  Province,  and  in  1728,  Henry  Ridgely,  Mordecai 
Hammond  and  John  Welsh  were  empowered  to  lay  out  land  for  a 
custom  house. 


208      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

,  GOVERNOR  SAMUEL  OGLE. 

In  1732  Lord  Baltimore  appointed  Samuel  Ogle,  son  of  Samuel 
Ogle,  of  Northumberland,  England,  as  his  representative  in  Annapo- 
lis. The  Legislature  gave  £3,000  for  a  Governor's  residence,  but  it 
was  not  used  by  Governor  Ogle,  then  a  bachelor.  The  Governor 
soon  engaged  in  the  controversy  concerning  the  dividing  line  of  Mary- 
land and  Pennsylvania.  Lord  Baltimore,  despairing  of  receiving  his 
rights,  had  decided  to  accept  a  compromise.  Disturbances  had  for 
several  years  been  created  by  the  German  settlers  on  the  disputed 
territory.  Captain  Thomas  Cresap  formed  an  association  to  drive 
out  the  Germans.  In  this  contest  one  man  was  killed;  Cresap  was 
wounded  and  was  taken  prisoner.  Governor  Ogle  sent  Edmund 
Jennings  and  Daniel  Dulany  to  Philadelphia  to  demand  Cresap's 
release:  they  failed.  Reprisals  were  ordered;  four  Germans  were 
arrested  and  taken  to  Baltimore.  Cresap's  exclamation,  when  he 
saw  Philadelphia,  was,  "  Why  this  is  the  finest  city  in  the  Province 
of  Maryland." 

Penn  sent  a  committee  to  Governor  Ogle  to  treat,  but  the 
Governor's  demands  were  not  accepted.  Riots  upon  the  contested 
border  increased  and  Governor  Ogle  addressed  the  King,  who  replied 
by  enjoining  both  Governors  to  keep  the  peace,  to  allow  no  settlers 
in  the  disputed  territory  until  his  wishes  were  made  known.  Affairs 
were  in  such  a  serious  condition  that  Lord  Baltimore  came  over  to 
the  Province  and  assumed  charge  for  one  year. 

Governor  Ogle  had  found  the  Province  excited  over  English 
statutes.  He  possessed  many  essential  qualities  for  a  successful 
governor.  He  won  over  Daniel  Dulany,  one  of  the  strongest 
opposers,  but  he  could  not  silence  the  opposition.  He  settled  the 
controversy  over  English  statutes  by  appointing  four  of  the  ablest 
members  of  the  Lower  House,  but  the  act  of  Assembly  which 
supported  the  government,  having  been  allowed  to  expire,  the 
House  expelled  those  four  members  who  had  been  appointed  to 
office. 

New  leaders  rose  in  the  House  to  oppose  "  officers'  fees,"  and  to 
quiet  the  Province,  the  Lord  Proprietor  determined  on  a  new 
Governor. 

GOVERNOR  SIR  THOMAS  BLADEN. 

In  1742,  Sir  Charles  Calvert  appointed  his  brother-in-law  his 
representative.  Both  had  married  daughters  of  Sir  Theodore  Jansen, 
Baronet  of  Surry. 

In  1742,  £1,000  more  were  added  to  the  fund  for  a  Governor's 
mansion  and  Governor  Bladen  was  empowered  to  buy  four  lots  and 
to  erect  thereon  a  residence  for  himself  and  future  Governors.  In 
1744,  he  bought  four  acres,  from  Stephen  Bordley  and  built  the  stately 
hall  now  the  central  building  of  St.  Johns  College,  an  architect  from 
Scotland  planned  it,  but  before  completing  this  magnificent 
banquetting  hall,  the  Legislature  and  Governor  disagreed  upon  its 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      209 

designs  and  refused  further  aid.  It  so  stood  for  a  number  of  years  a 
decaying  monument  of  splendor  and  was  dubbed  "  Bladen's  Folly." 
In  1784,  it  was  granted,  with  its  grounds,  to  St.  Johns  College. 

Governor  Bladen  made  the  treaty  with  Thomas  Penn.  "The 
Six  Nations"  had  also  given  trouble  by- claiming  land  along  the  Sus- 
quehanna and  Potomac.  The  Governor  was  disposed  to  a  peaceful 
settlement  by  buying  their  lands.  The  Assembly  agreed,  but  disputed 
his  authority  in  appointing  Commissioners.  To  his  appointments 
the  Assembly  added  the  names  of  Dr.  Robert  Key  and  Charles 
Carroll,  and  drew  up  instructions  for  their  action.  This  gave  offense 
to  Governor  Bladen.  The  Indians  pressed  an  answer,  but  the 
Assembly  would  not  yield  and  the  Governor  appointed  his  commis- 
sion alone.  It  met  and  adjusted  the  controversy,  by  paying  £100 
currency  for  the  Indian  claim.  By  that  treaty,  the  Nanticokes  left 
the  Eastern  Shore  and  paddled  their  canoes  up  the  Susquehanna 
River  and  settled  in  the  Wyoming  Valley. 

The  members  of  the  Assembly  from  Anne  Arundel  and  Anna- 
polis City  in  1745,  were  Major  Henry  Hall,  Dr.  Charles  Carroll,  Mr. 
Philip  Hammond,  Mr.  Thomas  Worthington,  Captain  Robert  Gordon 
and  Dr.  Charles  Stewart,  of  Annapolis,  This  Assembly  refused  to 
aid  the  Governor  in  sending  troops  to  Canada.  It  occasioned 
considerable  discussion,  but  the  independent  descendants  of  the 
old  settlers  of  the  previous  century  held  their  ground  in  able 
remonstrance.  This  led  Governor  Bladen  to  ask  a  recall  and  Samuel 
Ogle  was  again  named  as  his  successor,  in  1747. 

The  Maryland  Gazette,  the  earliest  newspaper  of  the  Province, 
made  its  re-appearance,  in  1745,  under  Josias  Green,  and  henceforth 
its  pages  furnish  a  reliable  history  of  the  county. 

GOVERNOR  OGLE'S  SECOND  TERM. 

On  March  12,  1747,  the  new  Governor  brought  over  his  bride  in 
the  ship  Neptune,  from  Liverpool  and  on  the  9th  of  June,  Governor 
Bladen,  the  only  royal  Governor  born  in  the  Provinces,  sailed  for 
England.  His  father  was  Hon.  William  Bladen,  Clerk  of  the  Coimcil 
and  first  public  printer,  who  held  an  estate  of  2,000  acres  in  St. 
Mary's.  His  daughter  Ann,  married  Hon.  Benjamin  Tasker,  whose 
daughter  Ann,  became  the  wife  of  Governor  Samuel  Ogle. 

In  December,  Governor  Ogle  called  the  Assembly  to  raise  funds 
for  the  support  of  the  Maryland  troops  in  Canada.  The  Assembly 
refused  and  was  dissolved.  Governor  Ogle's  report  upon  the 
condition  of  trade,  population  and  expenses  of  the  Province  was  a 
comprehensive  exhibit,  which  he  sent  to  the  Board  of  Trade,  of 
London. 

The  Act  of  the  Assembly  for  the  inspection'of  tobacco  and  the 
limitation  of  officer's  fees,  passed  shortly  after  his  restoration  to 
office  increased  the  general  good  feeling  toward  him.  During  his 
administration  the  land  grants  extended  to  Howard  District  of  Anne 
Arundel.     He  built  the  house  which  stands  on  the  corner  of  King 


210      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

George  and  College  Avenue.  During  his  second  term  of  service,  the 
prosperity  of  the  Province  was  well-marked.  Upon  his  death  in 
1752,  the  Maryland  Gazette  paid  this  tribute: 

"  His  great  constancy  and  firmness  in  a  painful  illness  were  suit- 
able to  a  life  exercised  in  every  laudable  pursuit.  His  long  residence 
among  us  made  him  thoroughly  acquainted  with  our  Constitution 
and  interests  and  his  benevolent  disposition  induced  him  to  promote 
the  public  good.  He  was  a  pattern  of  sobriety  and  regularity;  a 
sincere  lover  of  truth  and  justice.  That  his  administration  was  mild 
and  just,  his  enemies,  if  such  a  man  had  any,  dare  not  deny.  In 
private  life  he  was  an  amiable  companion  and  in  his  friendship  warm 
and  sincere." 

THE  GROWTH  OF  A  CENTURY. 

We  have  reached  the  Centennial  year  of  the  settlement,  of  Anne 
Arundel,  and  in  that  review  the  words  of  Rev.  Ethan  Allen  are  of 
interest.  Says  he:  "  The  Puritans  as  such,  were  then  no  longer  heard 
of;  their  places  of  worship  were  desolate  and  their  grave-yards, 
where  are  they?" 

At  Proctor's  Landing  a  city  had  grown  up;  it  was  the  seat  of 
government  for  the  Province.  The  State  House,  the  church,  the 
school  houses  and  magnificent  dwellings,  some  of  which  still  remain, 
had  taken  the  place  of  the  log-hut  of  the  emigrant  and  the  wigwam 
of  the  Indian.  Luxury,  fashion  and  commerce,  with  their  attendant 
dissipations  and  extravagances,  had  taken  the  place  of  the  severe 
and  stern  simplicity  of  the  early  settlers. 

A  hundred  years  had  given  the  match-lock  of  the  Marylander 
for  the  quiver  of  the  Indian;  the  pinnace  for  the  canoe;  the  printing 
press  for  pictorial  chronicles;  skilled  tillage  for  the  unthrifty  hunt; 
African  slavery  for  savage  liberty;  the  race  course  for  the  wrestling 
match;  the  school  for  the  war-dance;  substantial  edifices  for  the 
wigwam;  the  grand  ritual  of  a  mighty  church  for  the  artless  appeal 
to  the  Great  Spirit;  the  busy  throb  of  an  important  capital  for  the 
still-hunt  of  the  savage. 

Annapolis  had  now  been  the  capital  for  half  a  century.  Opulent 
men  had  built  costly,  elegant  houses  as  their  city  dwellings  and  had 
large  plantations,  or  manors,  where  they  dwelt  when  overlooking 
their  tobacco  crops.  Lumbering  equipages,  drawn  by  superb  horses 
were  their  traveling  outfits  in  the  country.  "  In  town,  sedan  chairs, 
borne  by  lacquies  in  livery  were  often  seen.  They  sat  on  carved 
chairs,  at  quaint  tables,  amid  piles  of  ancestral  silverware  and  drank 
punch  out  of  vast,  costly  bowls  from  Japan,  or  supped  Madeira,  half  a 
century  old." 

The  legal  lights  of  Annapolis  were  Jennings,  Chalmer,  Rogers, 
Stone,  Paca,  Johnson,  Dulany.  The  clergy  were  men  of  culture,  who 
could  write  Latin  notes  to  their  companions;  they  enjoyed  their 
imported  Madeira;  were  hearty  livers  and  enjoyed  the  renowned 
crabs,  terrapins  and  canvass-back  ducks,  for  which  the  city  was 
famous.    With  races  every  fall  and  spring,  theatre  in  winter,  a  card 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      211 

party  each  evening,  assemblies  every  fortnight,  dinners  three  or  four 
times  a  week,  at  which  wit,  learning  and  stately  manners  were 
exhibited,  all  softened  by  love  of  good  fellowship,  it  is  not  surprising 
that  a  foreigner  should  declare:  "There  is  not  a  town  in  England, 
of  the  same  size  as  Annapolis,  which  can  boast  of  a  greater  number 
of  fashionable  and  handsome  women." 

The  style  in  winter  is  to  enjoy  the  capital,  but  in  milder  seasons, 
to  travel  among  the  great  estates  and  manors  until  the  principal 
families  in  Calvert,  St.  Marys,  Charles,  Prince  George  and  Arundel 
and  even  across  the  bay,  had  been  visited. 

They  were  bold  riders,  expert  in  hounds  and  horse  flesh,  and  the 
daily  fox-chase  was  as  much  a  duty  as  it  was  to  go  to  church  with 
proper  equipage  and  style  on  Sunday. 

Between  the  old  colonial  mansions  of  the  Northern  and  Southern 
colonies  a  striking  contrast  seems  to  exist.  In  Maryland  and  Vir- 
ginia there  are  brick  buildings  of  remarkable  solidity  and  considerable 
architectural  pretensions.  In  solidity  they  shame  the  mock  shal- 
lowness of  our  modern  pretension,  A  noble  hospitality  is  expressed 
in  the  great  mansions  of  this  time.  The  central  building  lodged  the 
family  and  guests;  the  two  wings,  connected  by  corridors,  served  for 
kitchen,  offices  and  servants  quarters.  In  the  less-imposing  homes 
of  the  people,  the  "hipped-roof"  was  almost  universal,  now  revived 
by  our  Mansard.  The  cosy  comfort,  the  burnished  brass  knockers, 
the  low  ceilings,  the  Queen  Anne  garden  with  box  edging,  all  speak  to 
us  lovingly  of  ancestral  days  worthy  of  being  reseen  and  reviewed. 

Our  modern  clubs  are  only  imitations  of  the  South  River  and 
the  Tuesday  Club,  of  Annapolis.  The  former  has  been  separately 
noted  elsewhere.  The  latter  was  an  assembly  of  wits,  who  satirized 
every  one  and  did  it  successfully.  The  most  distinguished  and 
influential  men  of  the  ancient  capital,  graduates  of  British  Universities, 
wits  of  first  order  were  its  members.  The  meetings  were  held  at  the 
houses  of  its  patrons.  Offensive  topics  were  laughed  out  of  discus- 
sion. Hon.  Edward  Dorsey,  known  as  "the  honest  lawyer"  was  at 
one  time  speaker.  "  He  was  charged  with  negligence  in  office  in  not 
displaying  his  talents  in  oratory  to  the  club.  Speaker  Dorsey  rising 
with  that  gravity  and  action,  which  is  his  peculiar  talent  on  all  such 
occasions,  discoursed  in  a  nervous  and  elegant  style,  which  is  natural 
to  that  gentleman  on  all  occasions."  Notes  of  this  club's  discussions 
have  been  preserved  in  the  Archives  of  the  Maryland  Historical 
Society. 

Other  pastimes  of  that  period,  were  the  races.  On  30th  of  May, 
1745,  "a  race  was  held  at  John  Conners,  about  seven  miles  south  of 
London  Town,  near  West  River.  A  purse  of  £10  for  the  best  horse, 
open  to  all,  except  "Old  Ranter"  and  "Limber  Sides,"  three  heats 
over  two  miles." 

In  1746,  the  gentlemen  of  the  "  Ancient  South  River  Club,"  to 
express  their  loyalty  to  his  Majesty  on  the  success  of  the  inimitable 
Duke  of  Cumberland's  obtaining  a  complete  victory  over  the  Pre- 


212      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

tender,  appointed  a  grand  entertainment  to  be  given  at  their  club 
house,  on  Thursday  next.  The  birthday  of  George  II  was  observed 
here,  October  29,  1746,  "  by  firing  cannon  and  drinking  loyal  healths." 

In  1752,  the  "Beggars  Farce"  was  at  the  new  Theatre  by  per- 
mission of  President  Tasker.  A  lottery  under  Benjamin  Tasker,  Jr., 
George  Stewart  and  Walter  Dulany  was  organized  for  purchasing  a 
town  clock. 

A  French  writer  of  this  period  who  saw  the  capital  city,  thus 
records  it.  "In  that  very  inconsiderable  town  standing  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Severn,  where  it  falls  into  the  bay,  at  least  three-fourths 
of  the  buildings  may  be  styled  elegant  and  grand.  Female  luxury 
exceeds  anything  known  in  the  Province  of  France.  A  French  hair- 
dresser is  a  man  of  importance  among  them,  and  it  is  said,  that  a 
certain  dame  here,  hires  one  of  the  craft  for  a  thousand  crowns  a 
year.  The  State  House  is  a  very  beautiful  building,  I  think  the  most 
so,  of  any  I  have  seen  in  America." 

GOVERNOR  TASKER. 

Upon  the  death  of  Governor  Ogle,  the  office  devolved  upon  his 
father-in-law,  Hon.  Benjamin  Tasker,  by  virtue  of  his  Presidency  of 
the  Council,  which  position  he  had  held  since  1744.  We  get  a  glimpse 
of  him  in  his  correspondence  with  Lord  Baltimore  as  President  of 
the  Council,  in  which  he  declared:  "The  Assembly  is  now  at  a  con- 
clusion, but  as  to  the  real  services,  they  have  done,  they  might  as 
well  have  stayed  at  home.  They  have  prepared  an  address,  offering 
your  Lordship  two-sixth  pence  per  hogshead  on  all  tobacco  to  be 
exported,  but  have  not  agreed  to  make  good  any  number  of  hogs- 
heads, but  the  surest  way  would  be  to  let  the  country  farmers  make 
good  such  a  sum  as  can  be  agreed  upon  and  leave  them  to  find  a  way 
to  raise  it." 

Letters  upon  encroachments  upon  the  Potomac;  under  the 
grant  of  Lord  Fairfax;  upon  leases,  copper  ore,  patents  of  land, 
Spanish  gold,  remittances  and  rents  make  up  the  scope  of  Colonel 
Tasker's  voluminous  correspondence. 

Lord  Baltimore,  in  reply,  lamented  the  death  of  Governor  Ogle, 
but  congratulated  himself  in  having  so  able  a  representative  to  take 
his  place;  acknowledged  the  rights  of  the  President  of  the  Council  to 
assume  the  government  upon  the  death  of  the  Governor. 

As  President  of  the  Council,  Colonel  Tasker  made  a  digest  of 
the  Provincial  laws  and  even  after  Governor  Sharpe  had  arrived 
Colonel  Tasker  was  placed  in  charge  of  the  private  correspondence  and 
affairs  of  the  Proprietary. 

His  son,  Benjamin  Tasker,  Jr.,  was  appointed  by  Governor 
Sharpe,  Commissioner  to  secure  the  assistance  of  "The  Six  Nations." 
This  commission  resulted  in  the  Confederacy  of  1752 — a  union  of 
colonial  interests  for  defense  about  a  quarter  of  a  century  before  the 
Declaration  of  Independence. 

Both  of  these  distinguished  men  lie  buried  at  St.  Anne's. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      213 

GOVERNOR  HORATIO  SHARPS. 

On  August  11,  1753,  Horatio  Sharpe,  Esquire,  Governor  of  the 
Province,  arrived  in  the  ship  Molly,  from  London.  He  was  a  member 
of  an  able  English  family.  His  brother  in  England  secured  for  him, 
soon  after  his  arrival,  an  important  military  appointment  as  com- 
mander of  the  Colonial  Forces.  Governor  Sharpe  entered  upon  a 
momentous  period.  The  French  and  Indian  war  was  at  hand;  the 
House  of  Delegates  insisted  on  taxing  the  Lord  Proprietor's  estates 
and  denying  his  right  to  ordinary  licenses.  The  Stamp  Act  following 
the  war,  was  another  grevious  complaint.  It  was  altogether  a  trying 
ordeal  for  the  Governor,  who  had  to  be  impartial  toward  the  Crown, 
the  Lord  Proprietor  and  the  people,  as  well  as  to  protect  the  Province 
from  a  common  enemy.     But  he  was  equal  to  the  occasion. 

Meeting  General  Braddock  at  Frederick,  he  there  built  Fort 
Frederick.  Braddock's  advance  and  defeat  created  a  panic  in  the 
Province.  Many  fled  to  Baltimore,  where  women  and  children  were 
embarked  on  vessels  to  be  sent  to  Virginia. 

Ordering  out  the  militia  and  calling  for  volunteers.  Governor 
Sharpe,  assisted  by  Captain  Henry  Ridgely  and  Captain  Alexander 
Beall  with  two  companies  of  thirty  men  each,  went  to  the  front. 
The  people  of  Annapolis  began  to  fortify  the  town.  Ninety-five 
Marylanders,  joined  by  South  Carolinians,  under  the  cover  of  bushes 
and  trees,  kept  at  bay  a  fierce  Indian  attack  at  Fort  Duquesne.  The 
English  were  defeated,  but  the  Marylanders  covered  their  retreat, 
losing  twenty-four  out  of  ninety-five  men  engaged.  The  Indians 
could  not  withstand  our  provincials.  Governor  Sharpe,  in  sympathy 
with  the  joy  that  filled  the  colony  over  the  bravery  of  our  Mary- 
land forces,  appointed  a  public  thanksgiving,  and  the  Assembly 
appropriated  a  fund  for  the  defenders. 

It  is  a  peculiar  incident  in  the  history  of  the  State,  that  the  dying 
interest  of  the  last  unpopular  Proprietor  should  be  so  ably  and 
efficiently  sustained  by  two  such  popular  governors  as  Sharpe  and 
Eden. 

The  clergy  tendered  Governor  Sharpe  their  grateful  acknowl- 
edgements "  for  his  amiable  virtues,  both  in  public  and  private  char- 
acter." The  Lower  House  acknowledged  "it  is  our  opinion  that  his 
own  inclination  led  him  very  much  toward  that  desirable  object"— 
the  good  of  the  Province.  Kent  County,  St.  Mary's  and  Frederick 
County  all  sent  him  addresses  complimentary  and  approving.  Gov- 
ernor Sharpe's  able  correspondence  covers  three  volumes  of  the  Mary- 
land Archives.  He  was  a  bachelor,  yet  he  built  a  homestead  that 
still  bears  testimony  to  the  magnificence  of  our  colonial  archi- 
tecture. In  1763,  by  Legislative  act.  Governor  Sharpe  purchased 
from  the  vestry  of  St.  Margaret's  Parish,  the  "White  Hall"  estate, 
which  had  been  left  to  the  church  by  Colonel  Charles  Greenberry. 
In  1764  the  vestry,  headed  by  William  West,  gave  a  power-of- 
attorney  to  John  Merriken  to  convey  to  Horatio  Sharpe  their 
tract  known  as  "  White  Hall."     This  tract  had  descended  to  Colonel 


214      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Charles  Greenberry  from  Colonel  Nicholas  Greenberry,  who  had 
secured  it  from  Colonel  William  Fuller,  of  Virginia,  the  son  of  its 
first  surveyor.  Captain  William  Fuller,  hero  of  the  Severn.  Governor 
Sharpe  resided  in  "White  Hall"  mansion.  When  he  retired  from 
the  office  of  Governor,  his  secretary,  John  Ridout,  of  England,  held 
it  and  by  the  will  of  Governor  Sharpe,  through  his  trustees, 
Benjamin  Ogle  and  Dr.  Upton  Scott,  it  was  transferred  by  deed  to 
John  Ridout.  Governor  Sharpe's  full-length  portrait  is  upon  its 
walls,  and  the  bed  on  which  he  rested  is  still  among  its  relics. 
"White  Hall"  has  passed  to  Mrs.  Story,  wife  of  Captain  Story, 
U.  S.  A. 

GOVERNOR  ROBERT  EDEN. 

Governor  Robert  Eden  was  the  last  Proprietary  Governor.  He 
came  in  1769.  It  was  in  the  lovely  month  of  June.  The  guns  of  the 
battery  gave  him  welcome.  He  was  a  gentleman  "  easy  of  access, 
courteous  to  all,  and  fascinating  by  his  accomplishments."  Mr. 
William  Eddis,  to  whom  we  are  indebted  for  much  of  our  most 
interesting  bits  of  gossip,  came  in  1769  to  take  the  position  of  English 
Collector  of  Customs.  His  pen  records  are  still  extant  and  valuable. 
Of  Governor  Eden  he  wrote,  "  The  Governor  is  returned  to  a  land  of 
trouble.  To  stem  the  popular  torrent  will  require  all  his  faculties. 
Hitherto  his  conduct  has  secured  to  him  a  well-merited  popularity 
• — and  I  can  assert  that  he  conducts  himself  in  his  arduous  depart- 
ment with  an  invariable  attention  to  the  interests  of  his  royal  master, 
and  the  essential  welfare  of  the  Province  over  which  he  has  the  honor 
to  preside."  That  this  sentiment  was  shared  by  the  Assembly  of 
Maryland  was  clearly  manifest  when  it  refused  to  subject  Governor 
Eden  to  the  indignity  of  arrest  as  demanded  by  General  Charles  Lee, 
the  Englishman,  then  in  charge  of  the  American  Army.  In  face  of 
the  clamors  of  the  Whig  Club  of  Baltimore,  the  latter  felt  he  could 
trust  the  Convention  of  Maryland  which  had  solemnly  pledged  his 
safe  departure. 

The  foundation  stone  of  the  present  State  House  was  laid  by 
Governor  Eden  in  1772.  On  his  striking  the  stone  with  a  mallet 
there  was  a  clap  of  thunder,  although  a  cloud  could  not  be  seen.  This 
building  is  the  third  upon  the  same  site.  The  appropriation  was 
£7,500  sterling.  Its  building  committee  were  Daniel  Dulany ,  Thomas 
Johnson,  John  Hall,  William  Paca,  Charles  Carroll,  Barrister,  Lance- 
lot Jacques  and  Charles  Wallace.  In  1773  it  was  covered  with  a 
copper  roof,  which  during  the  gale  of  1775  was  blown  off.  The  dome, 
so  much  admired  by  all  critics,  was  added  after  the  Revolution. 

Governor  Eden  bought  of  Edmund  Jennings  the  historic  man- 
sion, long  the  Governor's  mansion  of  our  State  Governors.  He  added 
its  wings. 

Mr.  David  Ridgely,  the  State  Librarian  and  author  of  "  Annals 
of  Annapolis"  in  1841,  thus  describes  Governor  Eden's  mansion: 
"This  edifice  has  a  handsome  court  and  garden  extending,with  the 
exception  of  an  intervening  lot,  to  the  water's  edge.     From  the 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      215 

portico,  looking  to  the  garden,  a  fine  prospect  regales  the  vision.  The 
building  consists  of  two  stories  and  presents  an  extensive  front; 
there  are  on  the  lower  floor,  a  large  room  on  each  side  of  the  hall  as 
you  enter  and  several  smaller  ones;  the  saloon,  on  the  same  floor,  is 
nearly  the  length  of  the  house.  On  each  side  of  the  edifice  are  com- 
modious kitchens,  carriage  house  and  stables,  with  spacious  lots. 
Towards  the  water,  the  building  rises  in  the  middle  in  a  turreted 
shape.  It  stands  detached  from  other  structures,  and  is  altogether 
a  delightful  and  suitable  mansion  for  the  Chief  Magistrate  of  our 
State."  At  the  outbreak  of  the  Revolution  Governor  Eden's  prop- 
erty was  confiscated.  This  mansion  was  held  for  our  Governors 
until  1866,  when  it  was  sold  to  the  Naval  Academy  and  became  the 
Library  Hall.  It  was  intended  for  the  residence  of  the  Superintend- 
ent, but  was  condemned  and  torn  down  in  1901.  The  same  act  of 
1866  located  our  present  Gubernatorial  mansion  on  its  quintangular 
lot,  fronting  on  State  House  Circle.  Upon  this  lot  stood  the  resi- 
dence of  Mr.  Absalom  Ridgely  and  his  son.  Dr.  John  Ridgely,  surgeon 
of  U.  S.  Ship  Philadelphia,  captured  in  the  harbor  of  Tripoli  in  1804. 
It  was  built  by  the  grandfather  of  General  George  H.  Stuart. 

In  social  circles  Governor  Eden  was  a  favorite.  When  the 
controversy  concerning  "officer's  fees"  was  at  its  height  during  his 
administration  the  hostility  was  directed  more  against  the  members 
of  the  Upper  House  than  against  the  Governor.  The  two  great 
debaters  and  writers  upon  that  controversy  were  Daniel  Dulany  and 
Charles  Carroll,  of  "  Carrollton,"  under  assumed  names  of  "  Antillon" 
and  "  First  Citizen."  Full  copies  of  that  discussion  are  now  on  record 
at  the  State  Library,  Annapolis.  In  it  Charles  Carroll,  then  unknown, 
just  returned  from  his  studies  in  Europe,  took  the  popular  side  and 
received  the  public  thanks  of  the  Lower  House  of  the  Assembly. 
He  contended  that  the  government  of  Maryland  had  for  years  been 
held  by  one  family,  viz:  Tasker,  Ogle,  Bladen  and  Dulany.  The 
latter's  father-in-law,  Benjamin  Tasker,  had  been  President  of  the 
Council  for  a  number  of  years.  Dulany,  the  writer,  was  a  brother- 
in-law  of  Benjamin  Tasker,  Jr.,  who  was  also  of  the  Council  and  at 
the  same  time  Secretary  of  the  Province.  The  office  of  Commissary- 
General  and  Secretary  were  almost  hereditary  in  the  Dulany  family. 
Colonel  Tasker,  Sr.,  was  Commissary-General  between  the  two 
Dulany 's,  father  and  son,  and  at  the  time  of  the  discussion  in  1773, 
Walter  Dulany  held  the  place  while  his  cousin  was  Secretary.  Mrs. 
Daniel  Dulany's  mother,  wife  of  Benjamin  Tasker,  was  a  Bladen, 
and  Governor  Robert  Eden,  last  in  line,  while  he  married  Lord 
Baltimore's  daughter,  had  also  connected  himself  with  the  Bladens, 
as  this  lady  was  a  niece  of  Governor  Bladen's  wife. 

The  "Independent  Whigs"  in  a  letter  to  "The  First  Citizen," 
declared,  "  We  thank  you  for  the  sentiments  which  you  have  spoken 
with  honest  freedom.  We  had  long  waited  for  a  man  of  abilities  to 
step  forth  and  tell  our  dozing  ministers  the  evils  they  have  brought 
upon  the  community.  While  we  admire  your  intrepidity  in  the 
attack,  permit  us  to  applaud  that  calm  and  sturdy  temper  which  so 


216      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

precisely  marks  and  distinguishes  your  excellent  performance.  Go 
on,  sir,  and  assert  the  rights  of  your  countr}^;  every  friend  of  liberty 
will  be  a  friend  to  you.  Malice  may  rage  and  raw  heads  and  bloody 
bones  may  clatter  and  rattle,  but  the  honest  heart,  bold  in  the  cause 
of  freedom  feels  no  alarm." 

Carroll's  exposure  of  the  "Proclamation"  was  seen  in  the  next 
election  in  Annapolis,  when  a  tumultuous  crowd  with  sound  of 
muffled  drums,  bore  the  proclamation  in  a  coffin,  and  with  a  grave- 
digger,  marched  to  its  burial;  a  committee  was  appointed  to 
thank  "  The  First  Citizen." 

COUNaL  OF  SAFETY. 

Two  governments  were  now  in  Annapolis — Governor  Eden  and 
the  Council  of  Safety. — Fearing  the  action  of  the  Assembly,  Eden 
continued  by  prorogation,  to  keep  down  the  voice  of  the  people,  but 
the  people  of  Anne  Arundel  sent  out  an  invitation  for  committees 
from  the  several  counties  to  meet  at  Annapolis  for  forming  non-im- 
portation associations,  a  full  meeting  was  the  result.  It  was  resolved 
not  to  import  any  of  the  dutiable  goods;  to  exclude  a  list  of  merchan- 
dise summing  up  a  hundred  articles;  while  this  agreement  was  being 
signed  came  the  news  that  only  tea  would  be  taxed,  but  the  com- 
mittees appointed  at  Annapolis  unanimously  resolved  to  stand  by 
their  former  declaration.  Closely  following  came  the  Congress  of 
all  delegates. 

When  the  Council  of  Safety  took  charge  of  the  State  of  Mary- 
land Governor  Eden  was  notified  that  the  time  for  his  departure  had 
arrived,  and  after  its  members  had  taken  an  affectionate  leave  of 
their  late  Supreme  Magistrate,  he  was  conducted  to  a  barge  with 
every  mark  of  respect  due  his  elevated  station  he  had  so  worthily 
filled.  He  reached  the  vessel  amid  the  booming  of  cannon.  In  1783 
ex-Governor  Eden  returned  to  America  to  secure  the  restitution  of  his 
property.  There  was  some  criticism  of  his  action,  but  after  an  inter- 
view with  Governor  Paca,  matters  were  adjusted.  He  died  soon 
after  his  arrival  in  a  house  now  owned  by  the  Sisters  of  Notre  Dame 
on  Shipwright  Street.  This  house  was  the  homestead  of  Dr.  Upton 
Scott,  a  rich  citizen  of  Annapolis.  It  now  attracts  more  visitors  than 
any  other  in  Annapolis  by  having  been  made  the  imaginary  home  of 
"Richard  Carvel,"  of  Revolutionary  days.  The  house  commands  a 
beautiful  view  of  the  creek  into  which  entered  the  St.  Mary  forces, 
and  also  the  opposite  neck  upon  which  was  gained  the  Battle  of  the 
Severn.  Just  east  of  it  stands  the  Carroll  mansion,  upon  "Carroll 
Green","  all  now  in  the  grounds  of  the  Catholic  orders  of  the  city. 

"Governor  Eden  was  buried,"  says  Mr.  Ridgely  in  his  Annals 
of  Annapolis,  "  under  the  pulpit  of  the  Episcopal  church  on  the  north 
side  of  the  Severn,  within  two  or  three  miles  of  the  city." 

"This  church  was  some  years  since  burned  down"  Mr.  Riley 
adds.  "  I  have  tried  by  diUgent  inquiry  to  locate  this  church.  The 
nearest  approach  to  the  truth  is  found  in  the  fact  that  on  the  farm 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      217 

of  Mrs.  Winchester,  near  the  track  of  the  Annapolis  and  Baltimore 
Short  Line  Railroad,  is  an  ancient  graveyard,  the  site  of  an  Episcopal 
church  that  was  burned  down  about  a  hundred  years  ago.  There  is 
a  grave  in  the  cemetery  marked  by  a  cross  of  bricks,  and  the  tradition 
is  that  an  English  lord  lies  buried  here.  It  would  not  take  many 
repetitions  of  oral  history  to  change  an  English  governor  to  an  English 
lord." 

Mrs.  Helen  Stuart  Ridgely  in  her  "  Old  Brick  Churches,"  locates 
the  early  Church  of  Westminster  Parish  on  "Severn  Heights."  My 
own  researches  show  a  deed  from  John  Hammond,  whose  estate  was 
on  the  Severn,  for  200  square  feet  upon  "  Deep  Creeke,"  for  building 
a  church  for  Westminster  Parish  in  1695.  The  only  consideration 
was  "  the  love  he  bore  his  neighbors."  In  1707-8  t^he  parish  of  West- 
minster obtained  a  deed  for  "two_acres  on  the  south  side  of  the 
Magothy  River,  adjoining  a  town  called  Westminster  Towne."  The 
tract  was  "  Luck,"  granted  to  Mary  Garner,  mother  of  Edward  Gibbs, 
to  whom  it  descended  and  by  whom  it  was  sold,  to  Charles  Green- 
berry,  principal  vestryman  and  his  brothers,  John  Peasly,  Philip 
Jones,  Thomas  Cockey,  John  Ingram  and  Richard  Torrell."  Its 
communion  silver  dates  from  1713,  the  year  of  Colonel  Charles  Green- 
berry's  death.  His  will  left  a  liberal  provision  for  maintaining  a 
minister.  His  estate  "  White  Hall,"  was  left  to  his  widow,  to  descend 
to  Westminster  Parish.  This  was  still  later  the  estate  of  Governor 
Sharpe,  who  granted  it  to  his  secretary,  John  Ridout,  of  England, 
whose  burial  notice  reads,  "  Be  it  remembered  that  John  Ridout, 
Esquire,  a  native  of  Dorset,  England,  departed  this  life  7th  October 
1797,  and  was  buried  at  'White  Hall,'  the  ceremony  being  solemn- 
ized by  the  Rev.  Ralph  Higginbotham,  of  St.  Anne's  Parish." 
Another  record  reads,  "  Rachel  Ridout,  wife  of  Horatio  Ridout  and 
daughter  of  Robert  Goldsborough,  of  Cambridge,  Maryland,  departed 
this  life  17th  of  June,  1811,  and  was  buried  at  'White  Hall,'  in  this 
Parish,  the  funeral  ceremony  being  solemnized  by  the  Rev.  Robert 
Welsh,  of  the  Methodist  Society.  Entered  by  Horatio  Ridout, 
Register." 

"  Mary  Ridout,  daughter  of  Governor  Samuel  Ogle,  and  wife  of 
John  Ridout,  died  at  'White  Hall,'  August,  1808."  Ann  Ogle,  wife 
of  Governor  Samuel,  was  buried  at  "White  Hall"  in  1^7. 

We  get  a  view  of  some  church  officials  in  1706  from  the  records 
of  St.  Anne's  Church. 

On  Easter  Monday,  April  19,  1756,  at  the  parish  church,  there 
were  present  Dr.  Richard  Tootell,  Mr.  Thomas  Beale  Dorsey,  Mr. 
Robert  Swan,  Mr.  James  Maccubin  and  Mr.  William  Roberts,  of  the 
vestry,  and  sundry  parishioners,  who  went  through  the  usual  vestry 
election  and  selected  Mr.  Lancelot  Jaques  and  Mr.  Richard  Mackubin 
church  wardens  to  fill  the  expired  terms  of  Messrs.  Thornton  and 
Woodward.  Mr.  Alexander  Warfield,  son  of  Richard,  and  Dr.  George 
Stewart  were  made  vestrymen  in  the  place  of  Dr.  Tootell  and  Mr. 
Dorsey.  At  that  meeting  of  the  vestry  the  following  list  of  bachelors 
was  returned  to  the  vestry,  to  be  taxed  for  the  support  of  the  church: 


218      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Those  possessing  £100  and  less  than  £300,  were  Mr.  Rezin  Gaither, 
at  Mrs.  Ehzabeth  Gaithers,  at  the  head  of  the  Severn;  Mr.  Emanuel 
Marriott,  at  his  father's,  Mr.  Joseph  Marriott;  Mr.  Caleb  Davis,  at 
Mr.  Philip  Hammond's.  Those  possessing  over  £300  were  Mr.  Zach- 
ariah  Hood;  Charles  Carroll,  barrister;  Mr.  William  Gaither,  at  the 
head  of  the  Severn;  Mr.  Charles  Hammond,  son  of  Phihp.  The 
Register  also  added  that  His  Excellency  Horatio  Sharpe  and  Rev. 
John  MacPherson  were  bachelors,  but  he  did  not  count  them. 

After  qualifying  according  to  law  the  vestry  proceeded  to  nom- 
inate and  recommend  the  following  persons  for  Inspectors  of  tobacco 
for  the  ensuing  year,  viz :  Mr.  Moses  Mackubin  and  Mr.  Richard  Mac- 
kubin  for  the  port  of  Annapolis,  Mr.  Augustine  Gambrill,  Mr,  Joseph 
Sewell,  Mr.  Richard  Warfield,  Jr.,  and  Mr.  John  Hall  for  Indian 
Landing.  It  was  then  ordered  that  the  tobacco  in  the  hands  of  the 
Sheriff,  belonging  to  the  vestry,  be  sold  at  public  vendue,  on 
Wednesday  next  and  that  the  Register  set  up  notices  for  the  same. 
The  tobacco  sold  at  sixteen-ninth  pence  per  hundred. 

Mr.  Alexander  Warfield  was  ordered,  in  1758,  to  have  a  window 
cut  in  the  chapel  at  the  expense  of  the  vestry  and  to  see  that  the 
stones  in  the  aisles  were  relaid. 

At  the  outbreak  of  the  Revolution,  St.  Anne's  Church  had 
become  quite  dilapidated,  but  it  still  held  a  communion  plate  of  solid 
silver,  made  by  Francis  Garthorne,  engraved  with  the  arms  of  Wil- 
liam III.  This  is  still  a  cherished  memorial  in  the  present  magnifi- 
cent building,  which  is  the  third  upon  its  historic  site.  It  also  has 
two  Bibles,  the  gifts  of  General  John  Hammond,  its  vestryman  of 
1704  and  Mrs.  Henrietta  Maria  Dorsey,  wife  of  Captain  Edward. 
Its  stone  font  is  the  work  of  Rinehart.  Its  burial  ground  is  now 
occupied  by  the  city  streets,  but  in  its  capacious  circle,  now  enclosed 
by  an  iron  railing,  we  may  still  read  some  records  of  historic 
interest.  "Here  lieth  Rebecca,  wife  of  Daniel  Dulany,  fourth 
daughter  of  Colonel  Walter  Smith;"  "Margaret  Carroll,  relict  of 
Charles  Carroll,  (barrister)  of  Annapolis  and  daughter  of  Matthew 
Tilghman— born  1742,  died  1817."  "Henry  Ridgely,  died  1700;" 
General  John  Hammond,  1707;  Nicholas  Gassaway,  1711.  Upon 
a  slab  of  white  marble  with  a  griffin  rampant,  surrounded  by  fleur 
de-lis,  the  following  inscription  is  preserved: 

"  Here  lieth  interred  the  body  of  Mr.  Amos  Garrett,  of  the  city 
of  Annapolis,  in  Anne  Arundel  County,  in  the  Province  of  Maryland, 
merchant,  son  of  Mr.  James  and  Mrs.  Sarah  Garrett,  late  of  St.  Olive 
Street,  Southwork,  then  in  the  Kingdom  of  England,  now  a  part  of 
Great  Britain,  who  departed  this  life  on  March  8,  1727,  Aetatis  56." 

The  bell  given  by  Queen  Anne  was  destroyed  in  the  fire  of  1858. 
The  present  building  dates  from  the  same  year.  Its  north  grounds 
have  elevated  memorials,  also,  to  WilHam  Bladen,  who  died  1718, 
aged  forty-eight;  to  Benjamin  Tasker,  Jr.,  late  Secretary  of  Mary- 
land, who  died  1760,  in  his  thirty-ninth  year  and  to  Hon.  Benjamin 
Tasker,  Sr.,  President  of  the  Council,  who  died  1768,  aged  seventy- 
eight. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      219 

St.  James  Parish,  Herring  Creek,  noted  further  on  "  Old  Brick 
Churches,"  discarded  its  brick  church  of  1718  and  rebuilt  one  in 
1760,  which  is  still  standing.  It  is  nearly  square,  with  a  hip-roof, 
like  that  on  the  present  All  Hallows,  which  dates  from  1722,  but  while 
the  latter  is  open  inside  to  the  roof,  St.  James  has  a  vaulted  ceiling 
spanning  and  slanting  off  at  the  ends  to  harmonize  with  the  confor- 
mation outside.  There  are  two  aisles  and  three  sections  of  square 
pews  with  doors.  The  windows  with  their  deep  embrasures  are 
rounded  at  the  top  and  in  most  of  them  the  small  panes  are  preserved. 
There  are  two  stained  glass  windows  in  the  chancel  and-the  corners 
near  it  are  boxed  off  into  vestry-room  and  choir,  A^ich  necessary 
contrivances  mar  the  effect  of  the  otherwise  perfect  interior;  they, 
moreover,  hide  the  tablets  containing  the  Lord's  Prayer  and  the 
Creed,  which,  with  the  Ten  Commandments  covering  the  space 
between  the  chancel  windows,  were  probably  procured  with  the  legacy 
of  £10  given  in  1723,  by  the  wife  of  William  Locke,  Esq.,  "toward 
adorning  the  Altar  of  St.  James  with  Creed,  Lord's  Prayer  and  Ten 
Commandments. ' ' 

William  Locke  also  gave  money  for  a  silver  basin  or  baptismal 
font,  which  is  now  one  of  the  four  pieces,  of  which  the  church  plate 
consists.  It  bears  the  date  of  1732,  and  also  the  donor,  with  the  word 
"  Armigeri"  after  it. 

The  alms  basin  was  the  gift  of  the  rector,  Rev.  Henry  Hall,  who 
died  in  1723.  The  other  pieces  look  as  if  they  might  be  of  earlier  date. 
The  records  also  show  that  whipping  posts  and  stocks  were  then  in 
order. 

Rev.  Henry  Hall  lies  in  St.  James  church-yard,  under  a  hori- 
zontal slab  mounted  on  a  brick  foundation.  Another  slab,  flat  to 
the  ground,  is  in  honor  of  Hon.  Seth  Biggs,  Esq.,  who  died  1708, 
aged  fifty-five  years.  ^,.,        ,^, 

KING  WILLIAM'S    SCHOOL,  NOW  ST.  JOHN'S  COLLEGE. 

The  first  dates  from  1696;  the  second  from  1785.  The  trustees 
of  the  first  were  Governor  Francis  Nicholson,  Hon.  Sir  Thomas 
Lawrence,  Colonel  George  Robothan,  Colonel  Charles  Hutchins, 
Colonel  John  Addison,  Rev.  Divine,  Mr.  Peregrine  Coney,  Mr.  John 
Hewitt,  Mr.  Robert  Smith,  Kenelym  Cheseldyne,  Henry  Coursey, 
Edward  Dorsey,  Thomas  Ennals,  Thomas  Tasker,  Francis  Jenkins, 
William  Dent,  Thomas  Smith,  Edward  Boothy,  John  Thompson  and 
John  Bigger,  gentlemen. 

It  stood  upon  a  lot  given  by  Governor  Nicholson,  on  the  south 
side  of  the  State  House,  the  spot  of  the  DeKalb  Statue.  It  gave  the 
name  to  School  Street.  It  was  completed  in  1701.  The  earhest 
rector  was  Rev.  Edward  Butler,  rector  of  St.  Anne's  and  master  of 
the  free  school  in  Annapolis.  Its  records  are  meager,  but  WilHam 
Pinkney  was  educated  there. 

In  1785,  the  property  of  King  William's  School  was  conveyed 
to  St.  John's  College.  Among  the  list  was  a  number  of  "  quaint  and 
curious  volumes  of  forgotten  lore,"  which  still  remain  in  the  library 


220      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

of  St.  John's.  Governor  Eden,  early  after  his  arrival,  strongly 
recommended  an  institution  of  learning  which  would  preclude  the 
necessity  for  crossing  the  ocean  to  obtain  an  education.  Governor 
Bladen's  unfinished  residence  was  selected  as  its  site.  The  war 
intervened,  but  at  its  close  the  Legislature  passed  a  wise  and  public- 
spirited  act  of  incorporation,  granting,  if  located  in  Annapolis,  four 
acres  purchased  by  Governor  Bladen,  from  Stephen  Bordley,  for  his 
public  residence.  The  sum  of  £1,750  annually  and  forever  was 
granted  as  a  donation.  A  committee  of  the  Board  of  Visitors,  viz: 
James  Brice,  Charles  Wallace,  Richard  Sprigg,  Thomas  Hyde  and 
Thomas  Harwood,  announced  in  1789,  the  appointment  of  John 
McDowell,  A.M.,  Professor  of  Mathematics.  His  name  to-day,  is 
perpetuated  in  McDowell  Hall.  In  1806,  the  Legislature  repealed 
its  charter  in  the  face  of  an  eloquent  appeal  from  William  Pinkney, 
in  which  he  said:  "The  day  which  witnessed  the  degradation  of  St. 
John's  College  would  prove  the  darkest  day  Maryland  has  known." 
In  1832,  the  sum  of  £3,000  was  given,  providing  the  Board 
would  accept  it  in  full  satisfaction  for  any  claim  it  might  have  against 
the  State.  Thus,  has  the  college  lived  for  a  century,  during  which 
time  it  has  presented  a  long  array  of  Maryland's  most  honored  sons, 
who  started  out  from  its  halls.  Its  present  able  President,  Dr.  Fell 
is  holding  it  to  its  purpose  with  success. 

ANTE-REVOLUTIONARY  MOVEMENTS. 

We  have  now  reached  the  close  of  our  Provincial  era.  Busy 
preparations  for  an  independent  nation  are  at  hand.  The  causes 
which  led  to  the  Revolution  are  known  to  every  school  boy,  but  the 
part  that  Maryland  took  in  that  Revolution  has  never  had  its  just 
recognition. 

In  Bancroft's  voluminous  history,  of  eight  large  volumes,  not 
more  than  a  half-dozen  pages  are  given  to  a  notice  of  Maryland's 
share  in  the  great  work.  Even  this  slight  notice  is  in  detached  para- 
graphs of  deprecatory  allusions  to  the  influence  of  "its  profligate 
Lord  Proprietary,"  in  shaping  the  conservatism  of  the  State.  Though 
Maryland,  through  Thomas  Johnson,  had  nominated  George  Wash- 
ington as  Commander-in-Chief,  it  is  there  recorded  as  the  wish  of  the 
East.  Chase,  whose  wisdom  was  felt  in  every  convention,  only 
received  a  passing  word  of  commemoration.  Maryland,  it  is  true, 
penetrated  the  disguise  of  patriotism  which  enveloped  our  English 
General,  Charles  Lee  and  became  indignant,  when  such  a  man 
had  tried  to  depose  her  respected  Governor  Eden,  but  her 
conservatism  stood  not  in  the  way,  after  it  was  seen,  that  the  cause 
of  defense  could  be  made  one  of  independence.  When  that  hour 
had  dawned,  her  spirit  of  devotion  became  manifest.  Like  others, 
Maryland  had  hoped  for  the  recovery  of  American  rights  through 
the  blockade  of  trade,  but  now  in  a  convention  of  fifty-five  members 
from  sixteen  counties,  it  "resolved  unanimously  to  resist  to  the 
utmost  of  their  power,  taxation  by  Parliament,  or  the  enforcement  of 


Founders  OF  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      221 

the  penal  acts  against  Massachusetts."  Charles  Carroll,  disfran- 
chised, was  placed  on  her  committee  of  correspondence.  Chase, 
strong,  downright  brave  and  persevering,  vehement  even  to  a  fault, 
won  the  confidence  of  the  people.  Her  delegates  to  that  Convention 
in  April,  1775,  had  been  instructed  to  proceed  "even  to  the  last 
extremity,  if  indispensably  necessary  for  the  safety  and  preserva- 
tion of  their  liberties  and  privileges." 

On  26th  of  July,  following,  the  Convention  at  Annapolis 
resolved  fully  to  sustain  Massachusetts  and  to  meet  force  by  force. 
It  saw  "  no  alternative,  but  base  submission  or  manly  resistance  and 
it  approved  by  arms  its  opposition  to  British  troops."  It  directed 
the  enrollment  of  forty  companies  of  minute  men;  authorized  one 
quarter  of  a  million  of  currency  to  be  raised;  extended  its  franchise; 
and  recognizing  the  Continental  Congress  it  managed  the  affairs  of 
the  State  through  a  "Council  of  Safety"  and  subordinate  Executive 
Committees  in  every  county  of  the  State. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  voters  of  Anne  Arundel  County,  in  1774,  it 
was  resolved,  "That  Thomas  Dorsey,  John  Hood,  Jr.,  John  Dorsey, 
Philip  Dorsey,  John  Burgess,  Thomas  Sappington,  Ephraim  Howard, 
Caleb  Dorsey,  Richard  Stringer,  Reuben  Meriweather,  Dr.  Charles 
A.  Warfield,  Edward  Gaither,  Jr.,  Greenberry  Gaither,  Elijah  Robos- 
son,  Thomas  Mayo,  James  Kelso,  Benjamin  Howard,  Ely  Dorsey, 
Sr.,  Mark  Brown  Sappington,  Brice  T.  B.  Worthington,  Charles  Car- 
roll, barrister;  John  Hall,  William  Paca,  Thomas  Johnson,  Jr., 
Matthias  Hammond,  Charles  Wallace,  Richard  Tootell,  Thomas 
Harwood,  Jr.,  John  Davidson,  John  Brice,  John  Weems,  Samuel 
Chew,  Thomas  Sprigg,  Gerard  Hopkins,  Jr.,  Thomas  Hall,  Thomas 
Harwood,  West  River;  Stephen  Steward,  Thomas  Watkins,  Thomas 
Belt,  the  third,  Richard  Green  and  Stephen  Watkins  be  a  committee 
to  represent  and  act  for  this  county  and  city,  to  carry  into  execution 
the  association  agreed  on  by  the  American  Continental  Congress." 

On  26th  of  July,  1775,  at  Annapolis,  a  temporary  form  of  gov- 
ernment was  established,  which  endured  until  the  Constitution  of 
1851  was  adopted.  In  this  action  Maryland  moved  solely  by  its  own 
volition.  Charles  Carroll,  of  Carrollton  and  Charles  Carroll, 
barrister,  were  members  of  the  Committee  of  Safety,  from 
Annapolis  City. 

The  new  Government  of  Maryland,  which  succeeded  the 
exciting  Administration  of  Governor  Eden,  showed  a  gloomy 
prospect  in  its  early  hours  of  the  Revolutionary  struggle. 

The  Council  of  Safety  in  its  address  to  the  Maryland  Delegates 
recorded,  "  Our  people  are  very  backward  in  carrying  the  New  Gov- 
ernment into  execution.  Anne  Arundel  County  has  named  no  elec- 
tors to  the  Senate — nor  any  committee  of  observation — none  of  the 
Judges  attended  and  very  few  people.  The  city  of  Annapolis  has 
not  named  any  Elector  and  we  expect  news  of  the  same  kind  from 
other  places."  But  when  once  awakened  to  the  necessity  of  defence, 
the  people  of  Anne  Arundel  faltered  not,  as  will  be  seen  in  the  records 
that  follow.    Ordered,  "  That  the  Treasurer  of  the  Western  Shore  pay 


222      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

to  Dr.  Charles  Alexander  Warfield,  £400  to  enable  him  to  carry  on  a 
crude  Nitre  manufactory." 

At  a  meeting  of  Delegates  appointed  by  the  several  counties  of 
Annapolis,  on  26th  of  July,  1775,  were  Samuel  Chase,  Thomas  John- 
son, John  Hall,  Dr.  Ephraim  Howard,  Charles  Carroll,  barrister; 
Charles  Carroll,  of  Carrollton;  Thomas  Dorsey,  Thomas  Tillard  and 
John  Dorsey.  Upon  an  adjournment  to  Thursday,  July  27th,  there 
were  present,  William  Paca  and  Rezin  Hammond,  for  Anne  Arundel. 
.  At  a  meeting  of  the  inhabitants  of  Anne  Arundel,  on  January 
1775,  the  following  were  appointed  upon  the  committee  of  observa- 
tion, with  full  power  to  rule  the  county.  They  were  Brice  T.  B. 
Worthington,  John  Hall,  Matthias  Hammond,  Philemon  Warfield, 
Nicholas  Worthington,  Thomas  Jennings,  Thomas  Dorsey,  John 
Hood,  Jr.,  John  Dorsey,  Philip  Dorsey,  Ephraim  Howard,  Caleb 
Dorsey,  Jr.,  Richard  Stringer,  Reuben  Meriweather,  Charles  War- 
field,  Edward  Gaither,  Jr.,  Greenberry  Ridgely,  Ely  Dorsey,  John 
Burgess,  Michael  Pue,  Edward  Norwood,  James  Howard,  Henry 
Ridgely,  William  Hammond,  Thomas  Hobbs,  John  Dorsey,  son  of 
Michael;  Brice  Howard,  Edward  Dorsey,  son  of  John;  Amos  Davis, 
Elisha  Warfield,  John  Dorsey,  son  of  Severn  John;  Samuel  Dorsey, 
son  of  Caleb;  Joshua  Griffith,  Vachel  Howard,  Charles  Hammond, 
son  of  John;  Thomas  Mayo. 

On  Friday,  July  28th,  Brice  Thomas  Beale  Worthington  was 
present  for  Anne  Arundel  and  on  Saturday,  29th,  Matthias  Hammond 
represented  Anne  Arundel. 

"  Resolved  by  the  "  Association  of  Freemen,"  on  July  26,  1775, 
That  four  companies  of  Minute  Men  be  raised  in  Anne  Arundel,  of 
sixty-eight  men  beside^  officers." 

Thus  was  the  ball  set  in  motion  for  that  year. 

J776. 

On  January  20th  it  was  resolved  that  registers  of  the  Commis- 
saires  and  Land  Office  and  Clerks  of  the  Provincial  Court  of  Anne 
Arundel  immediately  furnish  the  Council  of  Safety  with  lists  of 
record  books  in  their  respective  offices  and  prepare  for  removal  of 
the  records  and  papers  to  such  place  as  shall  be  directed  by  said 
Council." 

Mr.  John  Brice  delivered  the  Court  and  land  record  books  and 
and  judgment  books. 

"  Resolved,  That  Charles  Carroll,  of  "  Carrollton,"  Thomas  Dor- 
sey and  John  Weems  collect  all  the  gold  and  silver  that  can  be  gotten 
in  Anne  Arundel  in  exchange  for  continental  money  for  the  use  of 
Congress." 

In  1776  commissions  were  issued  by  the  Council  of  Safety  to 
Thomas  Tillard,  First  Major,  and  to  Joseph  Galloway,  Second  Major 
of  the  South  River  Battalion  of  Militia;  Pollard  Edmondson,  Third 
Lieutenant  in  Fourth  Independent  Company;  to  Henry  Hanslap, 
Captain;   John  Worthington  (of  Brice),  First  Lieutenant;   Nicholas 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      223 

Worthington,  Second  Lieutenant,  and  Gilbert  Guldhall,  Ensign  of 
the  Severn  Militia, 

"  Ordered,  That  the  records  be  removed  to  Rezin  Gaither's  house 
and  there  committed  to  the  care  of  the  clerks  of  Mr.  John  Brice." 

The  Council  then  sent  a  notice  to  Congress  that  gold  and  silver 
cannot  be  procured  from  the  people  without  cash  in  Continental 
money. 

Commissions  issued  to  Joseph  Maccubin,  First  Lieutenant,  and 
Joshua  Cromwell,  Second  Lieutenant,  and  Benjamin  Wright,  Ensign 
in  Anne  Arundel  Militia.  To  Joseph  Burgess,  First  Lieutenant;  John 
Norwood,  Second  Lieutenant,  and  Thomas  Cornelius  Howard, 
Ensign  in  Captain  Brice  Howard's  Company  of  Militia  in  Anne 
Arundel  County.  To  Richard  Weems,  Captain;  Gideon  Dare,  First 
Lieutenant;  Joseph  Allingham,  Second  Lieutenant,  and  Benjamin 
Harrison,  Ensign  of  a  company  of  militia  in  Anne  Arundel. 

The  Council  then  corresponded  with  Mr.  Samuel  Dorsey,  of 
Belmont,  upon  the  subject  of  furnishing  tents  for  the  militia.  Mr. 
Stephen  Steward,  of  Anne  Arundel,  was  requested  to  purchase  the 
necessary  militia  stores  of  Annapolis  Hospital  according  to  the  memo- 
randum furnished  by  Dr.  Tootell. 

Colonel  Thomas  Dorsey,  as  one  of  the  field  officers  of  the  Elk 
Ridge  Battalion,  recommended  Levin  Lawrence  as  First  Lieutenant, 
Thomas  Todd,  Second  Lieutenant,  under  Captain  Thomas  Watkins, 
Jr.,  of  Colonel  Weems'  Battalion,  agreeable  to  a  resolve  of  the 
Convention. 

John  Weems,  Richard  Harwood,  Jr.,  and  Joseph  Galloway,  Field 
Officers,  recommended  Thomas  Watkins  as  Captain  and  John  I. 
Ijams  as  Ensign  in  one  of  the  companies /to  be  raised  in  Anne 
Arundel. 

John  Hall,  Delegate  of  Anne  Arundel,  refused  the  office  of  Judge 
of  Admiralty. 

Samuel  Barber,  Adjutant  of  the  Severn  Battalion,  was  paid  £20 
for  four  months'  service. 

Commission  issued  to  Thomas  Mayo,  Second  Lieutenant  in 
Captain  John  Boone's  Company  of  Militia — Anne  Arundel. 

"  Resolved,  That  the  record  books  be  removed  from  Annapolis 
on  Wednesday  next,  if  fair,  to  Mr.  William  Brown's  house  in  London 
Town,  and  thence  to  Upper  Marlborough,  and  that  two  gentlemen 
of  the  Committee  of  Observation  be  requested  to  attend  the  records. 

Commission  issued  to  Thomas  Watkins,  Captain;  Thomas  Noble 
Stockett,  First  Lieutenant;  Samuel  Watkins,  Second  Lieutenant; 
and  William  Harwood,  Ensign  of  Company  of  militia  of  South  River. 
To  Abraham  Simmons,  Captain;  Thomas  Tongue,  First  Lieutenant; 
Thomas  Morton,  Second  Lieutenant,  and  Abell  Hill,  Ensign  of  South 
River  Company  of  Militia.  To  James  Tootell,  Captain;  Philemon 
Warfield,  First  Lieutenant;  Lancelot  Warfield,  Second  Lieutenant, 
and  Thomas  Warfield,  Ensign,  of  Company  of  Militia  of  the  Severn. 
To  George  Watts,  Captain;  David  Kerr,  First  Lieutenant;  Joseph 
Maccubin,  Second  Lieutenant;    Joshua  Cromwell,  Ensign,  of  Com- 


224      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.    , 

pany  of  Militia  of  Anne  Arundel.  To  Vachel  Gaither,  Captain; 
Absalom  Anderson,  First  Lieutenant;  Stephen  Bosford,  Second  Lieu- 
tenant, and  Thomas  Fowler  Bosford,  Ensign,  of  Company  belonging 
to  the  Severn  Battalion  of  Militia. 

Ordered,  That  Colonel  John  Hall,  of  Anne  Arundel,  be  requested 
to  detach  a  company  of  militia  to  guard  the  coast  from  Thomas  Point 
to  Horn  Point. 

Ordered,  That  all  citizens  between  Annapolis  and  St.  Mary's 
County  be  requested  to  give  aid  in  getting  the  cannon  and  ammuni- 
tion to  St.  George's  Island  in  this  county. 

Commission  issued  to  John  Bullen,  Captain;  Benjamin  Harwood, 
First  Lieutenant  of  Independent  Company  of  Militia  in  Anne  Arundel 
Coimty.  Anne  Arundel  Militia,  Elk  Ridge  Battalion:  Thomas  Dor- 
sey,  Colonel;  Mr.  John  Dorsey,  Lieutenant  Colonel;  Dr.  C.  A.  War- 
field,  First  Major;  Mr.  Edward  Gaither,  Jr.,  Second  Major;  Benjamin 
Howard,  Quartermaster.  Severn  Battalion:  John  Hall,  Colonel; 
Rezin  Hammond,  Lieutenant  Colonel;  Nicholas  Worthington,  First 
Major;  Elijah  Robosson,  Second  Major;  Worthington  Hammond, 
Quartermaster.  South  River:  John  Weems,  Colonel;  Richard  Har- 
wood, Jr.,  Lieutenant  Colonel;  John  Thomas,  First  Major;  Thomas 
Tillard,  Second  Major;  Ed,  Tillard,  Quartermaster. 

Passing  over  the  busy  preparations  of  the  "Council  of  Safety," 
now  at  the  helm,  I  will  enter  now  upon  the  birth  of  our  statehood 
through  the  administration  of  our  governors,  all  of  whom  helped  to 
make  the  history  of  Anne  Arundel  County.  To  these  will  be  added 
the  biographies  of  those  families  who  have  been  makers  of  the  history 
of  both  counties. 

GOVERNOR  THOMAS  JOHNSON. 

Thomas  Johnson,  first  Governor  of  Maryland,  was  born  in  Calvert 
County,  Maryland,  on  November  4,  1732.  He  was  the  son  of  Thomas 
and  Dorcas  (Sedgwick)  Johnson,  and  grandson  of  Thomas  Johnson, 
of  Yarmouth,  who  came  in  1660.  He  was  a  descendant  of  Sir  Thomas 
Johnson,  of  Great  Yarmouth.  The  family  had  been  members  of 
Parliament  since  1585.  Dorcas  (Sedgwick)  Johnson  was  the  daughter 
of  Joshua,  whose  granddaughter  married  John  Quincey  Adams. 

Removing  to  Frederick  County,  their  son  Thomas  was  there 
educated.  At  an  early  age  he  was  sent  to  Annapolis  and  was 
employed  in  the  office  of  the  Provincial  Court.  There  he  studied  law, 
with  Mr.  Bordley,  rising  at  once  to  distinction.  He  was  a  member 
of  the  First  Continental  Congress  and  upon  every  important  commit- 
tee. His  speech  against  the  Stamp  Act,  full  of  patriotism,  carried 
conviction.  Upon  his  motion,  George  Washington  was  made  Com- 
mander-in-Chief of  the  American  forces  in  the  United  Colonies.  He 
served  until  the  9th  of  November,  1776  upon  the  Committee  of  the 
Constitution;  he  was  appointed  by  Congress  Brigadier-General  of 
the  Frederick  Militia,  which  was  with  Washington  in  the  Jerseys, 
and  whilst  in  the  field  was  elected  Governor,  13th  of  February,  1777, 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      225 

to  succeed  the  Council  of  Safety.  He  was  inaugurated  21st  March, 
1777,  at  the  State  House,  Annapohs,  as  the  first  Repubhcan  Governor 
of  Maryland.  A  great  concourse  of  patriotic  Marylanders  witnessed 
the  ceremony;  three  volleys  were  fired  by  the  soldiers,  with  a  salute 
of  thirteen  guns,  followed  by  a  sumptuous  dinner  and  a  ball  at  night. 

Governor  Johnson's  first  proclamation,  calling  out  the  militia, 
was  in  these  words:  "To  defend  our  liberties  requires  our  exertions; 
our  wives,  our  children  and  our  coimtry  implore  our  assistance. 
Motives  amply  sufficient  to  arm  every  one  who  can  be  called  a 
man."  The  interior  counties  answered  promptly.  The  Maryland 
Line  was  then  engaged  at  Staten  Island.  Busy  times  had  now 
dawned,  and  .  Governor  Johnson  had  almost  dictatorial  authority. 
The  severe  winter  at  Valley  Forge  had  exhausted  both  magazines 
and  supplies,  and  to  keep  up  the  necessary  aid  for  the  Quartermaster 
required  the  utmost  energy  of  the  Governor,  yet  by  the  middle  of 
June  the  Maryland  Line  had  its  complement. 

During  his  second  term  the  contest  between  the  House  of  Bur- 
gesses, which  demanded  higher  pay  and  the  Senate,  which  was  too 
aristocratic  to  grant  it,  grew  almost  as  exciting  as  the  war  in  the  field. 
Though  Charles  Carroll,  of  "Carrollton,"  made  a  forcible  speech  in 
opposition  to  granting  the  additional  increase,  the  House  was  vic- 
torious. During  that  term,  also,  the  first  naturalization  laws  were 
passed.  At  the  close  of  his  second  term,  the  limit  of  his  eligibility, 
Governor  Johnson  was  succeeded  by  Governor  Thomas  Sim  Lee,  in 
1779.  The  General  Assembly,  upon  his  retirement,  transmitted  to 
him  the  following  address: 

"  The  prudence,  assiduity,  firmness  and  integrity  with  which  you 
have  discharged  in  times  most  critical,  the  duties  of  your  late 
important  station,  have  a  just  claim  to  our  warm  acknowledgement 
and  sincere  thanks." 

He  retired  to  Fredericktown  but  was  soon  returned  to  the  House 
of  Delegates;  was  appointed  Chief  Judge  of  the  General  Court  and 
afterwards  Associate  Judge  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  United  States. 

He  resigned  it  1793,  because  of  ill-health  and  for  the  same  cause 
declined  a  position  in  Washington's  Cabinet,  but  did  accept  the  office 
of  Commissioner  of  Washington  City,  in  which  he  laid  out  the  plans 
and  fixed  the  site  of  the  Capitol,  President's  house  and  other 
buildings. 

He  retired  to  "Rose  Hill,"  near  Frederick,  the  country-seat  of 
his  son-in-law.  Colonel  John  Grahame,  in  October,  1819.  His  wife, 
whom  he  had  married  in  1766,  was  Ann  Jennings,  only  daughter  of 
Thomas  Jennings,  of  Annapohs,  who  died  early,  leaving  five  children. 
His  daughter,  Ann  Jennings  Johnson,  became  Mrs.  John  Grahame, 
with  whom  he  spent  the  last  days  of  his  life. 

In  1800,  Governor  Johnson  performed  his  last  public  act  at 
Frederick,  in  the  delivery  of  an  eulogy  upon  Washington.  He  was 
of  middle  stature,  slender  in  person,  with  keen,  penetrating  eyes  and 
an  intelligent  countenance.  He  had  a  warm,  generous  heart,  and 
was  a  kind  husband  and  father.     He  died  October  26,  1819,  at  "  Rose 


226      Founders  op  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Hill,"  eighty-seven  years  of  age,  and,  before  an  immense  conclave  of 
citizens,  was  buried  in  the  Episcopal  burial  ground  of  Frederick  over- 
looking a  beautiful  valley.  "  Between  the  hills  of  Linganore  and 
Catoctin,  he  sleeps  long  and  well." 

When  John  Adams  was  asked  why  so  many  Southern  men  held 
leading  positions,  he  replied,  "If  it  had  not  been  for  such  men  as 
Richard  Henry  Lee,  Thomas  Jefferson,  Samuel  Chase  and  Thomas 
Johnson,  there  never  would  have  been  any  revolution." 

Governor  Johnson's  portrait,  taken  when  young,  hangs  in  the 
State  House  at  Annapolis.  The  late  Mrs.  Ross,  his  granddaughter, 
by  will,  has  made  the  Maryland  Historical  Society  guardian  of  all  his 
public  papers  and  mementoes,  until  the  home  of  his  adoption  shall 
prepare  a  suitable  place  for  their  safe  keeping. 

Colonel  Baker  Johnson,  son  of  Governor  Thomas  Johnson,  was 
a  member  of  the  Convention  of  Maryland,  which  met  in  Annapolis 
21st  June,  1776.  He  commanded  a  battahon  at  Paoli,  near  Phila- 
delphia. His  wife  was  Catharine  Worthington,  daughter  of  Colonel 
Nicholas  and  Catharine  (Griffith)  Worthington,  of  "Summer  Hill," 
Anne  Arundel.  Their  daughter,  Catharine  Worthington  Johnson, 
married  William  Ross,  an  eminent  lawyer  of  Frederick. 

Charles  Worthington  Johnson,  son  of  Colonel  Baker  Johnson, 
married  Elinor  Murdock  Tyler,  of  Frederick.  Their  son  is  General 
Bradley  Tyler  Johnson,  late  of  Virginia.  Mrs.  Colonel  Dennis,  of 
Frederick,  is  a  granddaughter. 

GOVERNOR  THOMAS  SIM  LEE. 

Thomas  Sim  Lee,  second  and  seventh  Governor  of  Maryland, 
born  in  Maryland,  1743,  descended  from  Colonel  Richard  Lee,  the 
progenitor  of  Virginia,  through  his  grandson,  Philip  Lee,  who  came 
to  Maryland.  Thomas  Sim  Lee  was  the  son  of  Thomas  and  Christian 
(Sim)  Lee,  daughter  of  Dr.  Patrick  Sim  and  Mary  Brooke,  great- 
granddaughter  of  Robert  Brooke,  the  commander. 

Thomas  Sim  Lee  was  educated  in  Europe.  In  1777,  October 
27,  he  was  married  to  Miss  Mary  Digges.  In  November  8,  1779,  he 
was  elected  Governor  to  succeed  Thomas  Johnson.  His  opponent 
was  Revolutionary  Edward  Lloyd. 

Governor  Lee's  proclamation  upon  the  urgent  necessity  of 
supplying  flour  and  forage  for  the  army  enjoined  all  justices,  sheriffs 
and  their  deputy  constables,  to  exert  themselves  in  procuring  pro- 
visions. The  effect  of  the  proclamation  was  instantaneously  success- 
ful and  provisions  were  sent  to  the  needy  army.  The  Legislature  also 
passed  an  act  calling  into  service  1,400  men  to  serve  three  years,  or 
during  the  war,  at  the  end  of  which  term  recruits  were  to  receive 
fifty  acres  of  land,  whilst  the  county  Courts  were  authorized  to  draw 
upon  their  county  treasurers  for  the  maintenance  of  the  needy 
families  of  these  recruits.  Colonel  Wilhams  wrote  from  the  South 
concerning  our  Maryland  troops  in  these  words: 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties,      227 

"Absolutely  without  pay,  almost  destitute  of  clothing,  often 
with  only  half  ration  and  never  a  whole  one,  not  a  soldier  was  heard 
to  murmur." 

Colonel  Otho  Holland  Williams  was  then  placed  at  the  head  of 
the  brigade  of  the  Maryland  Line,  and  from  it  four  companies  of 
picked  men  were  made  into  a  light  infantry  battalion  under, 
Lieutenant-Colonel  John  Eager  Howard.  The  Maryland  troops  now 
arrived  and  filled  the  gap  made  by  the  withdrawal  of  Colonel  Howard's 
battalion. 

When  the  State  was  thus  embarrassed  to  meet  the  demands  of 
the  army,  the  Legislature,  under  Governor  Lee,  set  an  example  by 
subscribing  each  according  to  his  means,  a  magnificent  sum,  which 
had  its  effect  in  corresponding  subscriptions  throughout  the  State. 
Governor  Lee's  uncle,  Joseph  Sim,  contributed  500  hogsheads  of 
tobacco.  The  prompt  and  generous  response  of  the  planters  of 
Maryland,  many  of  whom  were  equally  as  liberal,  saved  the  army. 

A  Congressional  Committee  having  been  appointed  in  June,  1780, 
to  urge  the  Governors  of  each  State  to  call  out  an  additional  quota 
of  troops  and  supplies.  General  Washington  accompanied  their 
appeal  by  a  letter  asking  for  immediate  attention.  Maryland's 
quota  was  four  regiments  of  2,205,  to  he  located  at  the  head  of  the 
Elk  River.  Governor  Lee  immediately  laid  it  before  the  Assembly. 
The  reply  of  that  Assembly  deserves  to  be  written  in  letters  of  gold. 

"We  propose  to  exert  our  utmost  endeavors  to  raise  2,000 
regulars,  to  serve  during  the  war.  It  will  be  necessary  to  draw  from 
our  battalions  under  Baron  de  Kalb  a  number  of  officers  to  command, 
form  and  discipline  these  new  recruits." 

General  Washington,  having  accepted  this  proposal,  the  Assem- 
bly issued  this  stirring  appeal: 

"Rise  into  action  with  that  ardor  which  led  you,  destitute  of 
money,  of  allies,  of  arms  and  soldiers,  to  encounter  one  of  the  most 
powerful  nations  of  Europe,  single  and  unsupported,  raw  and 
undisciplined,  you  baffled  for  three  successive  years  the  repeated 
attacks — now,  when  strengthened  by  a  mighty  alliance,  shall  we 
droop  and  desert  the  field  to  which  honor,  the  strongest  ties,  the 
dearest  interests  of  humanity  unite  us?  We  have  hitherto  done  our 
duty;  the  General  has  acknowledged  our  exertions,  and  we  entreat 
you  by  all  that  is  dear  to  freemen  not  to  forfeit  the  reputation  you 
have  so  justly  acquired. 

"Our  army  is  weak,  and  reinforced  it  must  be.  Let  us,  like  the 
Romans  of  old,  draw  new  resources  and  an  increase  of  courage  even 
to  brave  defeats,  and  manifest  to  the  world  that  we  are  the  most  to 
be  dreaded  when  most  depressed." 

To  this  eloquent  appeal,  Maryland  made  a  noble  response. 
Recruits,  provisions  and  supplies  of  all  kinds,  were  offered  and  at  the 
required  time  her  quota  of  2,065  gallant  men  had  been  added  to  the 
Continental  Army.  To  the  South  all  eyes  were  now  directed,  for 
Gates,  whose  laurels  had  been  won  in  the  North,  was  now  about  to 
cast  the  darkest  shadows  of  gloom  upon  his  campaign  in  the  South. 


228      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

In  the  following  August  came  the  announcement  which  General 
Washington  transmitted  in  September  to  Governor  Lee.  "Sir,  In 
consequence  of  the  disagreeable  intelligence  of  the  defeat  of  the 
army  under  Major  General  Gates,  which  I  have  just  received,  I  think 
it  expedient  to  countermand  the  march  of  the  troops  who  were 
ordered  from  Maryland  to  join  the  main  army.  I  am,  therefore,  to 
request  your  Excellency  to  give  directions  for  the  regiment  enlisted 
to  serve  during  the  war,  as  well  as  for  all  recruits,  as  soon  as  they 
can  possibly  be  collected  and  organized,  to  march  immediately  to 
the  southward,  and  put  themselves  under  the  orders  of  the  com- 
manding officer  in  that  department.  And  I  can  not  entertain  a 
doubt  that  your  Excellency  and  the  State  will  use  every  exertion  to 
give  activity  and  dispatch  to  the  march  of  the  troops  with  all 
measures  necessary  for  the  protection  of  the  Southern  States." 

Governor  Lee  sent  in  answer  to  this  demand,  seven  hundred 
rank  and  file  to  the  Southern  Army. 

Nor  did  the  patriotic  efforts  end  with  her  public  men.  Mrs. 
Mary  Lee,  wife  of  the  Governor,  as  the  representative  of  the  volun- 
tary efforts  of  the  patriotic  women  of  Maryland,  wrote  to  Washington 
for  advice  as  to  the  most  acceptable  mode  of  expending  the  contribu- 
tions of  these  organizations. 

The  following  reply  shows  his  appreciation : 

Head  Quarters,  11th  October,  1780 
Madam: 

"  I  am  honored  with  your  letter  of  the  27th  of  September,  and 
cannot  forbear  taking  the  earliest  moment  to  express  the  high  sense 
I  entertain  of  the  patriotic  exertions  of  the  women  of  Maryland  in 
favor  of  the  army.  In  answer  to  your  inquiry  respecting  the  disposal 
of  the  gratuity,  I  must  take  the  liberty  to  observe  that  it  appears  to 
me  the  money  which  has  been,  or  may  be  collected,  can  not  be 
expended  in  so  eligible  and  beneficial  a  manner  as  in  the  purchase  of 
shirts  and  black  stocks  for  the  use  of  the  troops  in  the  Southern  Army. 
The  polite  offer  you  are  pleased  to  make  of  your  further  assistance 
in  the  execution  of  this  liberal  design,  and  the  generous  disposition 
of  the  ladies,  insures  me  of  its  success  and  cannot  fail  to  entitle  both 
yourself  and  them  the  warmest  gratitude  of  those  who  are  the  object 
of  it." 

General  Greene  having  now,  October  5,  1780,  superceded  General 
Gates,  on  his  way  South,  stopped  at  Annapolis  and  with  a  letter  of 
introduction  from  General  Washington  to  Governor  Lee,  waited 
upon  him  and  was  entertained  at  his  house.  Having  urged  both  the 
Governor  and  the  Legislature  to  assist  him  in  recruiting  the  army, 
and  trusting  them  to  furnish  "all  the  assistance  in  their  power," 
leaving  General  Gist  to  take  charge  of  Maryland  and  Delaware  recruits, 
General  Greene  pushed  on  South. 

In  1780,  the  House  again  brought  forth  "An  Act  to  seize, 
confiscate  and  appropriate  all  British  property  within  the  State," 
followed  by  an  appeal  and  an  indictment  against  the  British  Govern- 
ment in  its  mode  of  carrying  on  the  war.    Charles  Carroll,  of  "Car- 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      229 

roUton"  and  Joseph  Sim,  the  uncle  of  Governor  Lee,  were  both 
opposed  to  confiscation,  deeming  it  inexpedient,  yet  so  great  was  the 
necessity  of  the  occasion,  the  Senate  yielded  and  passed  it.  Thus, 
with  an  increase  of  ten  million  of  dollars  to  carry  on  the  war;  with 
its  Governor  exerting  every  nerve  to  keep  up  the  quota  of  the  State, 
Maryland  stood  in  the  foreground  of  the  perilous  period,  claiming 
one-half  of  the  army  then  in  General  Greene's  service  in  the  South. 
Discouragement  sat  supreme  mistress  over  National  and  State 
prospects,  yet  in  the  midst  of  this  gloom,  two  heroic  figures  rose 
above  the  trials.  Greene  at  the  front  and  Lee,  at  Annapolis,  with 
Otho  Williams  and  John  Eager  Howard  in  the  command  of  the 
Maryland  Line.  Upon  these  four  men,  sustained  and  sootjaed  by 
the  unfaltering  patriotism  of  the  Maryland  Assembly,  resf^  to-day 
most  of  the  glory  of  that  masterly  campaign,  of  the  South,  begun 
in  gloom,  carried  on  by  retreats,  unfaltering  in  every  trial,  but 
ending  at  last  in  a  well-earned,  glorious  fruition. 

General  Greene  in  his  official  report  of  Eutaw  vSprings,  said : 
"The  Marylanders  under  Colonel  Williams,  were  led  on  to  a  brisk 
charge,  with  trailed  arms,  through  a  heavy  cannonade  and  a  shower 
of  musket  balls.  Nothing  could  excell  the  gallantry  and  firmness  of 
both  officers  and  soldiers  upon  this  occasion.  I  cannot  help  acknowl- 
edging my  obligations  to  Colonel  Williams  for  his  great  activity  on 
this  and  many  other  occasions,  in  forming  the  army,  and  for  his 
uncommon  intrepidity  in  leading  on  the  Maryland  troops  to  the 
charge,  which  exceeded  anything  I  ever  saw." 

In  1781,  the  people  of  Dorchester  County,  through  their  com- 
mittee, Robert  Goldsborough  and  Gustavus  Scott,  having  addressed 
Governor  Lee  for  assistance  in  arms  and  ammunition  necessary  for 
their  militia,  to  meet  the  ever  present  demands  for  protection  from 
maraudings.  Governor  Lee  laid  the  subject  before  the  Legislature, 
and  they  passed  "an  Act  to  collect  arms." 

In  February,  1781,  Governor  Lee  received  from  General  Wash- 
ington information  of  the  movement  of  Lafayette's  corps  through 
Maryland  and  requesting  his  assistance  in  furnishing  the  necessar}^ 
provisions,  forage,  wagons  and  vessels. 

Governor  Lee,  upon  Lafayette's  arrival  at  the  head  of  the  Elk, 
wrote  to  him.  "We  have  ordered  all  the  vessels  at  Baltimore  and 
this  port  to  be  impressed  and  sent  to  the  head  of  the  Elk  to  transport 
the  detachment  imder  your  command,  and  have  directed  six  hundred 
barrels  of  bread  to  be  forwarded  ^o  them.  The  State  will  most 
cheerfully  make  every  exertion  to  give  force  and  efficacy  to  the 
present  important  expedition  by  every  measure  in  our  power." 

In  another  letter  to  Lafayette,  the  Governor  added,  "We  have 
prepared  a  dispatch  boat  to  convey  your  letter  to  the  Commanding 
Officer,  near  Portsmouth,  which  will  be  sent  off  as  soon  as  the  winds 
will  permit;  and  have  given  directions  to  the  Master  to  throw  it 
overboard  if  he  should  be  in  danger  of  being  taken." 

The  Governor  and  Council  also  dispatched  a  messenger  down 
the  bay  to  give  information  of  the  arrival  of  the  French  fleet  and 


230      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

beacon  signals  were  raised  for  the  shores.  A  chain  of  riders  were  to 
go  through  the  State  as  special  messengers. 

The  pressing  needs  of  the  State  were  now  to  be  seen  in  Gov- 
ernor Lee's  letter  to  the  citizens  of  Baltimore,  who  had  come  to  his 
assistance  in  supplying  the  wants  of  Lafayette's  corps.  "We  very 
much  applaud  the  zeal  and  activity  of  the  gentlemen  of  Baltimore, 
and  think  their  readiness  to  assist  the  executive  at  a  time  when  they 
were  destitute  of  the  means  of  providing  those  things  which  were 
immediately  necessary  for  the  detachment  under  the  command  of 
the  Marquis  de  Lafayette,  justly  entitle  them  to  the  thanks  of  the 
public."  "  We  cannot  but  approve  of  the  proceedings  of  those  gentle- 
men and  assure  you  we  will  adopt  any  expedient  to  prevent  any 
individual  of  that  body  from  suffering  or  being  in  the  least  embarassed 
by  his  engagements  for  the  State.  We  think  it  reasonable  the  State 
should  pay  the  value  of  money  advanced  with  interest  thereon,  and 
will  give  an  order  on  the  collectors  of  Baltimore  for  their  reimburse- 
ment." 

Governor  Lee,  also  wrote  to  Governor  Jefferson,  of  Virginia, 
asking  him  to  assist  in  sending  the  necessary  transports  to  the  head 
of  the  Elk.  Lafayette  in  his  letter  to  Washington,  acknowledged 
Maryland's  help  as  follows:  "The  State  of  Maryland  have  made  me 
every  offer  in  their  power;  Mr.  McHenry  has  been  very  active  in 
accelerating  the  measures  of  his  State." 

As  a  result,  pretty  much  all  of  the  necessary  equipments  and 
nearly  one  hundred  transports  for  Lafayette's  corps,  had  come  out 
of  Maryland,  through  her  Governor  and  citizens. 

The  successful  arrival  of  Lafayette's  fleet  in  the  harbor  of 
Annapolis,  was  on  the  13th  of  March,  and  on  the  15th,  Governor 
Lee  announced  to  Governor  Jefferson — "The  arrival  of  our  express, 
with  Your  Excellency's  letter  of  the  12th,  this  moment  received, 
gives  me  an  opportunity  of  informing  you,  that  all  the  transports 
with  the  troops  from  Elk  got  safe  into  Harbor,  on  Tuesday  morning, 
March  13th."  The  next  morning  at  daylight,  two  ships,  apparently 
British,  of  the  rate  of  eighteen  and  twenty-eight  guns,  came  to  an 
anchor  opposite  the  mouth  of  our  River  Severn.  We  judged  that 
you  would  be  anxious  for  the  safety  of  the  troops,  but  they  are 
fortunately  safe  and  the  armed  vessels,  which  conveyed  them  down 
are  prepared  for  defence. 

The  French  fleet's  failure  in  arriving  at  Portsmouth  led  Lafayette 
back  to  the  Elk  and  the  threatening  attempts  in  the  Chesapeake 
became  now  the  paramount  concern  of  Governor  Lee  and  his  council. 
Baltimore  took  advantage  of  the  Legislature's  "Act  to  embody  a 
number  of  select  militia  and  for  immediately  putting  the  State  in  a 
proper  posture  of  defence."  The  Western  Shore  was  authorized  to 
select  1,200  men  and  the  Eastern  Shore  800  militia — subject  to  the 
call  of  the  Governor — all  in  addition  to  the  Act  "  to  procure  recruits," 
amounting  to  1,000  men  for  the  war,  which  was  supplemented  by 
another  "for  the  defence  of  the  bay,"  which  enabled  the  Governor 
to  purchase  a  galley,  and  have  one  built,  equipped  and  manned.    He 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties,      231 

was  also  empowered  to  fit  out  barges  to  the  number  of  eight.  In 
April,  Governor  Lee  wrote  to  Lafayette  upon  the  threatening  attitude 
of  six  of  the  enemy's  ships  upon  the  Potomac,  in  having  destroyed 
private  property  and  now  proceeding  to  Alexandria,  with  a  view  of 
destroying  it.  "  The  Military  stores  and  provisions  at  this  place  and 
Baltimore  town,  must  be  a  capital  object,  and  as  we  have  the 
strongest  reasons  to  think,  as  soon  as  they  have  perpetrated  their 
designs  in  Potomac,  if  not  before,  they  will  visit  this  city  and 
Baltimore.  Under  these  circumstances,  we  beg  leave  to  submit  to 
your  consideration  the  propriety  of  detaining  your  detachment  in 
this  State  and  marching  such  part  as  you  may  deem  necessary,  to 
our  assistance  in  Baltimore  town  and  in  this  city." 

Two  days  after.  General  Lafayette  replied:  "However  inade- 
quate I  am  to  the  defence  of  Annapolis,  Baltimore  and  Alexandria 
at  once,  I  will  hasten  to  the  point  that  will  be  nearest  to  those  three 
places,  I  request  your  Excellency  to  furnish  me  speedy,  minute  and 
frequent  intelligence."  "It  will  be  necessary  that  a  collection  of 
wagons  and  horses  be  made  at  Baltimore,  and  I  beg  your  Excellency 
will  please  order  a  quantity  of  live  cattle  and  flour  be  also  collected 
at  that  place;  I  hope  Sir,  that  precautions  will  be  taken  for  the  safety 
of  the  stores  now  at  or  near  Indian  Landing." 

Arriving  at  Baltimore  a  few  days  after,  Lafayette  borrowed 
from  its  citizens,  upon  his  own  personal  credit,  for  it  was  better  than 
that  of  Congress,  the  sum  of  ten  thousand  dollars  for  supplying  his 
army.  Congress,  however,  in  May  following,  in  appreciation  of 
this  generous  act.  Resolved,  "  That  the  Marquis  de  Lafayette  be 
assured  that  Congress  will  take  the  proper  measures  to  discharge  ^ 
the  engagements  he  entered  into  with  the  merchants."  In  the  old 
Assembly  room,  of  Baltimore,  when  the  most  distinguished  ladies 
and  gentlemen  of  that  city  had  honored  him  with  a  ball,  he  again 
brought  patriotism  to  the  test  in  that  memorable  reply  to  the  lady, 
who  asked  the  cause  of  his  sadness,  "I  cannot  enjoy  the  gayety  of 
the  scene  while  so  many  of  my  poor  soldiers  are  in  want  of  clothes." 
As  the  noble  women  of  Baltimore  lately  met  a  similar  call,  so  did 
the  words  of  a  patriotic  lady  that  historic  night  kindle  the  fire  which 
ceased  not  to  burn  until  its  necessity  no  longer  existed.  "We  will 
supply  them,"  was  the  response  and  all  history  knows  how  well  she 
kept  her  promise.  The  ragged  and  wearied  troops  left  Elk  Ridge 
Landing  with  new  outfits  and  new  hopes,  but  Marylanders  were  yet 
once  more  to  be  called  to  the  rescue. 

Lafayette  finding  Cornwallis  making  an  attempt  to  get  in  his 
rear,  felt  he  could  not  risk  an  engagement  and  so  retreated  toward 
Maryland.  Again  the  watchful  eyes  of  Governor  Lee  were  on  the 
outlook.  Exhausted,  but  still  patriotic,  he  addressed  Congress  thus: 
"The  extraordinary  exertions  made  by  this  State  on  every  occasion 
in  complying  with  the  demands  of  Congress,  the  Marquis  detach- 
ment, the  Southern  Army,  our  militia  and  other  expenditures  have 
altogether  exhausted  our  treasury  and  stores  of  arms  and  clothing, 
so  that  it  is  not  in  our  power  to  furnish  the  troops  with  clothing  and 


232      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

arms,  nor  properly  equip  our  militia  to  repel  the  enemy.  Under 
these  distressing  circumstances,  we  request  you  to  make  known  our 
wants  to  Congress  in  the  most  earnest  manner  and  endeavor  to 
obtain  the  proportion  of  all  clothing,  arms,  etc.,  that  Congress  now 
or  may  hereafter  have  for  this  State." 

On  the  following  day,  the  Governor  and  Council  sent  out  this 
circular  letter  to  the  counties. 

"  From  the  intelligence  we  have  received  of  the  rapid  movements 
of  the  enemy  in  Virginia,  we  have  reason  to  apprehend  an  invasion 
of  this  State;  and  it  will  be  necessary  that  every  precaution  be 
taken  preparative  for  our  defence.  We,  therefore,  request  you  to 
order  the  militia  in  yoiu-  coimty  to  hold  themselves  in  perfect  readi- 
ness to  march  at  a  moment's  warning  to  such  places  as  may  be 
necessary,  and  to  have  all  the  arms  in  your  county  proper  for  defence, 
immediately  repaired  and  put  in  best  condition,  cartridges  made  and 
everything  ready  to  take  the  field."  In  answer  to  this  urgent 
appeal,  Baltimore  was  put  on  the  defence:  Smallwood  and  Gist 
collected  the  militia,  which  came  pouring  in  from  all  the  coimties. 
Rushing  these  troops  of  horse  and  imequipped  militia  to  the  front, 
Lafayette  with  Wayne's  corps  now  turned  upon  the  enemy  marching 
toward  Richmond.  Cornwallis  began  that  retreat  which  was  finally 
to  end  in  surrender. 

In  August,  General  Lafayette  wrote  to  Governor  Lee  what  his 
apprehensions  were,  and  Governor  Lee  in  a  letter  to  General  Andrew 
Buchanan  in  charge  of  the  militia  of  Baltimore  County,  thus 
expressed  them: 

"From  information  just  received  from  Marquis  and  Dr. 
McHenry,  we  are  no  longer  in  doubt  of  the  designs  of  the  enemy. 
They  are  certainly  destined  for  Baltimore  Town  or  the  head  of  the 
Bay.  Now  must  the  State  of  Maryland  exert  herself.  We  confide 
in  your  skill  and  activity.  We  have  directed  the  Lieutenant  of 
Frederick  County  to  order  his  troops  of  horse  and  all  their  select 
militia  to  your  assistance,  and  have  enclosed  commission  for  troops. 
The  Marquis  with  his  army  is  moving  this  way.  The  Lieutenant  of 
Harford  has  directions  to  order  the  militia  of  that  coimty  to  be  in 
readiness  to  march  when  ordered."  At  the  same  time.  Governor 
Lee  sent  his  information  to  the  President  of  Congress,  in  which  he 
added  that,  "We  have  taken  every  possible  precaution  to  prevent 
the  stores  and  provisions  and  valuable  property  belonging  to  the 
Continent  and  State  falling  into  their  hands."  However,  both 
General  Lafayette  and  Governor  Lee  were  mistaken  as  to  the  destina- 
tion of  Cornwallis.  A  destination  to  end  in  gloom — and  Governor 
Lee  at  once  wrote  to  Colonel  Samuel  Smith  at  Baltimore,  who 
discharged  the  militia.  As  a  fitting  compliment  and  full  appreciation 
of  the  executive  watchfulness  of  Governor  Lee,  let  me  quote  the 
words  of  General  Washington  to  the  Governor  in  reply  to  an  earlier 
letter  of  June  29th. 

"  I  have  the  honor  to  acknowledge  the  receipt  of  your  Excellency's 
favor.     It  is  with  great  satisfaction  I  observe  the  proceedings  of 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      233 

the  general  assembly  of  your  State,  which  you  have  been  pleased 
to  communicate  to  me,  the  exertions  of  that  Legislature  have  hitherto 
been  laudable  and  I  am  exceedingly  glad  to  see  the  same  spirit  still 
prevailing.  For  my  own  part,  I  have  not  a  doubt  but  that  if  the 
States  were  to  exert  themselves  with  that  spirit  and  vigor  which 
might  reasonalby  be  expected  at  this  favorable  period,  they  might 
not  only  drive  from  the  Continent  the  remains  of  the  British,  but 
obtain  to  themselves  their  independence,  an  event  which  you  will 
be  assured  I  most  evidently  wish."  Now  began  the  the  culmination 
of  vital  movements  in  Maryland,  which  aided  by  the  arrival  of 
French  support  was  to  bring  out  of  trials  the  glory  of  results. 

General  Washington  from  afar  off  was  mapping  out  the  final 
scene  of  tragedy,  knowing  that  upon  General  Lafayette  in  Virginia 
and  Governor  Lee  in  Maryland,  all  his  plans  would  be  carried  out 
and  thus  revealed  his  movements  and  thus  were  they  carried  out  by 
the  Governor  of  Maryland,  in  his  circular  letter  to  the  Commissaries 
of  the  counties. 

"  A  detachment  of  the  main  &TTny  with  the  French  troops  to 
the  number  of  7,000  men,  will  be  at  the  head  of  the  Elk,  in  eight 
days,  on  their  way  to  Virginia  to  act  against  Lord  Cornwallis. 
General  Washington  has  written  us  very  pressingly  for  an  immediate 
and  large  supply  of  fresh  provisions,  we  therefore  direct  you  to  pro- 
cure by  purchase,  beef  cattle,  preferring  those  parts  of  your  country 
which  are  most  exposed  to  the  ravages  of  the  enemy;  and  in  case  the 
owners  will  not  consent  to  sell  them  upon  the  terms  prescribed  by 
the  Act  for  procuring  an  immediate  supply  of  clothing  and  fresh 
provisions,  you  will  seize  them  agreeably  to  the  Act,  to  procure  a 
supply  of  salt  meat,  passed  June,  1780."  Five  thousand  seven 
hundred  cattle  were  enumerated  as  the  contributions  from  the 
different  counties,  and  minute  directions  for  the  storing  of  salt 
provisions  were  made  by  the  Governor  together  with  specified 
places  for  money  contributions.  In  addition,  warrants  were  issued 
to  the  quarter  masters  empowering  them  to  impress  all  vessels 
capable  of  transporting  troops  or  stores. 

Nor  did  Governor  Lee  stop  there,  but  in  a  letter  to  General 
Washington,  August  30th,  thus  assures  him  of  his  support :  "  We  are 
honored  by  your  Excellency's  letter  of  the  27th,  and  we  receive  with 
the  greatest  satisfaction  the  intelligence  of  the  approach  of  the  fleet 
of  our  generous  ally.  You  may  rely,  Sir,  on  every  exertion  that  is 
possible  for  us  to  make,  to  accelerate  the  movements  of  the  army  on 
an  expedition,  the  success  of  which  must  hasten  the  establishment 
of  the  independence  of  America  and  relieve  us  of  the  calamities  of 
war.  Orders  have  been  issued  to  impress  every  vessel  belonging  to 
the  State  and  forwarding  them  without  delay  to  the  head  of  the  Elk, 
but  we  are  sorry  to  inform  your  Excellency  that  since  the  enemy  has 
had  possession  of  the  bay,  our  number  of  sea  vessels  and  craft  has 
been  so  reduced  by  captures  that  we  are  apprehensive  what  remains 
will  not  transport  so  considerable  a  detachment.  We  have  directed 
the  State  officers  to  procure  immediately  5,000  cattle  and  a  large 


234      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

quantity  of  flour.  There  is  very  little  salt  provisions  in  the  State; 
what  can  be  obtained,  we  trust  will  be  collected."  Then  follows  the 
information  as  to  the  place  of  deposit. 

To  Robert  Morris,  Governor  Lee  wrote:  "Everything  that  is 
within  our  power  and  within  the  exhausted  abilities  of  this  State, 
shall  be  done  cheerfully  and  immediately  to  promote  and  render 
effectual  the  expedition  which  his  Excellency,  General  Washington, 
has  formed  against  the  enemy  in  Virginia,  in  which  we  are  fully 
sensible,  the  care  and  safety  of  this  State  in  particular  is  deeply 
interested." 

These  were  stirring  days  in  Maryland.  The  arrival  of  Washing- 
ton in  Baltimore  and  the  arrival  of  the  French  fleet  in  the  Chesapeake 
brought  rays  of  hope  and  abounding  patriotism.  Governor  Lee's 
pen  was  almost  incessantly  at  work  urging  the  State  officers  to  their 
duty.  Writes  he  again  in  a  circular  letter:  "There  never  has  been 
a  time  which  required  of  the  State  more  than  the  present.  The  fate 
of  Lord  Cornwallis  and  his  army  will,  in  a  measure  depend  upon 
them.  Relying  on  your  patriotism,  zeal  and  activity,  we  trust  you 
will  do  everything  in  your  power  to  procure  the  cattle  here  before 
ordered.  Not  a  moment  is  to  be  lost;  and  to  enable  you  to  act  with 
more  facility  and  to  ease  the  inhabitants,  we  have  sent  you:  To 
Somerset,  £1,700;  Worcester,  £1,700;  Dorchester,  £1,100;  Talbot, 
£950;  Caroline,  £350;  Queen  Anne's,  £950;  Kent,  £800;  Cecil, 
£950;  Harford,  £800;  Baltimore,  £1,100;  Anne  Arimdel,  £500; 
Prince  George,  £500;  Charles,  St.  Mary's  and  Calvert,  £500;  Mont- 
gomery, £800;  Frederick,  £1,100;  Washington,  £800." 

Washington,  having  sent  an  urgent  message  to  Governor  Lee  to 
hurry  on  the  troops  with  all  despatch.  Governor  Lee,  on  September 
9th  replied,  "Your  Excellency's  address  of  the  15th  is  this  moment 
presented  to  us.  We  are  truly  happy  to  be  informed  that  the  Count 
DeGrasse  is  returned  to  his  station  and  that  our  vessels  may  pass 
down  the  bay  without  hazard.  We  feel  your  Excellency's  distress 
from  an  apprehension  that  your  operations  may  cease  or  be  impeded 
for  want  of  provisions,  and  the  more  so  because  we  can't  instantly 
furnish  you.  In  consequence  of  your  requisition  we  directed  our 
commissaries  to  collect  all  the  public  flour  and  deposit  it  at  conven- 
ient places  on  navigable  water,  all  the  vessels  of  the  State  being 
impressed  and  now  employed  in  transporting  the  troops  to  the  point 
of  destination,  puts  it  out  of  our  power  to  forward  the  flour  on  that 
service.  The  number  of  beeves  we  agreed  to  furnish  your  Excellency 
may  depend  upon." 

The  next  day  Governor  Lee  wrote  to  Colonel  Moses  Rawhngs, 
of  Frederick  County,  conveying  the  urgent  necessity  for  haste  in 
collecting  the  stores  and  forwarding  the  same  to  Georgetown. 

Thus  in  sight  almost  of  the  final  and  victorious  end  of  a  struggle 
in  which  Governor  Lee  was  the  great  war  horse  of  the  Revolution, 
the  closing  acts  of  administration  were  recorded.  Having  served 
his  allotted  time,  WilHam  Paca,  at  the  next  Assembly,  was  called  to 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      235 

the  Governor's  chair.  The  House  and  Senate,  upon  Governor  Lee's 
retirement,  thus  addressed  him:         '   ^" 

"Your  close  attention  to  the  pubUc  welfare,  and  your  firm, 
unshaken  conduct  in  times  of  greatest  danger,  are  proofs  that  the 
confidence  of  your  country  has  not  been  misplaced.  Accept  this 
public  testimony  of  our  appreciation  and  our  sincerest  thanks  for  the 
zeal,  activity  and  firmness  with  which  you  have  so  faithfully 
discharged  the  duties  of  your  station." 

Governor  Lee,  in  response  said:  "I  feel  myself  happy  in  having 
executed  the  powers  intrusted  to  me  to  the  satisfaction  of  my 
country." 

During  the  closing  days  of  his  term,  Governor  Lee  entertained 
with  special  ceremony,  the  French  officers  visiting  Annapolis,  and 
for  this  the  Assembly  again  addressed,  in  complimentary  terms. 
Governor  Lee's  munificent  entertainments  were  a  heavy  drain  upon 
his  income,  and  at  his  wife's  suggestion,  he  declined  another  election. 

"Lady  Lee"  was  the  name  of  his  vessel  launched  at  Annapolis. 

Thomas  Sim  Lee  was  a  delegate  to  the  Continental  Congress  in 
1783-4,  and  a  member  of  the  Convention  which  ratified  the  Constitu- 
tion. In  1792  he  was  again  called  to  the  Governor's  chair  to  fill  the 
unexpired  term  of  Governor  George  Plater,  who  retired  from  ill- 
health.  This  embraced  the  exciting  whiskey  insurrection  in  1794, 
during  which  he  organized  the  militia  and  sent  Maryland's  quota  to 
the  scene.  He  spent  his  declining  years  at  "  Needwood,"  Frederick 
County,  afterward  the  home  of  Mr.  John  Lee,  his  oldest  son,  and 
grandfather  of  Ex-Governor  John  Lee  Carroll.  It  is  still  the  home- 
stead of  the  Lee  family,  represented  by  Mr.  Thomas  Sim  Lee,  who 
married  a  daughter  of  Mr.  Columbus  O'Donnell. 

In  1812  Hon.  Outerbridge  Horsey,  United  States  Senator  from 
Delaware,  married  Eliza,  daughter  of  Thomas  Sim  Lee;  Mrs. 
Governeour  was  also  a  granddaughter. 

Governor  Lee  died  at  "Needwood,"  November  9,  1819,  in  the 
seventy-fifth  year,  in  the  same  year  and  nearly  the  same  month  as  that 
of  his  predecessor.  Governor  Johnson. 

^  GOVERNOR  WILLIAM  PACA. 

William  Paca,  signer  of  Declaration  and  third  Governor  of 
Maryland,  was  born  October  31,  1740,  at  "Wye  Hall,"  Harford 
County,  Maryland.  He  was  the  second  son  of  John  Paca;  Bachelor 
of  Arts  from  a  college  in  Philadelphia  in  1758  he  was  admitted  to 
Middle  Temple,  London,  after  which  he  studied  law  with  Stephen 
Bordley.  He  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1764.  Early  in  life  he  was 
sent  to  the  Legislature,  was  a  delegate  to  the  Continental  Congress 
in  1774-1778,  was  appointed  upon  the  Committee  of  Correspondence 
in  1774,  was  in  the  Council  of  Safety  in  1775.  On  August  2,  1776, 
he  affixed  his  signature  to  the  Declaration  of  Independence;  on 
August  17,  1776  was  elected  on  the  Committee  "  to  prepare  a  decla- 
ration and  charter  of  rights  and  a  form  of  government  for  Maryland." 
Upon  the  organization  of  the  State  he  was  elected  to  its  first  Senate. 


236      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

In  March,  1778,  he  was  appointed  Chief  Judge  of  the  General 
Court  of  Maryland  and  held  it  until  1781;  subsequently  he  was  Chief 
Judge  of  the  Court  of  Appeals  and  Admiralty.  In  November,  1782, 
he  was  elected  the  third  Governor  of  Maryland  to  succeed  Thomas 
Sim  Lee. 

During  Governor  Paca's  early  administration  General  Greene 
received  from  the  General  Assembly  a  flattering  address  upon  his 
masterly  retreats  which  had  proven  to  be  victories,  to  be  crowned, 
still  later,  by  the  modest  message  from  the  Commander-in  Chief,  sent 
by  a  Marylander,  annoimcing  the  end  of  the  struggle.     It  read : 

"  I  have  the  honor  to  inform  Congress  that  a  reduction  of  the 
British  army  under  Lord  Cornwallis,  is  most  happily  effected." 

This  message  was  placed  in  the  hands  of  Colonel  Tilghman,  who 
immediately  started  out  for  Philadelphia.  At  midnight  the  clatter 
of  his  horse's  hoofs  was  the  only  sound  that  woke  the  silence  as  he 
rode  rapidly  to  the  house  of  the  President  of  Congress  with  the 
announcement  "Cornwallis  is  taken."  It  was  caught  up  by  the 
watchmen,  who  cried,  "  One  o'clock,  and  Cornwallis  is  taken."  The 
inhabitants,  pouring  into  the  streets,  sent  shout  after  shout  into  the 
air.  The  old  bellman  was  aroused  from  his  slumbers,  and  again  the 
same  old  bell  proclaimed  "  Liberty  throughout  the  land  to  all  the 
inhabitants  thereof." 

On  April  12,  1783,  Robert  R.  Livingston  wrote  to  Governor  Paca 
asking  his  support  to  the  stipulations  of  the  treaty  of  peace. 

On  22nd  of  April  Governor  Paca  issued  his  proclamation 
declaring  a  cessation  of  arms  by  sea  and  land,  enjoining  obedience  to 
the  treaty.  On  25th  of  November  he  addressed  the  sheriffs  to  read 
the  treaty  in  public  places.  At  Annapolis,  when  the  sheriff  had 
assembled  the  people  and  had  read  the  treaty,  thirteen  cannon  were 
fired  and  a  public  dinner  was  given,  at  which  Governor  Paca  presided. 
Thirteen  patriotic  toasts  were  offered,  each  attended  by  the  discharge 
of  thirteen  cannon.  At  night  the  State  House  was  illuminated  and 
a  ball  given  to  the  ladies. 

On  May  6,  1783,  Governor  Paca  placed  before  the  General 
Assembly  the  preliminary  Articles  of  Peace,  congratulating  the 
Assembly  on  the  return  of  peace  and  paying  a  high  tribute  to  the 
army. 

The  old  Maryland  Line,  five  hundred  strong,  now  returned  in 
rags.     Brigadier-General  Gist  was  in  command. 

General  Greene  wrote  to  Governor  Paca  repeating  the  high 
compliment  to  The  Maryland  Line.  General  Greene's  diary  recorded, 
"  Left  26th,  dined  with  the  Governor,  who  is  a  very  polite  character 
and  a  great  friend  of  the  army.  We  drank  several  toasts  which  were 
accompanied  by  the  discharge  of  thirteen  cannon."  He  also 
addressed  a  letter  to  Governor  Paca  thanking  him  for  the  support 
of  the  Maryland  troops. 

In  May,  1783,  Congress  left  Princeton  and  in  December  assem- 
bled at  Annapolis  by  the  invitation  of  the  Governor  and  General 
Assembly,  the  Governor  giving  up  his  house  to  the  President  of 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      237 

Congress.  His  house  stood  on  the  northeast  side  of  Prince  George 
near  East  Street,  and  was  afterward  held  by  Chancellor  Bland.  Its 
garden,  springhouse,  expanse  of  trees,  octagonal  two-story  summer- 
house,  representing  "My  Lady's  Bower,"  with  artificial  brook,  revealed 
the  happy  life  of  that  era. 

On  the  19th  of  December,  General  Washington  arrived  at 
Annapolis.  A  public  reception  and  a  welcome  by  Governor  Paca 
followed.  On  23rd  December,  1783,  General  Washington  laid  down 
his  commission  in  the  old  Senate  Chamber  before  Governor  Paca  and 
his  Council,  the  Assembly  and  general  public,  and  on  the  14th  of 
January,  1784,  Governor  Paca  proclaimed  to  the  people  the  treaty 
of  Peace  as  ratified  by  Congress. 

Then  was  organized  the  order  of  the  "  Cincinnati,"  with  Governor 
Paca  as  a  delegate. 

Ex-Governor  Eden  having  now  returned  and  having  made  effort 
to  issue  patents  to  parties  who  had  taken  out  lands  before  his  forced 
exile,  Governor  Paca  asked  for  an  explanation  and  matters  were 
satisfactorily  explained. 

In  1781,  Governor  Paca,  at  the  request  of  the  Assembly, 
employed  Mr.  Francis  Deakins  to  survey  lots  of  fifty  acres  for  the 
Maryland  soldiers,  west  of  Fort  Cumberland. 

Governor  Paca  was  the  special  friend  of  Washington  College  and 
secured  its  charter  rights. 

At  the  expiration  of  his  term  he  was  succeeded  by  Governor 
William  Smallwood,  the  war  governor. 

In  1774  Governor  Paca  was  elected  Vice-President  of  the  Society 
of  the  "Cincinnati"  and  a  member  of  the  Maryland  Convention  that 
ratified  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States. 

In  December,  1789,  he  was  appointed,  by  Washington,  Judge  of 
the  United  States  Court  of  the  District  of  Maryland  and  served  until 
his  death  in  1799.  His  wife  was  Mary  Chew,  daughter  of  Samuel 
and  Henrietta  Maria  (Lloyd)  Chew. 

One  of  Governor  Paca's  daughters  married  Consul  Roubelle,  who, 
with  Napoleon,  ruled  France.  Their  son  bore  such  a  striking  likeness 
to  the  accepted  ideals  of  our  Saviour  he  was  often  called  on  by  artists 
to  sit  for  such  studies. 

Governor  faca's  son,  John,  built  the  magnificent  Paca  home- 
stead. He  married  Juliana  Tilghman,  now  represented  in  the  Razin 
family  of  Kent  County. 

A  striking  portrait  of  Governor  Paca  hangs  in  the  State  House 
at  Annapolis.  He  died  at  his  birth-place,  a  pure  and  zealous  patriot 
with  a  character  that  was  spotless. 

His  widow  became  Mrs.  Daniel  Dulany,  whose  son  Lloyd  was    v  ^,. 
slain  in  a  duel  with  Rev.  Bennett  Allen,  in  a  London  park.  _^  '' 

GOVERNOR  WILLIAM  SMALLWOOD. 

Governor  William  Smallwood,  fourth  Governor  of  Maryland,  was 
born  in  Kent  County,  Maryland,  1732.  He  was  the  son  of  Bayne 
Smallwood,  a  merchant  and  large  planter,  who  was  presiding  officer 


238      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

in  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas  and  a  member  of  the  House  of 
Burgesses.  His  mother  was  Priscilla  Heaberd,  of  Virginia,  a  lady 
of  family  and  fortune. 

At  an  early  age  he  was  sent  to  England  to  be  educated.  He 
completed  his  education  at  Eton. 

On  April  24,  1775,  Colonel  Smallwood,  with  a  command  of  1,444 
men,  left  Annapolis  for  Boston.  Smallwood's  command  was 
incorporated  with  Lord  Stirling's  brigade  and  was  in  the  Battle  of 
Long  Island. 

The  following  tribute  to  our  Marylanders  who  were  with  Stirling 
at  Long  Island,  is  taken  from  the  Century  Magazine: 

"  Sullivan's  division  was  in  wild  rout  and  Stirling's  left  had  been 
doubled  back  upon  his  centre,  when  he  resolved  upon  a  ghastly 
sacrifice  to  save  the  flying,  floundering  columns.  Changing  front 
and  calling  forward  the  remnant  of  the  Maryland  regiment — less  than 
four  hundred  lads,  tenderly  nurtured,  who  now,  for  the  first  time, 
knew  the  rapture  of  battle — he  hurled  them  against  the  iron  wall 
that  Cornwallis  had  drawn  about  the  Cortelyou  house.  Loud  and 
clear  rang  the  shout  of  Mordecai  Gist,  "  Close  up!  Close  up!"  They 
drove  the  British  advance  back  upon  the  Cortelyou  house  till 
Cornwallis  flung  grape  and  cannister  into  their  very  faces.  Every 
page  of  sober  history  has  its  tribute  of  proud  love  for  those  heroic 
lads,  whose  fate  wrung  from  Washington  his  undying  exclamation  of 
anguish — "Great  God!  what  brave  boys  I  must  this  day  lose!" 

Thus  our  Maryland  boys  covered  themselves  with  glory  by 
repeated  charges  upon  an  overwhelming  force.  They  practically 
destroyed  themselves  to  save  the  Continental  Army.  They  made 
five  bayonet  charges  against  Cornwallis'  brigade.  Upon  the  sixth 
charge  the  brigade  recoiled  and  gave  way  in  confusion.  The 
Marylanders  were  outnumbered  two  to  one. 

Assaulted  by  Hessians,  and  a  British  brigade  in  the  rear,  Lord 
Stirling,  with  a  portion,  surrendered,  but  three  companies  cut  their 
way  through  the  British  ranks,  swam  the  creek  and  in  that  charge 
the  400  lost  256  officers  and  men.  They  were  engaged  from  sunrise 
August  27,  1776,  till  the  last  gun  was  fired  and  maintained  the  battle 
unaided  against  the  brigades  of  the  enemy.  Four  days  later  they 
were  at  Fort  Putnam,  within  two  hundred  and  fifty  yards  of  the 
enemy's  line. 

Colonel  Smallwood's  regiment,  in  the  following  month,  at 
Washington's  request  after  others  had  deserted  him,  covered 
Washington's  withdrawal  into  lines  below  Fort  Washington.  They 
attacked  the  enemy,  drove  them  from  their  position  and  were  in  full 
pursuit  when  recalled. 

Smallwood  was  engaged  at  White  Plains.  He  met  the 
Hessians  under  Rawle,  under  the  fire  of  fifteen  British  cannon; 
Smallwood  was  wounded,  and  with  a  loss  of  100  men,  fell  back  in 
good  order. 

The  Maryland  Line  was  at  Trenton  and  Princeton.  Washington's 
record  of  them  was,  "  Smallwood's  troops  had  been  reduced  to  a  mere 


L-' 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      239 

handful  of  men,  but  they  took  part  in  the  engagement  with  their 
usual  gallantry  and  won  great  renown." 

The  next  campaign  Maryland  added  4,000  more  to  the  army — 
one-tenth  of  the  whole  army — and  the  Line  was  in  October  increased 
by  2,000  more. 

In  August,  1777,  they  were  at  Staten  Island,  with  the  first  brigade 
under  Smallwood.  They  took  141  British  prisoners.  The  Line  was 
at  Brandywine,  on  the  right  wing.  At  Germantown  they  advanced 
with  such  resolution  that  British  Light  Infantry  were  driven  from 
the  field  and  their  encampment  taken.  They  there  received  the 
highest  encomiums,  and  the  gallant  defence  of  Fort  Mifflin  closed  the 
year. 

That  winter  Smallwood's  men,  of  1,400  in  number,  were  stationed 
at!Wilmington  and  there  captured  a  British  vessel. 

In  1778,  2,902  more  men  were  added  to  the  army,  whilst  Count 
Pulaski  raised  an  independent  corps  in  Maryland. 

Smallwood  was  at  Monmouth.  The  British  were  driven  back 
with  a  loss  of  300  men  killed  outright.  When  Sir  Henry  Clinton  left 
the  field  for  New  York,  in  1779,  Smallwood,  with  The  Maryland  Line, 
met  the  British  at  Scotch  Plains  and  again  drove  them  back. 

In  1780  the  Line  marched  south;  Smallwood  returned  to  Mary- 
land and  in  ten  days  secured  700  non-commissioned  officers  and 
privates.     He  was  retained  in  the  army  as  second  in  command. 

For  his  action  at  Camden  he  received  the  thanks  of  Congress 
and  a  promotion  to  Major-General.  On  account  of  a  conflict  of 
authority  and  a  personal  dislike  for  Baron  Steuben,  General 
Smallwood  remained    in  Maryland. 

In  1785,  he  was  elected  to  Congress  and  in  November  of  that 
year,  was  made  Governor  to  succeed  William  Paca.  During  Gov- 
ernor Smallwood's  administration,  King  William's  School  at  Annapolis 
was  consolidated  with  St.  John's  College  with  £32,100  by  private 
subscription  and  an  annual  endowment  of  £1,750  sterling  current 
money. 

The  first  movement  for  the  improvement  of  the  Potomac  River 
was  begun  by  General  Washington,  in  1784,  which  ended  in  an 
enactment,  in  1785,  the  first  internal  improvement  which  after 
repeated  trials,  ended  in  1820,  in  the  formation  of  the  Canal. 

The  first  steamboat  upon  the  Potomac,  the  conception  of 
James  Burney,  was  run  from  Shepardstown  to  Harpers  Ferry, 
during  Governor  Smallwood's  term,  in  1786.  During  his  term 
were  adopted  the  methods  of  paying  the  National  debt  created  by 
the  war. 

The  first  navigation  of  the  Chesapeake  and  Potomac  led  up  to 
the  discussions  which  became  the  germs  which  brought  forth  a  new 
Constitution,  upon  the  failures  of  the  Federal  compact;  and  in  1786, 
at  Annapolis,  a  Convention  of  five  States  made  the  move  for  a  Con- 
vention to  revise  the  Federal  Constitution.  Maryland  had  declined 
to  be  represented  unless  all  the  States  agreed  to  send  delegates. 
The  result  of  the  Annapolis  Convention  was  the  united  action  of 


240      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Maryland  and  Virginia  in  urging  the  Philadelphia  Convention, 
which  gave  us  our  new  Constitution. 

Governor  Smallwood  was  succeeded  in  1788,  by  Governor  John 
Eager  Howard,  his  associate  in  revolutionary  fame.  Retiring  to  his 
home,  now  in  Charles  County,  he  lived  only  four  years,  dying  in  1792, 
February  14th,  at  "Mattawoman,"  a  celebrated  colonial  homestead, 
built  of  English  brick  and  is  still  standing  lamenting  the  seeming 
indifference  of  a  busy  age  to  the  fate  of  dead  heroes. 

McSherry  has  said,  "But  the  memory  of  Smallwood  seems 
nearly  forgotten,  and  on  his  paternal  estate  now  in  the  hands  of 
strangers,  he  sleeps  in  a  lonely  grave,  by  the  waters  of  the  Potomac, 
almost  in  sight  of  the  tomb  of  his  great  leader  at  Mt.  Vernon,  near 
him  in  death  as  he  adhered  to  him  in  life.  Faithful,  modest,  brave, 
and  patient  in  life,  he  sleeps  in  death  unhonored,  without  a  tomb- 
stone on  the  spot,  or  an  enclosure  to  protect  his  last  resting  place 
from  desecration." 

The  Sons  of  the  Revolution,  since  the  above  was  written,  have 
erected  a  fitting  memorial  to  the  memory  of  the  Maryland  hero,  in 
the  form  of  a  granite  tablet  recording  his  deeds  of  valor.  It  stands 
within  a  few  yards  of  his  old  homestead,  overlooking  a  vast  stretch 
of  country.     Governor  Smallwood  never  married. 

His  only  sister  married  Colonel  William  Grayson,  of  Virginia, 
There  were  several  sons  and  one  daughter  Mrs.  Carter,  of  Kentucky, 
whose  sons  were  William  Grayson  and  Alfred  G.  Carter.  Alfred 
Grayson  married  Miss  Breckinridge,  of  Kentucky,  aunt  of  Vice- 
President  John  C.  Breckinridge  and  left  a  son.  Colonel  John  Breckin- 
ridge Grayson,  head  of  the  Commissary  in  the  Mexican  War. 

In  1827,  it  was  found  that  Colonel  William  Grayson,  eldest  son 
of  William  Grayson  was  entitled  by  entail  to  the  whole  estate  of 
General  Smallwood,  no  transfer  having  taken  place;  Colonel 
Grayson  was  at  the  head  of  the  column,  when  Washington  upbraided 
General  Charles  Lee  and  he  heard  and  related  these  words  of  Lee  to 
Washington.  "  Sir,  these  troops  are  not  able  to  meet  British  Grena- 
diers"— and  Washington's  reply,  "Sir,  they  are  able  and  they  shall 
do  it" — immediately  giving  the  order  to  counter-march  the  column. 

^  GOVERNOR   JOHN  EAGER  HOWARD. 

Governor  John  Eager  Howard,  soldier  and  fifth  Governor  of 
Maryland,  was  born  in  Baltimore  County,  June  4,  1752.  He  was  the 
son  of  Cornelius  and  Ruth  (Eager)  Howard,  daughter  of  John  and 
Jemina  (Murray)  Eager. .  His  grandfather  was  Joshua  Howard,  of 
Manchester,  England,  who  was  an  officer  in  the  army  of  the  Duke 
of  York  during  the  Monmouth  Rebellion.  Coming  to  Maryland 
about  1685,  he  married  Joanna  O'Carroll,  of  Ireland,  and  took  up  a 
tract  of  land  near  Pikesville,  Baltimore  County. 

At  the  time  of  the  Revolution  the  Howard  family  were  large 
land-holders  and  wealthy.  John  Eager  Howard  was  educated  by 
private  tutors.    Coming  to  manhood  at  the  beginning  of  the  Revolu- 


Founders  of  Anne  Aeundel  and  Howard  Counties,      241 

tion,  he  was  offered  a  commission  as  Colonel,  but  thinking  he  was 
too  inexperienced,  declined  it,  accepting  a  Captaincy  upon  the 
condition  of  being  able  to  raise  thirty  men.  He  enlisted  that  number 
in  two  days  and  marched  at  once  to  the  front.  His  company  was 
made  a  part  of  the  "Flying  Camp"  and  was  with  General  Hugh 
Mercer  at  White  Plains,  October  28,  1776.  Commissioned  Major  in 
the  fourth  Maryland  Regiment,  he  was  at  Germantown  and 
Monmouth. 

In  1780,  Georgia  and  South  Carolina  being  in  the  hands  of  the 
British,  Maryland's  First  Brigade  vmder  Major  General  de  Kalb, 
marched  south  with  an  additional  regiment  raised  in  the  State. 

At  Camden,  Gist's  Maryland  Brigade  stood  firm  as  a  rock  and 
William's  Regiment,  with  Howard  at  its  head,  broke  upon  the  enemy 
and  severed  his  front,  driving  the  opposing  corps  before  them. 

In  1781,  400  of  the  Maryland  Line,  under  Lieutenant  Colonel 
Howard  fought  with  General  Morgan  at  the  Cowpens.  The  British 
were  under  Tarlton.  The  latter  assailed  the  Marylanders,  but  they 
never  faltered.  Tarlton  ordered  his  reserves:  this  endangered 
Howard's  right.  Morgan  ordered  Howard  to  change  front  and  take 
a  new  position.  Howard  had  not  gained  that  position,  when  Tarlton 
mistaking  it  for  a  retreat,  rushed  forward.  Suddenly  facing  about, 
Howard  poured  into  the  enemy  a  deadly  fire.  Their  ranks  recoiled. 
Howard  ordered  his  men  to  give  them  the  bayonet.  It  was  a 
terrible,  but  decisive  charge;  the  day  was  won.  The  whole  British 
Infantry  were  either  captured  or  killed.  Tarlton  narrowly  escaped, 
after  a  personal  encounter  with  Colonel  Washington.  Morgan  rode 
up  to  Howard  and  said — "  Colonel  you  have  done  well,  for  you  are 
successful — had  you  failed  I  would  have  shot  you."  Colonel  Howard 
replied,  "Had  I  failed,  there  would  have  been  no  need  of  shooting 
me."  At  that  moment  he  held  in  his  hands  the  swords  of  seven 
British  officers.  For  this  gallant  charge.  Congress  presented  Colonel 
Howard  with  a  gold  medal. 

In  September,  1781,  Howard's  regiment  was  at  Eutaw  Springs. 
He  was  received  by  the  Buffs  and  Irish  Corps  of  Raudon's  army. 
Here  the  fiercest  struggle  of  the  war  took  place.  Neither  would 
yield,  but  crossing  bayonets  their  ranks  mingled  together.  Opposing 
files  sank  down,  each  pierced  with  the  bayonet  of  his  antagonist. 
They  were  found  grappled  in  death  and  transfixed  together  on  the 
field.  The  officers  fought  hand  to  hand.  The  British  fine  had  given 
way  and  the  Buffs,  unable  to  maintain  the  conflict,  broke  and  fled. 
General  Greene  rode  up  and  comphmented  the  Marylanders  in  the 
midst  of  the  action.  Three  hundred  British  prisoners  were  taken  in 
the  pursuit.  Howard's  men  were  reduced  to  thirty  and  he  was  the 
only  commissioned  officer  left.  Green  said  that  success  was  due  to 
the  free  use  of  the  bayonets  of  the  Maryland  troops  in  their  charge 
in  the  face  of  a  murderous  fire  of  artillery  and  musketry.  Each 
corps  engaged  received  the  thanks  of  Congress.  Marylanders  were 
engaged  from  this  time  on  to  the  surrender. 


242      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

The  State  had  furnished  15,229  men  in  addition  to  those  enhsted 
in  the  independent  companies.  The  State  companies,  the  marines 
and  naval  forces  amoimting  to  5,407  miUtia,  brought  the  total  up  to 
20,636. 

McSherry  records — "Entering  the  war  two  strong  battalions, 
they  were  soon  reduced  to  a  single  company.  Again  swelled  to  seven 
regiments,  they  were  thinned  to  one  and  before  the  campaign  had 
well  passed,  they  were  once  more  promptly  recruited  to  four  full 
battalions  of  more  than  2,000  men.  Two  of  their  officers,  Williams 
and  Howard  were  considered  the  best  of  their  grade.  Entitled  to  a 
Major-General  and  two  brigadiers  they  submitted  to  be  led  by 
strangers. 

Amos  Cummings,  himself  a  New  Yorker,  said : — "  The  old  guard 
occupied  no  higher  station  in  the  French  Army  than  that  held  by 
the  Maryland  Line  in  the  Continental  Army.  As  Napoleon  and  Ney 
relied  upon  the  old  guard,  so  did  Washington  and  Greene  rely  upon 
the  Maryland  Line,  when  the  independence  of  American  colonies 
was  at  stake." 

Colonel  Howard  upon  his  final  charge,  at  Eutaw  Springs,  was 
wounded;  he  was  brought  home  to  the  house  of  his  attending  phy- 
sician. Dr.  Thomas  Cradock,  of  Pikesville.  Colonel  Howard  was  then 
seeking  the  hand  of  Miss  Peggy  Chew,  then  much  admired  by  several 
English  officers.  Fearing  delay  might  endanger  his  cause.  Dr. 
Cradock  carried  on  the  correspondence  and  was  successful. 

At  a  ball  given  in  Baltimore  in  honor  of  General  Washington, 
who  led  Nellie  Gittings  in  the  minuet.  Dr.  Cradock  walked  next  with 
Betty  Moale.  She  later  became  the  Doctor's  neighbor  and  named 
his  home  "  The  Pill  Box. "  (Annals  of  St.  Thomas  Church).  General 
Washington  attended  the  wedding  of  Colonel  Howard  to  Peggy  Chew. 

Colonel  Howard,  in  1787,  was  a  member  of  the  Continental 
Congress,  when  war  was  imminent  with  France.  President  Washington 
tendered  him  the  offices  of  Major  General  and  Secretary  of  State, 
both  of  which  he  declined  with  friendly  courtesy.  In  1789  he  was 
elected  Governor. 

The  Assembly  of  Maryland  having  voted  to  cede  to  Congress  a 
district  ten  miles  square  for  the  seat  of  Government,  the  Legislature 
of  1789,  voted  $72,000  to  assist  Virginia's  offer  of  $120,000  to  build 
the  Capital  and  authorized  the  sale  of  her  public  lands  to  meet  the 
outlay. 

kr'f^  In  1790,  the  Assembly  passed  an  Act  for  the  better  administra- 
tion of  Justice.  Charles  Carroll,  of  "CarroUton"  and  John  Henry, 
our  United  States  Senators,  wrote  to  Governor  Howard  asking  him 
to  appoint  men  of  high  character,  who  might  be  better  able  to 
present  the  State,  claim  in  the  ablest  manner  before  Congress. 
With  Charles  Carroll,  of  "CarroUton,"  Governor  Howard  drafted 
the  Militia  law  of  the  State. 

In  1790,  President  Washington  arrived  in  Annapolis  and  with 
the  Governor,  attended  a  meeting  of  the  trustees  of  St.  John's 
College.    He  was  entertained  by  the  Governor  and  honored  by  a  ball. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      243 

At  the  expiration  of  his  eligibihty,  Governor  Howard  was 
succeeded  by  George  Plater.  In  1795,  Governor  Howard  was  elected 
by  the  Maryland  Senate  and  in  1796,  was  sent  to  the  United  States 
Senate,  vice  Mr.  Potts  and  was  re-elected  for  the  full  term,  which 
extended  to  1803.  Retiring  to  his  beautiful  home  at  "  Belvedere," 
wherein  both  General  Washington  and  General  LaFayette  had  been 
entertained,  Colonel  Howard  spent  his  remaining  days  in  quiet 
comfort. 

"Belvedere"  stood  at  the  head  of  Calvert  Street.  Its  history 
covers  an  interesting  epoch  of  colonial  days.  Colonel  Howard  gave 
to  the  city  of  Baltimore  the  site  upon  which  Washington's  Monu- 
ment stands,  yet  it  is  only  at  this  late  day,  our  patriotic  citizens  have 
at  last  determined  to  honor  him  with  a  like  memorial. 

During  the  war  of  1812,  Governor  Howard  raised  a  company  of 
veterans  for  home  defense;  when  the  news  reached  him  that  the 
Capitol  had  been  burned  and  capitulation  was  being  considered, 
he  said : — "  I  have  as  much  property  at  stake  as  most  persons  and 
I  have  four  sons  in  the  field,  but  sooner  would  I  see  my  sons 
weltering  in  their  blood  and  my  home  reduced  to  ashes,  than  so  far 
disgrace  my  colmtr3^"  He  lived  to  see  the  dawn  of  Peace  and  the 
"era  of  good  feeling."  His  second  son,  George  Howard,  was  later 
made  Governor,  during  the  era  of  good  feeling.  Having  taken  cold, 
the  old  hero  soon  followed  his  fascinating  wife,  dying  in  1827.  His 
funeral  was  attended  by  President  Adams  and  his  Cabinet. 

Governor  Howard's  sons  were  General  Benjamin  Chew  Howard, 
prominent  in  the  late  history  of  Maryland  and  in  1860,  a  candidate 
upon  the  Peace  Party  platform  for  Governor.  He  married  Jane 
Grant  Gilmor;  John  E.  Howard,  the  eldest  son,  married  Annabella 
'Read;  George  Howard,  his  second  son,  and  Governor,  married 
Prudence  Gough  Ridgely;  William  Howard  married  Rebecca  Key; 
James  married  Sophia  Gough  Ridgely,  and  second,  Catharine  Mur- 
dock  Ross;  Charles  married  Elizabeth  Key.  The  daughters  were 
Mrs.  John  McHenry  and  Mrs.  William  George  Reed. 

GOVERNOR]  GEORGE  PLATER. 

Governor  George  Plater,  sixth  Governor  of  Maryland,  was  born 
at  "Sotterly,"  near  Leonardtown,  St.  Mary's  County,  November  8, 
1735. 

His  home  is  well  described  in  Thomas'  Colonial  Maryland — as  a 
handsome  model  of  antique  architecture,  built  in  the  form  of  the 
letter  "  Z,"  one  story  and  a  half,  with  steep  gambrall  roof,  surmounted 
by  a  cupola  and  penetrated  by  triangular  capped  dormer  windows, 
a  frame  building  with  brick  foundations,  brick  gables,  brick  porches 
and  flagstone  colonade.  Handsomely  paneled  wood  from  ceiling  to 
floor  finished  the  parlor,  hall,  library  and  dining-rooms.  Shell 
carvings  forming  the  ceilings  of  the  parlor  alcoves  were  imique  and 
handsome.  Walnut  window  frames,  doors  of  mahogany,  swung  on 
solid_^brass  strap  hinges,  offer  an  exhibit  of  colonial  interior  decora. 


244      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

tions  unexcelled  in  Maryland.  Its  stairway  was  of  mahogany,  with 
grooved  rail  and  balustrade  and  newel  post  of  filigree  work.  This 
magnificent  homestead  was  built  for  Hon,  George  Plater,  father  of 
the  Governor,  about  1730.  He  was  Naval  Officer  and  Collector  of 
the  Patuxent  District  and  his  little  square  office  with  cone-shaped 
roof  still  stands  in  the  yard  by  the  side  of  his  wine  cellar  and  smoking- 
room.  This  celebrated  homestead,  taking  its  name  from  the  Plater 
homestead  named  in  Sucklings  Annals,  of  Suffolk,  England,  was 
originally  a  part  of  "Fenwick  Manor."  It  contained  2,000  acres 
and  was  purchased  by  Hon.  James  Bowles,  who  married  Rebecca, 
daughter  of  Colonel  Thomas  Addison  and  Elizabeth  Tasker,  daughter 
of  the  Treasiurer,  Thomas  Tasker. 

In  1729,  the  Maryland  Gazette  annoimced  the  marriage  of  the 
widow  Bowles  to  Colonel  George  Plater.  The  Sotterly  homestead 
was  built  after  that  marriage.  The  issue  of  Colonel  Plater  and  Mrs. 
Bowles  were  Governor  George  Plater,  Ann,  Elizabeth  and  Rebecca, 
who  became  Mrs.  Colonel  John  Tayloe,  of  Mt.  Airy,  Virginia.  She 
handed  down  a  coterie  of  distinguished  wives,  including  Mrs.  Francis 
Lightfoot  Lee,  wife  of  "  the  signer;"  Mrs.  Colonel  William  Augustine 
Washington  and  Mrs.  Colonel  Edward  Lloyd,  of  Maryland,  mother 
of  Governor  Lloyd.  She  was  also  the  mother  of  John  Tayloe,  who 
married  a  daughter  of  Governor  Benjamin  Ogle. 

Colonel  Plater's  second  wife  was  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Carpenter. 
Colonel  Plater's  coach  and  four  and  his  sailing  boats  have  elsewhere 
been  noted.  He  indulged  also  in  the  popular  races,  of  1750,  as  shown 
by  an  annoimcement  in  the  Maryland  Gazette  of  that  date,  "Sep- 
tember 20,  1750,  a  race  was  run  on  the  race  course  between  Governor 
Ogle's  bay  gelding  and  Colonel  Plater's  grey  stallion,  which  was  won 
by  the  former." 

Five  years  later,  that  same  paper  annoimced:"  Saturday  last, 
died  at  his  seat  in  St.  Mary's  County,  aged  upwards  of  sixty,  the  Hon. 
George  Plater,  Esq.,  who  was  for  many  years  one  of  his  Lordship's 
Council  of  State,  Naval  Officer  of  the  Patuxent  and  lately  appointed 
Secretary  of  the  Province;  a  gentleman  eminent  for  every  social 
virtue  which  could  render  him  truly  valuable;  he  was  as  Horace  says, 
"ad  unquem  factus  homo."  As  his  life  was  a  pleasure,  so  was  his 
death  a  grief  to  every  one  who  knew  him. 

George  Plater,  his  only  son,  and  heir  of  "  Sotterly,"  was  educated 
at  William  and  Mary's  College.  In  1760,  he  visited  England,  where 
he  was  introduced  by  letters  from  Governor  Horatio  Sharpe.  He 
made  an  agreeable  impression  on  Lord  Baltimore,  who  desired  the 
Governor  to  associate  him  in  the  affairs  of  the  Province.  After 
studying  law,  George  Plater  took  active  interest  in  the  discussions 
preceding  the  Revolution.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Convention 
which  requested  Governor  Eden  to  retire.  In  1776,  he  was  one  of 
the  Council  of  Safety;  was  in  the  Convention  of  1776  and  upon  the 
Committee  to  prepare  a  Declaration  and  Charter  of  Rights  and  a  form 
of  Government  for  Maryland.  From  1778  to  1781,  he  was  in  Congress 
and  in  1788  was  President  of  the  Maryland  Convention  that  ratified 


i 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      245 

the  Constitution  of  the  United  States.  In  1791,  he  was  elected 
Governor  to  succeed  Governor  Howard. 

The  location  and  aid  to  the  National  Capital  were  the  chief  events 
in  his  administration.  Virginia  had  voted  a  loan  of  $120,000  to  be 
devoted  to  the  necessary  buildings  upon  the  territory,  which  had 
been  ceded  by  the  two  States  and  the  Legislature  of  Maryland 
voted  to  contribute  S72,000,  payable  in  three  yearly  installments. 

To  meet  these  payments  the  public  lands  of  Maryland  were 
authorized  to  be  sold. 

The  Indian  campaign  of  1791  in  which  General  St.  Clair  and 
Colonel  Henry  Lee,  of  Virginia,  were  in  command,  was  a  disastrous 
defeat  and  Maryland  was  compelled  to  raise  additional  recruits,  under 
Colonel  Otho  H.  Williams,  in  1792. 

Governor  Plater's  wife  was  Ann  Rousby,  the  only  child  of 
Colonel  John  Rousby,  of  "Rousby  Hall,"  in  Calvert,  another  once 
famous  and  popular  resort. 

Mrs.  Plater  possessed  rare  beauty  and  stately  elegance.  Her 
rich  patrimony,  added  to  her  husband's  large  estate,  enabled  them 
to  entertain  in  a  manner  suitable  to  their  distinguished  position. 
They  left  two  daughters,  Ann  and  Rebecca,  accomplished  and 
beautiful,  and  three  sons,  George,  John  Rousby  and  Thomas  Plater. 
Ann  Plater — Philip  Barton  Key,  the  jurist  and  statesman;  Rebecca 
— General  Uriah  Forrest,  of  the  Maryland  Line;  George  Plater 
inherited  "Sotterly"  and  handed  it  do"^Ti  to  his  son,  George,  who 
lost  it;  Judge  John  Rousby  Plater,  second  son,  through  his  son,  John, 
was  the  progenitor  of  Charlotte  Plater,  widow  of  General  E.  Law 
Rogers,  once  heir  to  Druid  Hill  Park.  Mrs.  Rogers  has  a  handsome 
portrait  of  the  Governor;  Thomas  Plater,  third  son,  inherited 
"Rousby  Hall,"  and  sold  it;  his  daughter,  Ann  Plater,  another  noted 
beauty,  became  the  wife  of  Major  George  Peter,  of  Montgomery 
County,  in  command  at  the  Battle  of  Bladensburg.  Their  descend- 
ants in  line  are  the  heirs  of  the  late  Hon.  George  Peter,  of  Rockville, 
and  Senator  William  B.  Peter,  of  Howard. 

These  three  sons  of  Governor  Plater  were  also  prominent  in 
affairs.  George  was  a  Colonel  in  the  Marjdand  Line.  Thomas  was 
a  member  of  Congress  from  1801  to  1805,  and  Judge  John  Rousby 
Plater  was  Presidential  Elector  in  1797,  and  also  a  member  of  the 
Maryland  Legislature,  acting  as  Associate  Judge  of  the  First  District 
at  the  time  of  his  death. 

Governor  George  Plater  died  at  Annapohs  February  10,  1792. 
His  remains,  "  attended  by  the  Council  and  State  officials,  were  taken 
the  next  day,  by  way  of  South  River,  to  "Sotterly,"  where  he  is 
buried  in  what  is  now  an  open  field  and  without  even  a  simple  slab 
to  mark  the  last  resting  place  of  a  son  of  Maryland,  whose  states- 
manship and  zeal  so  closely  are  interwoven  with  her  government  and 
whose  life,  from  dawn  of  early  manhood  to  the  grave,  was  conspicuous 
for  disinterested  devotion  and  distinguished  service  to  the  State  and 
to  the  nation.     Oh,  Spirit  of  Liberty!  where  sleeps  your  thunder?" 

(Thomas.) 


246      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

GOVERNOR  JOHN  HOSKINS  STONE. 

Governor  John  Hoskins  Stone,  eighth  Governor  of  Maryland 
(1794-97),  was  born  in  Charles  County,  Maryland,  in  1745.  He  was 
the  son  of  David  Stone,  who  married  Elizabeth  Jenifer,  daughter  of 
Dr.  Daniel  Jenifer.  He  was  descended  from  Governor  William  Stone 
and  was  the  younger  brother  of  Thomas  Stone,  signer  of  the 
Declaration  of  Independence.  He  was  educated  at  private  schools 
and  studied  law. 

In  November,  1774,  he  was  one  of  the  committee  from  Charles 
County,  Maryland,  to  carry  out  the  resolutions  of  Congress,  and  was 
one  of  the  Committee  of  Correspondence  for  the  County.  He  was 
one  of  the  Association  of  Freemen  of  Maryland  in  1775. 

On  January  14,  1776,  was  elected  Captain  of  the  first  company 
of  Colonel  William  Smallwood's  First  Maryland  Regiment,  and  in 
December  following  was  appointed  Colonel.  He  fought  with 
distinction  at  Long  Island,  White  Plains,  Princeton  and  Germantown, 
where  he  was  wounded  and  was  compelled  to  retire,  resigning  in  1779. 
He  was  in  the  Executive  Council  of  Maryland  and  member  of  the 
"Cincinnati  Society."  His  commission  is  still  in  possession  of  the 
heirs  of  his  grandson,  Nathaniel  Pope  Causin. 

Governor  Stone  held  the  chair  from  1794  to  1797.  He  was  the 
first  Governor  to  send  a  written  message  to  the  Assembly,  and 
suggested  as  a  modification  of  the  mode  of  electing  the  President  a 
division  of  the  State  into  ten  districts.  His  brother,  Michael 
Jenifer  Stone,  was  in  Congress  1789-91  and  Judge  of  the  Circuit  Court 
of  Charles  County. 

Governor  Stone,  in  1795,  wrote  to  President  Washington  a  letter 
which  was  accompanied  by  the  resolves  of  the  Maryland  Assembly 
in  denunciation  of  the  calumnies  that  had  been  heaped  upon  the 
President. 

The  President  replied  in  an  appreciative  letter. 

Governor  Stone  asked  a  modification  of  the  mode  of  electing  the 
President  and  Vice-President. 

President  Washington  applied  to  Governor  Stone  for  an  additional 
appropriation  of  $150,000  from  the  Maryland  Assembly  to  complete 
the  national  Capitol.  Maryland  had  alreadv  given  $72,000  and 
Virginia  $120,000.  The  Assembly  loaned  $10,000  in  1797,  and  in 
1799,  $50,000  more.  In  1800  the  building  was  reported  ready  for 
use. 

Governor  Stone  married  Miss  Conden,  a  Scotch  lady.  His 
daughter,  Eliza  Stone,  married  Dr.  Nathaniel  Pope  Causin,  of  Port 
Tobacco,  Maryland.  His  son,  Nathaniel  Pope  Causin,  married  Eliza 
Mactier  Warfield,  daughter  of  Daniel  and  Nancy  Mactier  Warfield, 
of  Baltimore.  They  were  the  grandparents  of  Messrs.  S.  Davies 
Warfield,  Colonel  Henry  Mactier  Warfield  and  Dr.  Mactier  Warfield, 
of  Baltimore,  and  of  Richard  Emory  Warfield,  of  Philadelphia. 

Governor  Stone  died  at  his  residence  in  Annapolis,  October  5, 
1804. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      247 

^  GOVERNOR  JOHN   HENRY. 

Governor  John  Henry,  first  Senator  and  ninth  Governor  of 
Maryland,  was  born  at  "Weston,"  Somerset  County,  Maryland, 
November,  1750.  His  paternal  grandfather  was  Rev.  John  Henry, 
a  Presbyterian  minister,  who  came  from  Ireland  in  1700  and  settled 
first  near  Rehoboth,  upon  Pocomoke  River,  Somerset  County, 
Maryland;  he  married  Mary  Jenkins,  widow  of  Colonel  Francis 
Jenkins,  who  brought  to  him  the  immense  estate  of  her  late  husband. 
She  was  the  daughter  of  Sir  Robert  King,  an  Irish  baronet,  and  was 
known  as  "Madam  Hampton,"  having  married  for  the  third  time, 
Rev.  John  Hampton,  another  Presbyterian  minister.  Her  two  sons 
by  Rev.  John  Henry  became  eminent.  They  were  Francis  Jenkins 
and  Colonel  John  Henry,  who  married  Dorothy  Rider,  daughter  of 
Colonel  John  Rider,  son  of  John  Rider,  of  England,  who  had  married 
the  only  child  of  Colonel  Charles  Hutchins,  an  early  settler  of  Somerset 
and  lived  at  "Weston,"  afterward  the  home  of  John  Henry.  Mr. 
Hutchins'  daughter,  whilst  at  school  in  England,  married,  and  died 
on  her  return  home.  Their  son.  Colonel  John  Rider,  was  born  in 
England  and  married  Anne  Hicks.  Their  daughter,  Dorothy, 
became  the  mother  of  Governor  John  Henry,  who  was  prepared  for 
College  at  West  Nottingham  Academy,  Cecil;  went  to  Princeton  and 
graduated  in  1769;  studied  law  in  the  Temple,  England;  was  a  member 
of  the  "Robin  Hood  Club,"  and  in  their  discussions,  defended  the 
colonists.  He  left  England  in  1775,  a  thoroughly  educated,  popular 
and  attractive  young  man;  was  elected  to  the  Legislature.  In  1777 
was  sent  to  the  Continental  Congress,  remaining  until  the  adoption 
of  the  Constitution.  He  opposed  Jay's  treaty  with  Spain,  wherein 
our  right  to  navigate  the  Mississippi  was  to  be  surrendered  for  the 
small  benefit  to  the  Eastern  States.  In  1783  he  received  two  votes 
for  President.  In  1787  he  was  upon  the  committee  to  prepare  an 
ordinance  for  the  Northwest  Territory.  With  Charles  Carroll,  of 
"Carrollton,"  he  was  elected  one  of  the  first  United  States  Senators. 
He  voted  to  locate  the  Capitol  on  the  Potomac.  Resigning  the 
senatorship,  he  was  elected  Governor  of  Maryland,  which  office  he 
soon  resigned,  from  ill-health. 

In  1780,  the  English  having  plundered  the  town  of  Vienna  and 
burnt  a  new  brig,  called  at  Colonel  John  Henry's  and  destroyed  his 
house  and  furniture.  The  Colonel,  being  alone,  except  his  servants, 
retired  to  a  neighbor's  whither  he  removed  his  plate  and  valuable 
papers.     They  took  away  a  slave. 

Governor  Henry  married  in  1787,  Margaret,  daughter  of  John 
and  Elizabeth  Goldsborough  Campbell,  of  Caroline  County.  One  of 
Mrs.  Campbell's  sisters  was  the  grandmother  of  Governor  Philip 
Francis  Thomas. 

Governor  Henry  died  in  1798,  leaving  two  sons,  John  Campbell 
Henry  and  Francis  Jenkins  Henry.  The  former  married  Mary  Nevett 
Steele,  sister  of  J.  Nevett  Steele,  the  Baltimore  attorney. 


248      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and.  Howard  Counties. 

The  character  of  Governor  Henry  has  been  thus  depicted  by  the 
memoirs  of  Mrs.  Winder  Townsend : 

"  His  manners  were  easy,  engaging,  and  in  person  was  graceful 
and  elegant." 

He  directed  the  education  of  his  nephew,  Wilham  Henry  Winder 
afterward  commander  of  the  American  forces  at  Bladensburg  in  1814. 
There  is  no  portrait  of  him  because  of  the  fire  which  destroyed  the 
homestead  of  "Weston"  in  which  were  many  of  his  papers.  Mrs. 
Townsend,  however,  holds  the  original  letter  of  Thomas  Jefferson  to 
Governor  Henry  upon  the  authenticity  of  Logan's  speech. 

Governor  Henry's  granddaughter  "Kitty,"  daughter  of  John 
Campbell  Henry,  married  Daniel  Lloyd,  youngest  son  of  Governor 
and  Senator  Edward  Lloyd,  and  became  the  mother  of  Governor 
Henry  Lloyd,  who  succeeded  Governor  Robert  McLane. 

Governor  Henry's  Address  to  The  Legislature. 

"We  are  taught  to  rely  upon  the  militia  for  our  general  defense; 
it  is  especially  important  now  to  place  them  upon  the  most  respectable 
footing.  All  men  are  now  satisfied  of  the  propriety  of  putting  the 
country  in  a  complete  state  of  defense;  and  in  case  of  war  it  would 
be  unbecoming  the  wisdom  of  the  Legislature  to  trust  the  peace  and 
safety  of  the  country  to  this  present  weak  and  defective  system, 
menaced  as  we  are  by  a  brave,  intelligent  and  enterprising  nation, 
this  subject  is  all  important." 

Colonel  John  Rider  was  the  maternal  grandfather  of  Governor 
John  Henry  and  was  the  only  son  of  John  Rider  (of  Edward  and 
Dorothy  the  only  daughter  of  Colonel  Charles  Hutchins).  (See  her 
beautiful  picture  in  a  recent  publication  of  Governor  John  Henry's 
Letters  and  Papers,  by  his  great-grandson.)  Colonel  Hutchins  was 
an  early  settler  of  Dorchester;  was  of  Council  commissioned  to  treat 
with  Indians  and  was  Colonel  of  the  Mihtia. 

\/  GOVERNOR  BENJAMIN  OGLE. 

Governor  Benjamin  Ogle,  tenth  Governor  of  Maryland,  1798- 
1801,  was  born  in  Annapolis,  February  7,  1746,  in  the  house  of  his 
father,  corner  of  King  George  and  College  Avenue.  He  was  educated 
in  England. 

Benjamin  Ogle  was,  by  appointment,  a  member  of  the  Executive 
Council,  and  in  1798  was  elected  by  the  Assembly  as  Governor.  He 
was  a  personal  friend  of  President  Washington,  by  whom  he  was 
frequently  consulted. 

Upon  the  death  of  President  Washington  in  1799,  the  Governor 
issued  a  proclamation  that  the  11th  of  February,  1800,  be  observed 
throughout  the  State  "  as  a  day  of  moiuning,  humiliation  and  prayer 
for  the  deceased."  His  precedent  is  still  observed  under  the  "New 
Style,"  on  22nd  February,  yearly. 

Governor  Ogle's  administration  was  in  the  midst  of  violent 
political    excitement     between     the     Federalists,    represented     by 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      249 

President  John  Adams,  and  the  Repubhcans,  led  by  Thomas 
Jefferson.  In  Maryland  the  people  were  about  equally  divided. 
The  election  having  failed  in  the  Electoral  College,  it  was  after 
seven  days  of  intense  contest  in  the  House  of  Representatives, 
decided  in  favor  of  Thomas  Jefferson. 

The  home  of  Governor  Benjamin  Ogle  was  "  Belair,"  Prince 
George  Coimty.  In  1760  it  was  the  homestead  of  Colonel  Benjamin 
Tasker,  and  from  there  Governor  Sharpe  wrote  to  his  brother  William, 
in  England,  asking  him  to  entertain  Charles  Carroll,  Mr.  Key  and 
Mr.  George  Plater,  members  of  the  Lower  House  who  were  friendly 
to  his  administration.  "  Belair  "  descended,  through  Colonel  Tasker's 
daughter,  to  Governor  Ogle.  It  was  laid  out  as  an  English  manor. 
The  large,  square  manor  house  was  approached  by  an  avenue  120 
feet  wide.  A  descendant  daughter  thus  pictures  it  from  her  girlish 
memory:  "'Belair'  was  an  ideal  old  Colonial  home,  built  of  English 
brick.  For  me  it  holds  many  interesting  memories  of  my  childhood, 
when  life  seemed  one  long  summer  day.  I  wandered  over  the 
spacious  rooms,  whose  walls  were  covered  with  paintings  from  old 
masters.  Its  conservatory,  opening  into  the  dining  room,  was  filled 
with  all  kinds  of  plants  and  flowers.  Around  the  family  table 
gathered  many  friends  to  enjoy  a  wholesome  hospitality.  The 
entrance  to  the  mansion  was  an  avenue  fully  a  mile  long,  lined  with 
tulips  and  poplar  trees.  At  the  rear  was  a  long  sweep  of  velvety 
green,  terraced  and  broken  here  and  there  by  lovely  beds  of  roses  and 
plants.  Beyond  was  the  park,  with  its  huge  forest  trees,  in  which 
deer  wandered  and  from  which  they  sometimes  escaped,  affording 
sport  for  the  young  huntsmen.  During  the  exciting  days  of  our  Civil 
War  many  met  there  who  never  returned.  The  pictures  that  adorned 
'Belair'  are  now  in  possession  of  Harry  Tayloe,  of  Mount  Airy, 
Virginia,  great-great-grandson  of  Governor  Benjamin  Ogle." 

Some  of  the  living  descendants  of  this  old  homestead,  wherein 
Charles  Carroll,  of  "CarroUton"  and  General  Washington  were 
honored  guests,  and  around  which  cluster  the  associations  of  many 
more  of  distinguished  men,  are  Benjamin  Ogle,  of  Baltimore;  Mrs. 
John  Hodges,  now  ninety  years  old,  Washington,  D.  C;  and  Miss 
Rosalie  Ogle,  of  Baltimore. 

One  of  the  daughters  of  "Belle  Air"  became  Mrs.  William 
Woodville,  whose  nephew,  WilHam  Woodville  Rockhill,  was  Mr. 
Cleveland's  Assistant  Secretary  of  State.  Of  the  younger  line  of 
descendants  are  Mr.  Marbury  Ogle  and  his  sister.  Miss  Rosalie  Ogle, 
of  Baltimore. 

"Belair,"  to-day,  is  the  property  of  Mr.  James  T.  Woodward, 
President  of  the  Hanover  Bank,  New  York.  He  has  restored  the  old 
homestead  to  its  former  grandeur. 

The  Ogle  family  postilion  it  still  remembered  by  the  older 
neighbors. 

Governor  Benjamin  Ogle  married,  first,  Rebecca  Stilly,  whose 
daughter,  Elizabeth,  married  Michael  Thomas,  son  of  Christian 
Thomas,   of   Frederick  County.     David  Ogle  Thomas,  of  Michael, 


250      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

came  into  possession  of  "Rose  Hill,"  the  former  homestead  of 
Governor  Thomas  Johnson.  His  daughter,  Mrs.  Cecihus  Warfield, 
of  Baltimore,  still  holds  it.  Governor  Ogle  married,  second, 
Henrietta  Margaret  Hill,  daughter  of  Henry  and  Mary  (Thomas) 
Hill,  daughter  of  Phihp  Thomas,  of  West  River,  by  Ann  Chew. 
His  son,  Benjamin  Ogle,  married  Miss  Ann  Maria  Cooke.  They  had 
twelve  children.  A  daughter  of  ^Governor  Ogle  married  John 
Hodges,  whose  son  perpetuates  the  name.  Dr.  Benjamin  Cooke 
Ogle,  youngest  son  of  Benjamin  and  Ann  Maria  Cooke  Ogle,  was  the 
last  of  the  name  to  hold  the  homestead. 

GOVERNOR   JOHN  FRANCIS  MERCER. 

John  Francis  Mercer,  soldier  and  eleventh  Governor  of  Maryland, 
1801-3,  descended  from  Noel  and  Ann  (Smith)  Mercer,  of  Chester, 
England.  Their  son  Robert  married  Eleanor  Reynolds  and  their 
son  John  married  Grace  Fenton.  John,  of  Dublin,  Ireland,  son  of 
John  and  Grace  Fenton  Mercer,  went  to  Virginia  in  1720,  becoming 
Secretary  of  the  Ohio  Company.  He  was  a  noted  Crown  lawyer  and 
published  "  Mercer's  Abridgement  of  the  Laws  of  Virginia."  John 
Francis  Mercer,  his  son  by  a  second  marriage  with  Ann  Roy  was 
born  at  "Marlboro,"  Stafford  County,  Virginia,  May  17,  1759,  and 
was  graduated  from  William  and  Mary  College,  Virginia,  in  1775. 
In  1776  he  entered  the  Third  Virginia  regiment  as  Heutenant,  and 
was  made  captain  June  27,  1777.  He  served  as  aide  to  General 
Charles  Lee  until  the  battle  of  Monmouth,  New  Jersey,  and  his 
sympathy  with  that  officer  in  his  disgrace  led  him  to  resign.  But 
returning  to  his  own  State,  he  raised  and  equipped,  at  his  own 
expense,  a  troop  of  horse,  of  which  he  was  commissioned  Lieutenant- 
Colonel.  He  joined  General  Robert  Lawson's  brigade  and  served 
with  it  at  Guilford,  North  Carolina,  and  elsewhere  until  its  disband- 
ment.  He  then  attached  his  command  to  the  forces  of  General 
LaFayette,  with  whom  he  remained  until  the  surrender  of  Yorktown. 
He  afterwards  studied  law  with  Thomas  Jefferson.  From  1782  to 
1785  he  was  one  of  the  Virginia  delegates  to  the  Continental  Congress. 
He  married  February  3,  1785,  Sophia,  daughter  of  Richard  Sprigg, 
of  "Cedar  Park,"  West  River,  Maryland,  whose  wife  was  Margaret 
Caile,  daughter  of  John  and  Rebecca  (Ennalls)  Caile,  of  England. 

Removing  to  his  wife's  estate  at  "Cedar  Park,"  he  became  an 
active  and  prominent  partisan.  He  was  sent  as  a  delegate  from 
Maryland  to  the  Convention  which  framed  the  Constitution  of  the 
United  States,  and  was  with  Luther  Martin  in  opposition  to  the 
several  provisions  which  obliterated  State  rights.  He  finally 
withdrew  from  the  Convention  because  he  was  not  willing  to  endorse 
the  Constitution  as  drafted.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Maryland 
Legislature  for  several  years  and  a  member  of  Congress  from 
Maryland  (in  1792-4)  in  which  the  permanent  location  of  the 
Capitol  was  excitedly  discussed  and  was  with  the  Southern  members 
in  trying  to  locate  it  upon  the  Potomac.  In  1801  he  was  elected 
Governor  of  Maryland,  and  was  re-elected  in  1802. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      251 

As  a  friend  and  student  of  Thomas  Jefferson  he  was  influential 
in  bringing  out  legislative  action  favorable  to  his  Democratic 
administration.  Mr.  Joseph  Hopper  Nicholson,  one  of  the  Democratic 
Representatives  in  Congress  from  Maryland  during  the  exciting  seven 
days  in  deciding  Mr.  Jefferson's  election,  was  ill  and  his  physicians 
prohibited  his  attendance,  saying  it  would  cause  his  death.  His 
wife  agreed  with  her  husband  that  his  duty  was  to  be  at  his  post, 
and  accompanying  Mr.  Nicholson,  remained  with  him  and  assisted 
him  in  casting  his  vote  for  Jefferson. 

In  1801  the  controversy  over  the  property  qualification  of  voters 
in  Maryland  was  the  chief  one,  and  the  Democrats,  being  in  favor  of 
abolishing  it,  were  victorious.  Early  in  the  session  of  1801  an 
amendment  allowing  all  free  white  citizens  of  the  State  to  vote  was 
passed,  and  in  1802  the  confirmatory  act  was  passed.  Up  to  this 
time  voters  in  Maryland  must  possess  a  freehold  of  fifty  acres  of  land. 

Governor  Mercer  was  succeeded  by  Governor  Robert  Bowie  in 
1803.  Retiring  to  his  estate,  "Cedar  Park,"  he  was  again  called  to 
the  Legislature. 

His  son,  Colonel  John  Mercer,  married  Mary  Swann,  and  his  son, 
Richard  Sprigg  Mercer,  married  Miss  E.  Coxe,  both  connections  of 
Governor  Thomas  Swann  and  Lieutenant-Governor  C.  C.  Cox, 
elected  under  the  Constitution  of  1864.  The  latter  would  have 
succeeded  Governor  Swann,  who  was  elected  to  the  United  States 
Senate,  had  he  accepted.  He  was  the  only  Lieutenant-Governor  of 
Maryland 

Some  of  the  children  of  Richard  Sprigg  Mercer  were  Miss  Margaret 
Mercer,  who  presided  at  Governor  Swann's  house  during  his  term 
in  Congress,  Mrs.  George  Peter,  now  Mrs.  Edwin  J.  Farber,  and 
Colonel  Richard  Mercer,  of  New  York. 

Governor  Mercer's  daughter,  Margaret,  was  the  author  of 
"Studies  for  Bible  Classes,"  "Ethics,"  and  a  "Series  of  Lectures  for 
Young  Ladies."  She  became  noted  for  her  sacrifice  in  freeing  her 
slaves  and  sending  them  to  Liberia.  She  was  known  as  the  "  Hannah 
More  of  America." 

Governor  Mercer  died  August  30,  1821,  at  Philadelphia,  Pa., 
whither  he  had  gone  to  consult  a  physician  as  to  his  health. 

GOVERNOR  ROBERT  BOWIE. 

Governor  Robert  Bowie,  the  War  Governor,  of  1812,  was  the 
third  son  of  Captain  William  Bowie,  and  Margaret  Sprigg.  He  was 
born  at  Mattaponi,  1750.  At  twenty-five  years  of  age  he  was  upon 
the  Committee  of  Correspondence  for  his  county  and  commissioned 
Captain  of  a  company  of  "Minute  Men."  His  father  was  a  member 
of  the  Convention,  which  met  in  Annapolis,  in  June,  1775  and  issued 
the  "  Declaration  of  the  Association  of  Freemen."  This  antedated  by 
one  year  the  Declaration  of  Independence. 

When  scarcely  twenty  years  of  age,  young  Robert  Bowie  married 
Priscilla,  daughter  of  General  James  Mackall,  of  Calvert,  who  held 
thirty  thousand  acres  near  the  Cliffs.    Captain  Bowie  commanded  the 


252      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties, 

Second  Battalion  of  the  Flying  Artillery,  maintaining  his  men  at  his 
own  expense.  Ordered  to  join  General  Washington  in  New  York, 
his  battaUon  was  too  late  for  the  battle  of  Long  Island,  but  covered 
itself  with  honor  at  Harlem  Heights  and  White  Plains,  where  Captain 
Bowie  was  wounded  in  the  knee.  Acting  as  his  own  surgeon,  he  cut 
the  limb  and  removed  a  sphntered  bone.  With  Colonel  Luke  Mar- 
bury,  he  was  at  the  battle  of  Germantown.  There  he  was  wounded 
in  the  shoulder. 

In  1786,  he  was  elected  to  the  House  of  Delegates.  His  colleagues 
were  his  brother,  Major  Walter,  and  his  cousin.  Captain  Fielder 
Bowie.  They  continued  to  sit  until  1790.  They  opposed  the  bill 
for  maintaining  ministers  of  gospel  at  the  State's  expense. 

In  1794,  Robert  Bowie  was  promoted  to  Major.  In  1796,  he 
was  an  elector  of  Senators.  Again  a  member  of  the  House  of  Dele- 
gates in  1801-2-3,  he  was  elected  in  1803,  as  the  first  Democratic 
Governor  of  the  State. 

He  was  re-elected  in  1804-5.  In  1809,  he  was  Presidential 
elector  for  Madison.  In  1811,  he  was  elected  Governor  for  the  fourth 
time.  The  war  was  at  hand  and  Governor  Bowie  was  in  favor  of 
aggressive  measures.  When  Congress  formally  declared  war  "the 
Governor  was  so  rejoiced  he  did  not  wait  for  his  hat,  but,  with  a  few 
friends,  proceeded  to  the  State  House,  where  he  congratulated  the 
leaders  upon  the  news."  He  at  once  issued  a  Proclamation,  directing 
the  militia  to  be  organized,  disciplined  and  equipped:  Calling  upon 
the  Field  Officers  and  Captains  to  assemble  in  Baltimore,  he  selected 
a  "uniform  dress"  and  trumpet  soundings  for  the  cavalry. 

Maryland's  quota  was  six  thousand  men. 

Governor  Bowie,  after  the  murderous  attack  upon  the  press  and 
person  of  Alexander  Contee  Hanson,  was  called  to  investigate  the 
riot.  His  report  exonerating  the  military  officers  in  charge  and 
counseling  moderation  in  the  interest  of  the  public  did  not  serve  to 
allay  party  indignation,  and  the  Governor  at  the  ensuing  election 
was  defeated  by  Levin  Winder,  the  Federalist. 

He  received  the  entire  Democratic  Vote  and  at  each  succeeding 
election  still  held  his  party's  confidence,  only  falling  short  two  votes 
in  1814. 

In  1815,  he  opposed  Charles  Carnan  Ridgely,  of  Hampton,  who 
only  received  two  votes  over  him.  The  same  fight  occurred  again  in 
1816. 

In  1817,  the  old  War  Governor  was  a  candidate  for  the  United 
States  Senate.    A  bitter  contest  ensued. 

The  defeat  at  Bladensburg  was  charged  to  him  because  of  his 
appointment  of  incompetent  officers.  Others  charged  him  as  "too 
good  a  hater."  Yet  the  old  chief  held  his  admirers  and  would  have 
won  other  honors  had  not  death  intervened,  in  1818. 

Then  partisan  rancor  was  stilled  and  all  united  in  paying  tribute 
to  the  patriotism,  bravery  and  integrity  of  the  deceased.  There  was 
a  softer  side  in  this  old  hero's  life.  As  the  guardian  of  many  estates, 
his  liberality  and  kindness  endeared  him  to  many. 


Pounders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      253 

He  was  long  in  the  vestry  of  St.  Paul's  Church.  A  born  leader 
of  men,  he  was  to  his  friends  as  true  as  steel.  A  handsome  portrait 
of  him  is  still  extant.  His  remains  were  interred  in  the  family  grave- 
yard as  Mattaponi,  where  lie  his  parents,  and  his  wife,  who  survived 
him  four  years.  Pive  of  his  children  arrived  at  maturity,  two  sons 
and  three  daughters.  Governor  Bowie  was  a  breeder  of  blooded 
stock  and  was  fond  of  the  race  track,  upon  which  many  of  his  horses 
appeared. 

GOVERNOR  ROBERT  WRIGHT. 

Three  times  elected  Governor,  Robert  Wright,  thirteenth  Gov- 
ernor of  Maryland,  (1806-09),  was  born  at  "Blakeford,"  in  Queen 
Anne  County,  Maryland,  November  20,  1752.  He  was  the  son  of 
Judge  Solomon  and  Mary  (Tidmarsh  DeCourcy)  Wright,  who 
was  the  son  of  Justice  Solomon  and  Anna  Wright,  who  was  the  son 
of  Nathaniel  Wright,  the  immigrant  from  England,  in  1673,  who 
settled  in  Queen  Anne  County. 

Judge  Solomon  Wright  was  a  member  of  the  Maryland  Conven- 
tion of  1771-1776;  member  of  the  Assembly,  1771-3-4;  mem.ber  of 
the  "Association  of  Freemen"  and  signer  of  the  " Declaration  of 
Freemen;"  Chairman  of  the  Committee  of  Correspondence  for  Queen 
Anne,  in  1774-75-76;  was  appointed  Judge  of  the  Provincial 
Court,  but  resigned;  was  special  Judge  for  the  Eastern  Shore  dur- 
ing the  Revolution.  Upon  the  State's  organization  was  appointed 
Judge  of  the  first  Court  of  Appeals  and  served  until  his  death. 

Robert  Wright  was  educated  at  the  Public  Schools,  studied  law, 
was  admitted  to  the  Bar  and  began  the  practice  in  Chestertown, 
but  subsequently  in  Queenstown,  Maryland.  He  served  as  a  private 
in  Captain  James  Kent's  Company  of  Queen  Anne  "Minute  Men," 
against  Lord  Drummond's  Tories  of  the  Eastern  Shore  of  Virginia, 
February,  1776.  He  was  Captain  of  a  Company  in  the  Maryland 
Line;  was  at  Pauoli  and  Brandy  wine;  was  in  Colonel  Richardson's 
Battalion.  His  commission  was  dated  on  ''July  7,  1777,"  and  was  em- 
bodied under  the  late  resolution  of  Congress. 

In  1801,  he  was  elected  United  States  Senator.  This  he  resigned 
in  1806,  when  elected  Governor  of  Maryland. 

During  his  term  much  excitement  was  caused  by  the  Embargo 
Act  and  the  Enforcement  Act,  which  followed  it.  He  presided  at  a 
meeting  in  Annapolis  called  to  endorse  his  administration.  It  passed 
resolutions  asking  President  Jefferson  to  recall  his  determination  to 
decline  another  nomination. 

In  1807,  Governor  Wright  appointed  Major  Samuel  Turburt 
Wright,  Adjutant-General  of  the  State  Militia.  He  was  authorized  to 
furnish  5,863  men  as  Maryland's  quota  of  100,000  ordered  to  take 
the  field  at  a  moment's  notice.  The  Embargo  Act  reduced  Maryland 
exports  from  14,000,000  in  1807  to  2,000,000,  yet,  for  patriotic  rea- 
sons, the  Governor  and  Legislature  still  endorsed  the  administra- 
tion, but  the  election  of  1809,  brought  a  Federalist  majority  in 
the  House  of  Delegates,  which  elected  Edward  Lloyd  his  successor. 


254      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

In  1810-12-14  Governor  Wright  was  sent  to  Congress.  He 
was  returned  in  1820  and  was  elected  District  Judge  of  the  circuit 
comprising  Queen  Anne,  Kent  and  Talbot  Counties,  in  1823.  He 
died  at  "  Blakeford,"  near  Queenstown,  on  Sept.  7,  1826. 

His  wife  was  Sarah  De  Courcy.  Their  sons  were  Robert  Theo- 
dore DeCourcy  Wright,  who  was  a  member  of  the  Governor's 
Council  and  married,  first,  Deborah  Thomas  and,  second,  Mar- 
garet Fedderman. 

All  of  Governor  Wright's  sons,  except  the  youngest,  fought  in 
the  War  of  1812. 

William  Henry  DeCourcy  Wright,  youngest  son,  was  born  at 
"  Blakeford,"  Sept.  9,  1795.  The  old  building,  a  large  square  one, 
was  burned  during  Governor  Wright's  first  term.'  Mrs.  William  H. 
DeCourcy  Wright  was  Eliza  Lea  Warner,  of  Delaware,  widow  of 
Samuel  Turbutt  Wright,  Jr.  They  had  issue,  Clintonia,  Gustavia, 
William  H.  DeCourcy,  Gustavus,  W.  T.,  Carolina  Louisa,  Victoria 
Louisa  and  Ella  Lee. 

Clintonia — first.  Captain  William  May;  second.  Governor 
Philip  Francis  Thomas.  Victoria  Louisa — Samuel  Levering.  Ella 
Lee — Captain  J.  Pembrooke  Thorn,  of  Virginia.  Captain  H. 
DeCourcy  Wright  was  the  founder  of  the  coffee  trade  of  Rio, 
which  city  became  his  residence  for  a  number  of  years.  He  was 
under  General  Bolivar,  in  the  States  of  Columbia,  in  the  War  of 
Independence. 

Governor  Wright  was  a  breeder  of  race  horses  and  fine  cattle. 
The  DeCourcy  family,  from  whom  his  wife  descended,  was  of  the 
ancient  Barony  of  Kingsall,  in  the  days  of  King  John. 

The  first  home  of  the  DeCourcy  family  was  "  My  Lord's  Gift," 
near  Queenstown.  It  is  one  of  the  quaintest  old  homesteads  in 
Maryland.  It  was  a  direct  gift  to  Colonel  Henry  DeCourcy  from 
Lord  Baltimore,  in  recognition  of  the  Colonel's  loyalty  during  the 
Puritan  ascendency  in  Maryland.  "Cheston  on  the  Wye"  is  another 
old  DeCourcy  homestead.  Here  were  buried  Governor  Wright,  his 
wife,  Sarah  DeCourcy,  his  daughter  Louisa  and  his  son,  Gustavus 
William  Tidmarsh.  Governor  Wright's  second  wife  was  Miss  Ring- 
gold, of  Kent  County. 

The  late  Benjamin  Nicholson  Wright,  of  Annapolis,  long  chief 
clerk  in  the  Comptroller's  office  and  Warden  of  St.  Anne's  Church, 
descended  from  Thomas,  son  of  Thomas,  son  of  Colonel  Thomas 
Wright,  the  immigrant.  This  branch  was  known  as  the  Wrights  of 
"Reeds  Creek,"  from  whom  came  Samuel  Turbutt  Wright,  Captain 
in  General  Smallwood's  brigade.  Captain  Wright's  company  was, 
during  the  Revolution,  stationed  upon  Kent  Island  to  command 
the  entrance  to  Chester  River.  A  striking  portrait  of  Governor 
Wright  hangs  in  the  State  House  at  Annapolis. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      255 

GOVERNOR  EDWARD  LLOYD. 

Edward  Lloyd,  of  "  Wye  House,"  was  the  son  of  Edward  Lloyd 
IV.,  the  Revolutionary  Legislator,  who  failed  in  the  election  when 
Thomas  Sim  Lee  was  made  Governor.  "  With  Maryland  and  North 
American  interests  at  stake,  ingrained  through  full  five  generations, 
prior  to  1776,  and  in  deed  from  the  earliest  immigration,  Edward 
Lloyd,  of  "Wye  House,"  had  an  honest  claim  upon  the  confidence 
of  his  constituents.  His  business  tact  in  caring  for  the  industrial 
interests  of  the  Province,  promoted  by  regular  immigration  in  certain 
English  shires,  gave  importance  to  his  election  in  1774-76,  along 
with  Matthew  Tilghman,  James  Lloyd  Chamberlaine  and  Pollard 
Edmondson,  families  of  ample  means.  He  rode  at  times  in  a  coach 
and  four.  He  had  a  tract  of  land  for  a  deer  park  and  he  let  his  friends 
and  guests  rejoice  in  horses  and  hounds.  After  the  burning  of  Wye 
House  by  a  predatory  band  of  a  military  expedition,  he  rebuilt  it  with 
a  town  house  in  Annapolis,  that  stands  still  sufficiently  high  to 
overtop  the  neighboring  ones.  It  gave  him  an  outlook  towards  the 
eastern  bay  of  the  Chesapeake  and  the  mouth  of  Wye  River.  When 
Governor  Lee,  in  1792,  was  in  the  chair,  John  Edmondson,  son  of 
Pollard,  with  Judge  Joseph  H.  Nicholson,  the  Democratic  leader, 
moved  to  have  the  property  qualifications  removed.  Colonel  Edward 
Lloyd,  the  largest  land-holder  of  the  State,  gave  his  support  and  thus 
gained  political  eclat.  His  assessment  in  1783,  after  his  heavy  loss, 
in  1781,  in  plate,  jewelry,  negroes,  clothing  and  £800  in  cash,  by 
English  depredations,  covered  261  slaves,  799  head  of  sheep,  147 
horses,  571  head  of  cattle,  579  head  of  hogs,  215,000  pounds  of 
tobacco,  500  ounces  of  plate,  30  pounds  of  pork,  72  tracts  of  land, 
covering  11,884^  acres. 

Though  he  failed  to  be  Governor,  his  son,  Edward  Lloyd, 
succeeded  in  1809,  just  a  century  after  his  distinguished  ancestor  of 
1709.  Governor  Lloyd  was  fifth  in  line.  He  was  a  man  of  talent,  of 
a  large  estate  and  an  honest  politician.  He  was  in  the  Legislature, 
from  1800  to  1805;  a  member  of  Congress,  from  1806  to  1809; 
Governor  from  1809  to  181 1.  He  was  in  Congress  when  the  "  Embargo 
Act"  was  passed  and  was  Governor  when  it  was  repealed.  The  free 
ballot  act,  repealing  the  viva  voce  vote,  and  all  property  qualifica- 
tions, introduced  by  John  Hanson  Thomas,  was  confirmed  by 
Legislative  Act,  in  1809.  After  Governor  Lloyd's  term  had  ended,  in 
1811,  he  was  returned  to  the  Senate  of  Maryland,  when  he  offered  a 
series  of  resolutions,  endorsing  "the  course  of  President  Madison 
toward  England  and  condemning  the  measures  of  Great  Britain, 
as  destructive  of  our  interests  and  ought  to  be  resisted;  that  the 
independence  established  by  the  valor  of  our  fathers  will  not  tamely 
be  yielded  by  their  sons;  the  same  spirit  which  led  Maryland  regulars 
to  battle  still  exists  and  awaits  only  our  country's  call."  Governor 
Lloyd  was  presidential  elector,  in  1812,  and  voted  for  President 
Madison.  In  1819  he  was  elected  United  States  Senator,  serving 
vmtil  1826,  when  he  resigned.    Retiring  to  his  large  estate,  he  directed 


^56      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

his  agricultural  interests  and  dispensed  hospitality.  He  inherited, 
also,  the  town  house  in  Annapolis.  This  was  built  by  Samuel  Chase, 
the  signer,  in  1770.  It  is  probably  the  most  stately  house  in  the 
city,  being  three  stories  high,  the  only  colonial  one  of  that  height. 
This  is  still  known  as  the  "  Chase  House,"  though  it  was  bought  by 
Colonel  Lloyd  before  its  completion.  The  dining-room  is  handsomely 
ornamented  in  carved  wood,  and  the  marble  mantelpiece  represents 
a  scene  from  Shakespeare  in  sculpture. 

Governor  Lloyd  conveyed  this  mansion  to  his  son-in-law,  Henry 
Hall  Harwood.  In  1847,  it  was  purchased  by  Miss  Hester  Ann 
Chase,  daughter  of  Judge  Jeremiah  Townley  Chase.  As  the  property 
of  Mrs.  Hester  Ann  Chase  Ridout,  wife  of  Rev.  Samuel  Ridout,  it 
was  willed  to  the  Episcopal  Church,  as  a  home  for  the  aged  women. 

In  it  is  Governor  Sharpe's  eight  day  clock,  a  colonial  bedstead 
with  steps  to  get  into  bed,  and  a  china  set  with  the  Chase  arms. 

Governor  Lloyd's  wife  was  Sally  Scott  Murray,  daughter  of  Dr. 
James  Murray.  Their  issue  were  Edward  Lloyd  VI. — Elizabeth 
Winder;  James  Murray,  Sally  Scott  Lloyd — Charles  Lowndes,  U.  S.  N. 
Catherine — Franklin  Buchanan,  U.  S.  N.;  Daniel  Lloyd;  Mary 
Ellen — William  Tilghman  Goldsborough,  of  Dorset  and  Mrs. 
Harwood. 

Edward  VI.  was  President  of  the  Maryland  State  Senate  and 
married  Alicia  McBlair,  of  Baltimore.  Issue,  Edward  VII,  Elizabeth 
— Charles  Henry  Key;  Alicia — Charles  Sidney  Winder,  U.  S.  A. 
Sally  Scott  Lloyd — David  ChurchhiU  Trimble,  father  of  Dr.  Isaac 
Ridgeway  Trimble,  of  Baltimore. 

Edward  VII.,  also  President  of  the  Maryland  Senate,  married 
Mary  Lloyd  Howard.  He  still  holds  Wye  House,  which  has  a  library 
of  1,000  volumes.    The  crest  of  the  family  is  a  demi-lion  quadrant,  or. 

GOVERNOR  LEVIN  WINDER. 

Governor  Levin  Winder,  sixteenth  Governor  of  Maryland  (1812 
— 1815)  was  born  in  Somerset  County,  Maryland,  September  4,  1757. 
He  was  the  son  and  eighth  child  of  William  Winder,  who  married 
Esther  Gillis,  grandson  of  John  Winder  and  Jane  Dashiel  and  great- 
grandson  of  John  Winder,  who  came  from  Cumberland,  England,  to 
Princess  Anne,  Somerset  County,  Maryland,  and  was  appointed 
Justice  of  the  Peace,  in  1665,  and  Lieutenant-Colonel,  in  1697. 

Levin  Winder  was  a  brother  of  William  Winder,  who  married 
the  daughter  of  Governor  John  Henry — father  and  mother  of  General 
Wilham  Henry  Winder,  of  the  War  of  1812. 

Levin  Winder  began  the  study  of  law,  but  abandoned  it  upon 
the  outbreak  of  the  Revolution  and  entered  the  army.  He  was 
appointed  by  the  Convention  of  Maryland  on  January  14,  1776, 
First  Lieutenant  of  the  Fifth  Company,  Captain  Nathaniel  Ramsey 
commanding,  in  Colonel  William  Smallwood's  Battalion.  He  was 
afterward,  April  17,  1777,  made  Major  of  the  Fourth  Regiment  of 
the  Maryland  Line,  and,  at  the  close  of  the  war,  was  Lieutenant- 
Colonel.    At  the  conclusion  of  hostilities   he  engaged  in  agricultural 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      257 

pursuits  in  Southern  Maryland,  near  Princess  Anne.  He  was  several 
times  elected  to  the  Legislature  of  Maryland,  serving  as  Speaker  of 
the  House  of  Delegates.  He  was  Governor  of  Maryland  from  1812- 
1815.  Governor  Winder's  election  was  due  to  the  intense  disgust 
which  had  grown  out  of  the  barbarous  attempt  of  the  Baltimore  mob 
to  suppress  the  freedom  of  the  press. 

The  "Federal  Republican,"  under  the  editor,  Charles  Contee 
Hanson,  had  ably  opposed  the  War  of  1812.  The  Federal  Party  was 
a  unit  in  its  support  of  his  opposition,  and  many  of  Hanson's  friends 
had  determined  to  stand  by  him  in  his  determination  to  issue  his 
paper.  The  War  Party,  in  Baltimore,  determined  that  the  paper 
should  be  suppressed.  The  result  was  a  conflict,  in  which  the  mob 
attacked  the  building  and  some  were  killed.  Hanson's  party  sur- 
rendered to  the  authorities;  were  taken  to  the  gaol  for  protection, 
when  the  mob  there  entered  and  murdered  General  Lingan,  an 
honored  Revolutionary  soldier,  wounded  General  Henry  Lee,  who 
had  led  Lee's  Legion  to  victory  in  the  Revolution — wounded  Captain 
Richard  Crabb,  Dr.  Peregrine  Warfield,  William  and  Ephraim 
Gaither  and  many  other  Federalists,  who  had  risked  their  lives  in 
defense  of  the  press. 

Intense  and  bitter  partisan  feeling  followed  this  contest  and 
rendered  President  Madison's  administration  very  unpopular  with 
the  Federal  Party. 

Petitions  poured  in  upon  Governor  Bowie  to  break  up  these 
lawless  proceedings  and  to  investigate  the  conduct  of  the  officers 
who  had  permitted  this  outbreak.  The  Governor's  reply  calling  upon 
all,  "when  our  country  is  engaged  in  an  open  and  declared  war  with 
one  of  the  most  powerful  nations  of  Europe,  to  cultivate  a  spirit  of 
harmony,"  failed  to  allay  the  excitement,  but  resulted  in  a  Federal 
victory,  which  put  Governor  Winder  in  his  chair  for  three  successive 
terms.  As  soon  as  the  enemy  had  appeared  in  the  bay  Governor 
Winder  addressed  the  Secretary  of  War  upon  the  defenseless  condition 
of  Annapolis,  but  receiving  no  reply,  wrote  again.  The  Secretary 
replied  that  one  battalion  would  be  ordered  to  Annapolis,  but  not 
arriving,  the  Governor  called  out  the  militia  for  the  defense  of  the 
towns,  and  at  the  same  time  set  to  work  equipping  and  sending 
forward  Maryland's  quota  to  the  general  defense  of  the  frontier, 
called  out  a  portion  of  the  militia  of  the  State  to  garrison  the  forts  of 
Annapolis  and  Baltimore.  These  were  paid  by  the  State.  Whilst 
protecting  these  forts  the  army  of  invasion  was  not  neglected,  for 
within  six  weeks  after  the  declaration  of  war  Captain  Nathan 
Towson,  with  an  artillery  company,  joined  Colonel  Winfield  Scott  in 
the  North.  A  number  of  companies  tendered  their  services  to  the 
President,  but  could  not  be  accepted,  unless  the  State  would  pay  for 
their  services.  In  Baltimore  a  regiment  was  sent  forward  under 
Colonel  William  H.  Winder,  nephew  of  the  Governor,  with  ample 
funds  from  private  subscriptions. 

On  the  arrival  of  the  enemy  in  the  bay  Governor  Winder 
addressed  a  letter  to  the  Secretary  of  War,  stating  the  helpless 


258      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

condition  of  Annapolis.  One  drafted  battalion  of  militia  was  promised 
but  never  came  to  its  defence.  The  records  of  Easton  being  in  danger, 
the  Governor  urged,  but  received  no  assistance.  This  refusal,  when 
Virginia  was  protected  and  her  militia  paid  by  the  Government, 
brought  the  Federalists  to  exclaim !  "  Virginia  has  but  to  ask  and 
she  receives;  but  Maryland,  for  her  political  disobedience,  is  denied." 
The  Governor  called  an  extra  session  of  the  Legislature  and  laid 
before  it  his  whole  correspondence  with  the  Government. 

In  his  message  the  Governor  claimed  the  right  to  demand 
protection  of  the  general  Government.  The  committee  upon  the 
Governor's  message  reported  to  the  Assembly  as  follows:  "That 
the  State  of  Maryland  is  entitled  to  a  fair  distribution  of  the  National 
means  for  its  protection,  and  that  the  refusal  of  the  Executive  to 
assume  the  liquidation  of  the  claims  arising  from  the  employment  of 
the  militia  of  this  State,  in  the  same  manner  that  they  have  liqui- 
dated those  of  Virginia,  is  partial,  unjust  and  contrary  to  the  spirit 
of  oiu-  Constitution."  The  report  of  the  committee  was  adopted  and 
the  sum  of  one  hundred  thousand  dollars  was  appropriated,  to  be 
applied  by  the  Governor  to  defray  the  expenses  of  the  militia  already 
called  out. 

At  this  time  a  large  number  of  citizens  of  the  different  counties 
of  the  State,  imable  to  bear  the  burdens  of  war,  abandoned  their 
homes  and  moved  to  new  settlements  in  the  West.  At  the  next 
Gubernatorial  contest,  owing  to  a  very  close  vote  in  one  of  the 
counties,  which  gave  the  Federalists  majority,  seventeen  members 
refused  to  vote,  but  Governor  Winder  was  re-elected. 

In  his  next  message,  Governor  Winder  declared.  "If  the 
expenses  of  a  war  waged  by  the  National  authorities  are  to  be  borne 
by  the  States,  it  is  not  difficult  to  foresee  that  the  State  treasury  will 
soon  be  exhausted  and  the  annihilation  of  the  State  Government 
must  soon  follow." 

After  recommending  an  amendment  to  the  militia  law  "to 
compel  the  services  of  those  who  on  any  sudden  emergency  are 
unwilling  to  assist  in  defence  of  the  country,"  and  the  organization 
of  volunteer  corps  of  mounted  infantry,  be  submitted  to  the  Legisla- 
ture "the  propriety  of  adopting  a  system  of  general  education." 

The  last  Act  of  the  Assembly  of  1813  was  the  endorsement  of 
the  war  by  the  Senate  and  the  condemnation  of  the  administration 
by  the  House. 

General  William  Henry  Winder  who  had  in  June,  1814,  been 
placed  in  command  of  a  new  division,  embracing  Maryland  and 
Virginia,  wrote  from  Marlboro:  "The  Governor  of  Maryland  has 
issued  orders  for  calling  out  the  drafts  under  the  requisition  of  July, 
and,  at  my  suggestion,  has  appointed  Bladensburg  as  the  place  of 
rendezvous,"  and  again  he  writes:  "  The  Governor  is  exerting  himself 
to  collect  a  force  at  Annapolis."  All  this  force,  though  not  under 
the  command  of  General  Winder,  did  co-operate  and  were  on  their 
way  to  Bladensburg,  when  the  British,  having  driven  back  its 
defenders,  pushed  on  to  the  destruction  of  Washington. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      259 

The  blame  for  this  defeat  fell  upon  the  President,  his  Secretary 
of  War  and  General  Winder,  who  was  honorably  acquitted,  for  he 
had  done  his  duty,  and,  after  a  successful  career  as  a  lawyer,  died  an 
honored  and  lamented  patriot. 

In  the  gubernatorial  election  of  1814,  Governor  Winder  received 
forty-eight  votes  and  Robert  Bowie  twenty-three.  The  State  was 
now  decidedly  Federal,  yet  the  Federalists  never  refused  their  aid 
to  the  war  and  appropriated  $450,000,  with  $1,000,000  more  from  the 
city  of  Baltimore,  to  carry  out  the  defence  of  her  citizens.  Forty- 
two  thousand  six  hundred  and  thirty-six  soldiers  were  Maryland's 
quota  of  the  War  of  1812.  The  Governor  retired  to  his  farm,  near 
Princess  Anne. 

In  1816,  Governor  Winder  was  returned  to  the  Senate  of  Mary- 
land. He  was  a  prominent  Mason  and  was  grand-master,  in  1814r-15. 
At  the  time  of  his  death  in  Baltimore,  July  1,  1819,  he  was  Senior 
Major-General  of  the  State  Militia.  In  person  and  presence.  Governor 
Levin  Winder  was  very  firm.  He  was  eloquent,  moral,  gentlemanly. 
Of  him  his  opponent  said :  "  General  Winder  was  incapable  of  mis- 
statement; that  he  believed  his  spirit  could  not  possibly  bear  its 
own  reproach  of  anything  that  was  disingenuous." 

The  camp-chest  of  General  Washington  came  into  the  possession 
of  General  Winder  and  afterward  of  his  son,  William  Sydney  Winder, 
who  presented  it  with  all  necessary  documents  to  Congress,  through 
John  Quincy  Adams. 

Governor  Winder  married  Mary  Sloss.  Issue,  Edward  Stougleton 
William  Sydney  and  Mary  Anne  Stougleton.  Edward  Stougleton 
Winder  married  Elizabeth  Tayloe  Lloyd,  daughter  of  Revolutionary 
Colonel  Edward  Lloyd.  Their  daughter,  Elizabeth  Tayloe  Winder 
married  Charles  Josias  Pennington,  father  of  Josias  Pennington,  of 
Baltimore,  of  the  firm  of  Baldwin  &  Pennington.  Charles  S.  Winder, 
son  of  Edward  S.,  was  the  Confederate  General  who  was  killed  at 
Cedar  Mountains. 

(  GOVERNOR  CHARLES  CARNAN  RIDGELY, 

Governor  Charles  Carnan  Ridgely,  seventeenth  Governor  of 
Maryland  (1815-18),  was  born  in  Baltimore  County,  December  6, 
1762.  He  was  the  son  of  John  Carnan  and  Achsah  Ridgely.  In 
obedience  to  the  will  of  his  uncle.  Captain  Charles  Ridgely,  of 
"Hampton,"  he  assumed  the  Ridgely  name  and  was  placed  at  the 
head  of  the  entail  of  "Hampton."  His  wife  was  Priscilla  Dorsey, 
daughter  of  "Caleb  of  Belmont,"  sister  of  his  uncle's  wife.  She  bore 
him  the  following  heirs:  Charles — Maria  Campbell;  Rebecca — 
Judge  Charles  Wallace  Hanson;  John  Carnan  Ridgely — first.  Pru- 
dence Gough  Carroll;  second,  Eliza  Eichelberger  Ridgely  (of  Nicholas 
Greenberry  Ridgely  and  Eliza  Eichelberger.)  The  estate  descended 
to  their  son.  Captain  Charles  Ridgely,  who  married  Margaret  Sophia 
Howard  (of  James  and  Sophia  Gough  Ridgely) .     She  was  a  grand- 


260      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

daughter  of  Governor  John  Eager  Howard  and  lately  held  "  Hamp- 
ton." Her  son,  Captain  John  Ridgely — Helen  West  Stuart,  the 
author  of  "  Old  Brick  Churches." 

Charles  Carnan  Ridgely  was  a  Federalist  and  represented 
Baltimore  County  five  years  in  the  Legislature.  In  1815,  he  was 
elected  Governor  by  a  majority  of  two  votes.  In  December,  1816, 
he  sent  his  message  to  the  Assembly,  announcing  the  cession  of  Forts 
Washington  and  McHenry  to  the  Government;  urged  the  necessity 
of  collecting  the  State's  war  claim,  placing  it  in  charge  of  Representa- 
tive Robert  H.  Goldsborough.  Of  that  claim,  President  Madison 
said:  "The  claim  of  Maryland  for  her  expenses  during  the  war 
stands  upon  higher  ground  than  any  other  State  in  the  Union." 
Yet,  only  a  portion  was  ever  collected.  The  expenses  of  that  war 
exhausted  the  State's  surplus  and  became  the  nucleus  of  a  debt, 
which  caused  many  serious  considerations.  During  Governor 
Ridgely's  term,  seven  counties  and  two  cities,  with  a  majority  of 
9,000  votes,  sent  only  thirty-two  members  to  the  Legislature,  while 
twelve  counties  in  the  minority,  sent  forty-eight  members.  This 
fact  was  the  beginning  of  a  long  and  exciting  conflict  which  finally 
ended  in  the  reform  measures  succeeding. 

In  1817,  "the  good  feeling  era"  of  President  Monroe  was  inau- 
gurated. 

/       GOVERNOR  CHARLES  GOLDSBOROUGH. 

Governor  Charles  Goldsborough,  eighteenth  Governor  of  Mary- 
land (1818-19),  was  born  at  Hunting  Creek,  Dorchester  County, 
July  15,  1765.  The  progenitor  of  the  Goldsboroughs,  of  Maryland, 
was  Nicholas,  who  settled  in  1670  on  Kent  Island.  His  wife  was 
Miss  Margaret  Howes,  of  Newberry,  Berks  County,  England,  by 
whom  he  had  Robert,  Nicholas  and  Judith  Goldsborough.  Mrs. 
Goldsborough  survived  and  married  George  Robbins,  of  Talbot 
Coimty,  who  held  the  "Peach  Blow"  farm,  where  peaches  were  first 
grown  in  the  United  States,  brought  from  Persia  by  a  traveling 
brother,  who  retained  his  residence  in  England. 

Robert  Goldsborough  (of  Nicholas)  married  Elizabeth,  daughter 
of  Colonel  Nicholas  Greenberry,  of  Greenberry  Point.  Their  son, 
Charles  Goldsborough,  married  a  sister  of  Colonel  Joseph  Ennals. 
Robert  H.,  a  son  of  this  marriage,  became  a  member  of  the  Contin- 
ental Congress  and  a  member  of  the  Committee  of  Safety.  His  wife 
was  Miss  Yerbmy,  of  Passing  Hall  Street,  London.  Among  his 
children  was  Charles  Goldsborough,  of  Horn's  Point,  Dorchester 
County,  a  magnificent  estate  on  the  Choptank,  five  miles  below 
Cambridge,  a  seat  of  refinement  and  hospitality  until  it  passed  from 
the  hands  of  Hon.  Wm.  T.  Goldsborough  some  years  after  the  war. 
His  only  child  was  Sarah  Yerbury,  who  became  the  second  wife  of 
Hon.  Charles  Goldsborough,  of  Shoal  Creek  farm,  near  Cambridge. 
He  was  the  son  of  Charles  and  Anna  Maria  (Tilghman)  Goldsborough 
and  grandson  of  Charles  Goldsborough,  of  1707. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      261 

Hon.  Charles  Goldsborough's  first  wife  was  Elizabeth,  daughter 
of  Judge  Robert  and  Mary  Emerson  (Trippe)  Goldsborough,  of 
Myrtle  Grove,  Talbot  County,  who  bore  him  two  daughters,  viz: 
Elizabeth  Greenberry  married  Hon.  John  Leeds  Kerr;  Anna  Maria 
Sarah  married  William  Henry  Fitzhugh.  On  May  22,  1804,  he\ 
married  Sarah  Yerbury,  daughter  of  Charles  and  Williamina  (Smith) 
Goldsborough.  By  her  he  had  nine  sons  and  five  daughters.  Hon. 
Wilham  Tilghman  Goldsborough,  his  son,  married  Eleanor  Lloyd, 
daughter  of  Governor  Edward  Lloyd;  Williamina  Elizabeth  Cad- 
walader  married  Rev.  Wilham  Henry  Laird,  late  rector  of  St.  John's 
Church,  Brookeville,  Md. 

Hon.  Charles  F.  Goldsborough  was  a  graduate  of  St.  John's 
College,  member  of  the  bar,  married  Charlotte,  youngest  daughter 
of  John  Campbell  Henry,  of  Hambrooks.  She  was  a  granddaughter 
of  Governor  John  Henry.  In  1818,  Hon.  Charles  Goldsborough  was 
elected  by  the  Federal  party  Governor  of  Maryland.  During  his 
term  an  attempt  was  made  to  alter  the  Constitution  in  order  to  give 
Baltimore  City  two  additional  members  in  the  Legislature.  It  failed 
as  did  the  attempt  to  relieve  Jews  of  their  political  disfranchisement. 

The  people  of  Baltimore  urged  that  the  city  furnished  capital 
and  loans  in  a  few  hours  which  could  never  be  obtained  in  the  counties. 
It  contained  one-half  of  the  increase  of  population  in  the  State.  By 
its  gallant  defence  it  had  regained  much  of  its  lost  popularity  induced 
by  the  mob,  of  1812.  Yet  the  Governor  and  Assembly  would  not 
listen  to  these  arguments  and  defeated  the  city's  claim.  The  Jews  of 
the  city  were  now  a  growing  factor  of  the  voting  power  and  they  too 
had  their  friends  who  thus  felt  aggrieved.  These  facts  were  felt  in 
the  counties,  and  at  the  next  election  there  was  a  Democratic  majority 
in  the  Lower  House,  and,  on  joint  ballot,  Mr.  Goldsborough  was 
defeated  by  the  young  Democrat,  Samuel  Sprigg. 

Governor  Goldsborough  urged  the  repeal  of  the  law  imprisoning 
debtors  and  it  was  enacted. 

His  report  upon  the  turnpike  roads  to  Frederick,  York  and 
Reistertown  showed  considerable  benefit  to  the  State,  yet  they  had 
not  received  much  assistance  from  the  State. 

In  1819,  the  first  lodge  of  Odd  Fellows  in  the  United  States  was 
instituted  in  Baltimore  by  Thomas  Wildey.  Yellow  fever  raged 
throughout  all  the  cities.  The  Federalist  majority  which  elected 
Governor  Goldsborough  was  reduced  and  the  two  parties  were  about 
equally  divided.  The  election  of  1819,  was  bitterly  partisan,  resulting 
in  the  election  of  a  Democrat. 

Governor  Goldsborough  died  in  Dorchester  County,  December 
13,  1834. 


GOVERNOR  SAMUEL  SPRIGG. 

Governor  Samuel  Sprigg,  nineteenth  Governor  of  Maryland 
(1819-21),  was  born  in  Prince  George  County.  His  father  was  Joseph 
Sprigg,  descendant  of  Thomas  Sprigg,  who  settled  in  Calvert  and 
became  a  Commissioner  for  the  trial  of  Causes  and  High  Sheriff,  in 


>^ 


262      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

y  1664.  His  son,  Colonel  Thomas  Sprigg  and  Margaret  Osborne,  his 
wife,  held  "Northampton,"  Prince  George  County.  A  full-length 
portrait  of  him,  in  court  costume,  was  long  a  part  of  the  old  "  North- 
ampton" homestead,  which  later  was  bought  by  Lord  Fairfax. 
Mary  Sprigg,  daughter  of  Colonel  Thomas,  became  Mrs  Thomas. 
Stockett,  Jr. 

Osborne  Sprigg  (of  Colonel  Thomas)  was  a  leader  in  politics. 
His  daughter,  Margaret,  married  Colonel  William  Bowie  and  became 
the  mother  of  Governor  Robert  Bowie.  By  a  second  wife,  daughter 
of  Colonel  Joseph  Belt,  came  Osborne  Sprigg,  Jr.,  signer  of  the 
Declaration  of  Freemen.  His  brother,  Joseph,  married,  first,  Hannah 
(Lee)  Bowie,  and  by  a  second  wife  was  the  father  of  Governor 
Samuel  Sprigg.  "Northampton"  came  to  Governor  Sprigg  from 
his  uncle,  Osborne  Sprigg,  Jr. 

Governor  Sprigg  married  Violetta  Lansdale,  first  cousin  of 
Catharine  (Lansdale)  Bowie,  wife  of  Robert  William  Bowie  (of 
Governor  Robert) ;  these  were  heirs  of  General  Isaac  Lansdale,  of 
the  Revolution,  a  wealthy  planter. 

Governor  Sprigg's  only  son  was  Osborne  Sprigg. 

Governor  Sprigg  was  elected  in  1819,  during  a  campaign  of 
extreme  partisan  excitement,  in  which  the  Democrats  gained  a  slight 
majority  on  joint  ballot.  Proscription  was  the  watchword  throughout 
the  State,  and  many  changes  were  made.  Governor  Sprigg  was 
aided  by  a  new  Council  composed  of  Democrats,  and  the  first  attempt 
to  revolutionize  existing  inequalities  was  the  attempted  alteration  of 
the  election  of  Governor,  providing  for  an  election  by  the  people. 
The  Federalists  bitterly  opposed  it,  declaring  it  would  throw  the  whole 
government  of  the  State  into  the  power  of  Baltimore  City,  with  its 
one-third  foreign  vote.  It  was  a  fight  between  city  and  county 
and  the  Senate  defeated  it.  The  City  of  Baltimore  again  attempted 
to  gain  additional  representatives,  but  that  was  also  defeated. 

A  resolution  asking  that  Missouri  be  admitted  without  conditions 
was  sent  to  the  Maryland  delegates  in  Congress. 

Criticism  of  President  Madison's  conduct  of  the  war  gave  the 
Federalists  considerable  power  in  the  State,  but  the  Democrats  were 
victorious  at  the  next  election  and  re-elected  Governor  Sprigg  in  1820 
by  fifty-seven  votes,  which  was  made  unanimous.  President  Monroe 
again  received  the  electoral  vote  of  Maryland  in  1820.  The  ensuing 
election  of  Governor  in  1821  resulted  in  honoring  Governor  Sprigg 
for  the  third  time.  Governor  Sprigg  was,  later,  a  strong  supporter 
of  the  internal  improvements  and  was  a  member  of  the  Canal  Board 
in  which  he  presided  as  president. 

GOVERNOR  SAMUEL  STEVENS. 

Governor  Samuel  Stevens,  twentieth  Governor  of  Maryland 
(1823-25),  was  born  in  Talbot  Coimty  and  was  the  son  of  Samuel 
Stevens,  who  had  taken  up  a  considerable  estate.  He  was  educated 
in  the  public  schools,  and  in  1804  married  Eliza  May,  of  Chester 
County,  Pennsylvania. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      263 

Governor  Stevens  succeeded  Governor  Samuel  Sprigg,  receiving 
a  Democratic  majority  of  sixty-nine  votes  on  joint  ballot.  In  1823 
he  reported  to  the  Legislature  the  Congressional  resolution  proposing 
an  amendment  providing  for  internal  improvements. 

The  report  of  the  Maryland  and  Virginia  Commission  for  examin- 
ing the  condition  of  the  Potomac  Company,  endorsed  the  formation 
of  a  canal  company,  along  the  bed  of  the  Potomac,  with  a  branch 
canal  connecting  Baltimore  City.  This  proposition  ended  in  the 
Chesapeake  and  Ohio  Canal  Company,  with  a  capital  of  S6,000,000. 

After  much  discussion,  in  1824,  the  bill  enfranchising  Jews  was 
passed. 

Theodoric  Bland  was  authorized  to  survey  another  canal  route 
connecting  Baltimore  City  with  the  Susquehanna  River. 

Congress  made  an  appropriation  for  the  great  rational  road  to 
Cumberland. 

President  Monroe  started  on  his  tour  through  the  coimtry, 
followed  by  a  visit  from  General  LaFayette.  Annapolis  made 
extensive  preparations  for  the  reception  of  its  distinguished  visitor. 
He  was  met  at  the  dividing  line  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Prince  George 
Counties  by  Hon.  Joseph  Kent;  George  E.  Mitchell,t Representative 
in  Congress;  Samuel  Sprigg,  late  Governor;  Hon.  Jeremiah  Townley 
Chase,  late  Chief  Justice;  Theodoric  Bland,  Chancellor;  Colonel 
HenryMaynadier,  an  officer  of  the  Revolution;^  John  Randall, 
Collector  of  the  Port.  Judge  Chase  delivered  the  address  of  welcome. 
The  military  escort  consisted  of  Captain  Bowie's  elegant  company  of 
mounted  riflemen  from  Nottingham,  Prince  George;  Captain  Sill- 
man's  troop  of  horse  from  South  River;  Captain  Dorsey's  company 
from  West  River;  Captain  Warfield's  company  from  Millersville; 
Colonel  Charles  Sterrett  Ridgely's  troop  of  horse  from  Elk  Ridge,  and 
Captain  Hobb's  Company  of  Upper  Howard.  The  entertainment 
at  the  State  House  is  thus  described  by  an  eye  witness: 

"I  was  a  schoolboy  at  St.  John's  College.  The  State  Legisla- 
ture being  in  session,  the  Governor  invited  General  LaFayette  to 
visit  the  historic  seat  of  the  Continental  Congress.  My  father.  Rev. 
Alfred  Griffith,  was  at  that  time  Chaplain  of  the  Senate.  He  was 
the  son  of  Captain  Samuel  Griffith,  who  had  fought  with  General 
LaFayette,  and  knowing  his  father's  regard  for  the  distinguished 
hero,  he  sent  for  him  to  be  present,  to  again  meet  his  old  companion 
in  arms.  Although  but  a  boy  of  twelve  years,  the  grand  pageant 
still  lives  in  my  memory.  General  LaFayette  entered  the  grounds 
from  the  east.  Carpeted  walks  led  from  the  base  of  the  hill  to  the 
old,  stately  building  crowning  its  summit.  On  either  side  of  the 
avenue  leading  to  the  colonaded  entrance  stood  children,  principally 
girls,  clad  in  white  and  crowned  with  flowers,  whilst  in  their  hands 
they  carried  bouquets  and  baskets  of  flowers.  As  the  old  hero 
supported  on  one  side  by  his  son  and  staff,  and  on  the  other  by  the 
Governor  and  State  officials,  advanced  up  the  aisle,  the  children 
broke  into  a  chorus,  "  Hail  to  the  Chief,"  strewing  his  path  with 
flowers.     Fronting  the  doorway  stood  on  one  side  the  members  of 


264      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

the  House,  on  the  other  the  Senators.  Having  reached  the  portico, 
the  General  was  introduced  to  the  members  of  both  Houses.  Then 
prominent  citizens  pressed  forward  to  be  presented.  When  the 
Governor  named  my  grandfather  and  gave  the  battles  of  Brandywine 
and  Germantown  in  which  he  had  fought,  the  old  men  rushed  into 
each  other's  arms  and  wept  like  two  children.  This  scene  made  an 
impression  on  my  young  mind  which  can  never  be  erased." — 
(Griffith's  Genealogy.) 

Governor  Stevens  left  no  son.  Descendants  of  a  daughter  still 
reside  in  Cambridge,  Maryland.  The  following  is  an  obituary  notice 
of  him : 

"  On  7th  instant  (1860)  at  'Compton,'  near  Trappe,  his  beautiful 
residence,  died  Ex-Governor  Samuel  Stevens,  in  his  eighty-second 
year.  Thus  has  another,  and  about  the  last,  of  the  strong  pillars 
which  characterized  the  last  generation,  toppled  and  fallen." 

GOVERNOR  JOSEPH  KENT. 

Upon  the  expiration  of  Governor  Stevens'  term,  in  1825,  Hon. 
Joseph  Kent  was  chosen.  He  was  the  son  of  Daniel  Kent,  of  Prince 
George  County.  He  studied  medicine  and  entered  into  partnership 
with  Dr.  Parran,  in  Lower  Marlborough.  In  1807  Dr.  Kent  removed 
to  the  vicinity  of  Bladensburg  and  became  Surgeon's  Mate,  under  the 
State  Government.  He  was  promoted  to  Major  Lieutenant  Colonel 
and  Colonel  of  Cavalry.  He  presided  at  the  first  public  meeting  in 
Washington  for  the  organization  of  the  Chesapeake  and  Ohio  canal, 
and  became  a  director.  Nominated  for  Congress,  he  defeated  Hon. 
John  Francis  Mercer.  He  was  Presidential  Elector  in  1816,  casting 
his  vote  for  James  Monroe.  He  was  elected  to  the  Tenth  and  re-elected 
to  Seventeenth,  Eighteenth  and  Nineteenth  Congresses,  resigning  up- 
on his  election  as  Governor 

At  the  meeting  in  Washington  over  which  Dr.  Kent  presided 
was  an  attempt  to  connect  Baltimore  with  Cumberland  by  way  of 
the  Potomac  River.  Subsequent  surveys  developed  the  impractic- 
ability of  this  enterprise. 

At  a  meeting  held  in  Baltimore  in  1827  the  idea  of  a  railroad  was 
first  developed.  Dr.  Kent  was  on  the  committee  which  reported  in 
favor  of  immediate  efforts  to  establish  a  double  track  between  Balti- 
more and  some  point  on  the  Ohio  River.  He,  with  Charles  Carroll, 
of  "  Carrollton,"  Charles  Ridgely  and  others,  was  upon  the  committee 
to  secure  the  charter.  This  was  promptly  granted  on  February  28th. 
On  April  1st  the  stock  was  subscribed  and  on  April  28th  the  company 
was  organized  by  electing  Philip  Evan  Thomas  president.  On  July 
4,  1828  the  corner  stone  was  laid  by  Charles  Carroll,  of  "  Carrollton," 
with  civic  honors.  Governor  Kent,  in  his  message  to  the  Assembly, 
urged  the  support  of  both  rival  enterprises.  He  also  urged  the 
United  States  to  grant  Maryland  her  portion  of  the  public  lands,  to 
be  devoted,  as  the  Western  States  were  doing,  to  the  cause  of 
education.     He   suggested    the  propriety  of  changing  the  mode  of 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      265 

electing  the  President  and  Vice-President;  urged  the  Legislature  to 
dispose  of  its  three  per  cent.  United  States  stock,  worth  then  eighty 
per  cent.,  to  be  invested  in  a  sinking  fund. 

The  national  Republican  party  was  friendly  to  John  Quincy 
Adams  and  opposed  to  Andrew  Jackson. 

Governor  Kent  was  Vice-President  of  the  first  convention  which 
met  in  Baltimore.  After  a  bitter  contest  upon  the  platform  of  the 
Whigs  he  was  elected  United  States  Senator  and  served  four  years. 

Dr.  Kent  married,  first,  Eleanor  Lee  Wallace,  daughter  of  Dr. 
Michael  and  Eleanor  (Contee)  Wallace,  granddaughter  of  Colonel 
Thomas  and  Sarah  (Fendall)  Contee.  Mrs.  Contee  was  a  very 
beautiful  woman  with  a  wealth  of  golden  hair,  and  Colonel  Thomas 
Contee  left  a  portrait  which  reveals  a  mild,  handsome  face,  powdered 
hair,  ruffled  shirt  and  stock.  His  inheritance  was  "  Brookefield," 
the  home  of  his  mother,  Jane  Brooke.  His  wife,  Sarah  Fendall,  was 
the  daughter  of  Benjamin  and  Eleanor  Lee,  who  was  the  daughter  of 
Philip  Lee  and  Sarah  Brooke.  Benjamin  Fendall  was  the  son  of 
Colonel  John  Fendall  and  his  wife  Ellen  Hanson,  and  grandson  of 
Governor  Josias  Fendall,  of  1655. 

Governor  Kent  had,  by  his  first  wife,  five  children,  one  of  whom 
became  the  wife  of  Governor  Thomas  G.  Pratt.  One  of  his  descend- 
ants, Joseph  Gates  Kent,  recently  died  in  Baltimore.  Dr.  Kent 
married  after  1826  Alice  Lee  Contee,  of  Charles  County,  leaving  no 
issue.  He  died  at  his  family  residence,  "Rose  Mount,"  November 
24,  1837.     He  was  succeeded  in  1828  by  Daniel  Martin. 

-    GOVERNOR  DANIEL  MARTIN. 

Governor  Daniel  Martin,  twenty-second  (1828-29)  and  twenty- 
fourth  Governor  (1830-31),  was  a  native  of  Talbot,  son  of  Thomas 
and  Hannah  Martin,  grandson  of  Tristam  and  Mary  Oldham,  descend- 
ant of  Daniel  and  Ann  Martin  of  1725. 

Young  Martin  was  thoroughly  educated.  Distinguished 
ancestors  encouraged  him;  they  were  Dr.  Ennals  Martin,  the  celebrated 
physician;  James  Lloyd  Martin,  whose  ability  was  never  surpassed; 
Robert  Nichols  Martin,  son  of  Judge  William  Bond  Martin,  member 
of  Congress. 

Daniel  Martin  married  in  1816  Mary  Clare  Mackubin,  of 
Annapolis,  a  descendant  of  John  Mackubin,  of  the  Severn,  a  Scottish 
immigrant,  connected  by  marriage   with  both  Howards  and  Carrolls. 

At  the  time  of  Governor  Martin's  election,  the  absorbing  ques- 
tions were  the  rival  sources  for  internal  improvements.  In  1828  the 
first  spade  of  earth  was  removed  from  the  bed  of  the  canal  by  Presi- 
dent John  Quincey  Adams.  Thirty-four  sections  were  put  under 
contract.  The  United  States  subscribed  $1,000,000;  Washington 
City  $1,000,000,  and  the  State  of  Maryland  $500,000. 

Governor  Martin  reported  the  completion  of  twelve  miles  of  the 
Washington  turnpike. 

Governor  Martin  was  upon  the  committee  which  secured  a 
charter  for  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad  in  1827.     He  was  an 


266      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

earnest  and  able  advocate  for  developing  educational  institutions. 
He  favored  manufacturing  in  the  penitentiary;  urged  the  economy 
of  having  but  few  State  officers  and  was  in  favor  of  holding  them  to 
a  strict  accountability.  He  said:  "To  preserve  the  simplicity  of  our 
institutions  is  a  deep  concern ;  to  guard  them  as  far  as  possible  from 
innovation  is  a  sacred  duty." 

The  national  contest  between  the  Jackson  and  anti-Jackson 
parties  was  brought  into  the  State  election  in  1829,  and  resulted  in 
placing  the  Democratic  candidate,  Thomas  King  Carroll,  by  a  joint 
ballot  of  seven  votes,  in  the  chair  of  Governor  Martin.  At  the  next 
election  the  anti-Jackson  party  regained  their  majority  and  re-elected 
Daniel  Martin  by  a  majority  of  forty-one.  His  health  soon  gave  way, 
early  in  his  second  term,  and  upon  his  death,  in  1831,  was  succeeded 
by  Hon.  George  Howard,  son  of  Governor  John  Eager  Howard. 

Governor  Martin  was  endeared  to  the  society  in  which  he  passed 
his  life  by  his  manly  and  independent  course,  his  liberal  sentiments 
and  his  generous  hospitality.  He  had  filled  several  important  public 
stations  with  much  credit,  and  died  in  the  occupation  of  the  office  of 
Chief  Magistrate,  whose  duties  he  had  discharged  with  dignity  and 
general  satisfaction.  His  obsequies  on  the  13th  of  July,  1831,  were 
witnessed  by  a  numerous  concourse  of  fellow  citizens. 

At  a  special  meeting  of  his  Council,  Mr.  Worthington  submitted 
the  following  record  for  the  journal:  "We  hereby  testify  our  high 
esteem  for  his  frank,  manly  and  polite  deportment;  his  hberal, 
social  and  benevolent  disposition;  his  republican  simplicity  of  man- 
ners; his  firmness  and  consistency  as  a  politician,  and  his  ever  warm 
and  unerring  devotion  to  what  he  conceived  to  be  the  public  good." 

"  Resolved,  That  the  armorer  cause  nineteen  guns  to  be  fired  on 
Thursday  morning  at  sunrise  and  nineteen  at  sunset,  and  that  the 
State  flag  be  half-hoisted,  as  funeral  honors  to  the  deceased." 
Similar  resolutions  were  offered  in  the  Lower  House  and  Senate. 
Governor  George  Howard,  his  successor,  in  his  first  message,  paid 
another  eulogy  to  his  predecessor. 

GOVERNOR  THOMAS  KING  CARROLL. 

Governor  Thomas  King  Carroll,  twenty-third  Governor  of  Mary- 
land (1829-30),  was  born  in  St.  Mary's  County  in  1792.  He  was  the 
son  of  Colonel  Henry  James  Carroll,  of  St.  Mary's,  a  family  connected 
with  Mr.  James  Carroll,  of  "All  Hallow's"  Parish,  Anne  Arundel. 
Although  Colonel  Carroll  was  a  Catholic,  his  children  were  educated 
in  the  faith  of  their  mother,  Elizabeth  Barnes  King,  of  Somerset,  only 
daughter  and  sole  heiress  of  Colonel  Thomas  King,  of  Somerset,  a 
descendant  of  Sir  Robert  King,  baronet,  whose  descendants  built  the 
first  Presbyterian  church  erected  in  America,  at  Rehoboth,  in  1691. 

At  twenty  years  of  age,  Thomas  King  Carroll,  having  graduated 
at  Princeton  with  highest  honors  at  the  age  of  seventeen,  married 
Juliana,  daughter  of  Dr.  Henry  Stevenson,  of  Baltimore.  He  studied 
law  with  General  Robert  Goodloe  Harper.  In  early  life  he  became 
a  mason.     He  advocated  the  colonization  of  the  negroes  and  organ- 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      267 

ized  a  company  for  that  purpose  and  was  its  president.  In  1824  he 
was  appointed  Inspector  for  Somerset.  He  was  barely  of  age  when 
elected  to  the  Legislature.  As  a  speaker  he  had  marked  powers. 
When  chosen  Governor  his  surprise  was  great. 

During  his  administration  the  question  of  electing  the  President 
and  Vice-President  was  under  discussion,  and  he  reported  to  the 
Legislature  the  committees  from  the  several  States  to  form  a 
convention  for  changing  the  prevailing  system. 

In  1829  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad  had  laid  its  track  as 
far  as  the  Relay.  This  was  the  first  road  in  the  United  States,  and 
upon  it  Peter  Cooper  put  the  first  locomotive  built  from  his  shop  in 
Baltimore.  It  was  built  in  Mt.  Clare  shops,  upon  the  property  of  a 
relative  of  the  Governor.  Mr.  Cooper  himself  opened  the  throttle 
and  started  on  his  trip  to  ElHcott's  Mills.  The  right  of  way  for  the 
Chesapeake  and  Ohio  Canal  was  secured  to  the  State  during  the  same 
year  and  the  work  of  construction  was  finally  begun. 

Governor  Carroll's  message  of  1830  suggested  an  educational 
system;  advocated  the  penitentiary  as  a  reformatory,  but  disapproved 
promiscuous  social  intercourse;  advocated  the  cessation  of  military 
parades,  because  they  drew  large  crowds  from  their  daily  business; 
urged  an  appropriation  from  Congress  for  copying  Revolutionary 
records,  then  in  the  archives  of  Great  Britain;  recommended  the 
adoption  of  relief  for  Revolutionary  soldiers;  endorsed  the  movement 
to  improve  the  collegiate  department  of  the  University  of  Maryland 
and  expressed  sympathy  for  the  French  then  gallantly  defending 
their  rights. 

The  anti-Jackson  party  of  1830  recovered  its  usual  majority 
in  the  Legislature  and  Governor  Carroll  was  succeeded  by  his 
predecessor.  Governor  Daniel  Martin. 

Governor  Carroll  retired  to  his  large  estate  in  Dorchester,  near 
Church  Creek,  and  lived  respected  by  all,  dying  at  an  advanced  age, 
October  3,  1873.  He  was  buried  in  the  churchyard  of  the  "Old 
Church,"  which  was  heavily  draped,  and  the  entire  neighborhood 
were  mourners.  He  left  "to  posterity  a  noble  name  unsulhed  and 
adorned."  His  children  were  Dr.  Thomas  King  Carroll,  Mrs.  John 
E.  Gibson,  Mrs.  Dr.  Bowdle,  Mrs.  Thomas  Caddock  and  Misses  A.  E. 
and  Mary  Carroll.  His  daughter,  Anna  Ella,  was  a  campaign 
strategist  during  the  civil  war. 

GOVERNOR  GEORGE  HOWARD. 

Governor  George  Howard,  twenty-fifth  Governor  (1831-33),  was 
born  at  "  Belvidere,"  November  21st,  1789.  He  was  the  son  of  Gov- 
ernor John  Eager  Howard.  His  mother  was  the  eldest  daughter  of 
Chief  Justice  Benjamin  Chew,  of  Pennsylvania,  and,  like  her  sisters, 
was  noted  for  her  beauty  and  fascinating  manners. 

Hon.  George  Howard  was  a  Federahst,  and  upon  the  death  of 
Governor  Daniel  Martin,  in  1831,  he  was  appointed  Governor  to  fill 
the  unexpired  term.  Early  in  his  administration  and  continuing 
through  it  began   the  anti-Mason  excitement,  which  placed  William 


268      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties, 

Wirt,  the  eminent  Marylander  in  nomination  for  the  Presidency,  in 
1833.  His  nomination  was  in  opposition  to  Henry  Clay,  Federahst, 
but  "High  Priest  of  the  Masons."  The  Federal  party  had  elected 
Daniel  Martin  by  forty-one  majority.  In  1832  it  gave  a  still  greater 
majority  of  forty-nine  for  Governor  George  Howard.  With  both 
wings  of  the  Federal  party  in  array  against  Jackson,  the  National 
Republican  party  at  the  next  election  secured  the  election  of  James 
Thomas  as  Governor  to  succeed  Governor  Howard.  The  Federal 
party  now  became  the  Whig  party.  It  held  sway  in  Maryland  with 
varying  success  until  1852.  Its  National  and  State  issues  called 
for  a  United  States  bank,  internal  improvements  and  a  high  tariff. 

Governor  George  Howard  was  a  presidential  elector  in  1837  and 
1841,  voting  both  times  for  William  Henry  Harrison.  His  estate 
"Waverly"  had  been  taken  up  by  Thomas  Browne.  It  was  sold  to 
John  Dorsey  (of  Major  Edward)  and  by  him  willed  to  his  son, 
Nathaniel  Dorsey.  From  his  brother  it  was  bought  by  Governor 
John  Eager  Howard.  It  is  on  the  old  Frederick  road,  just  south  of 
Woodstock.  During  the  exciting  slavery  agitation  of  1845  Governor 
Howard  presided  at  a  Convention  called  for  the  protection  of  slave- 
holders. He  also  presided  at  a  meeting  of  the  people  of  Howard 
County  to  pass  resolutions  upon  the  death  of  Colonel  Gassaway 
Watkins,  in  1840.  He  married  in  1811,  Prudence  Gough  Ridgely, 
daughter  of  Charles  Carnan  Ridgely,  of  Hampton.  She  bore  hin*. 
eight  sons  and  five  daughters,  two  of  whom  married.  Eugene  Post,- 
John  Eager  Howard,  Charles  Ridgely  Howard,  William  Waverly 
Howard  and  George  Howard  were  his  sons. 

Governor  Howard  died  in  1846.  "Waverly"  has  passed  from 
the  family  and  most  of  his  descendants  are  in  Baltimore  or  elsewhere. 

GOVERNOR  JAMES  THOMAS. 

Governor  James  Thomas,  twenty-sixth  Governor  of  Maryland 
(1833-35),  was  born  at  De-la  Brooke  Manor,  March  11,  1785.  He 
was  the  son  of  William  Major  Thomas  and  Catharine  Boarman, 
daughter  of  Mary  Brooke,  through  whom  "De-la  Brooke"  passed 
from  Roger  Brooke  to  the  Thomas  family.  William  Thomas 
was  the  youngest  son  of  John  Thomas,  of  Charles  County.  He 
removed  to  St.  Mary's;  was  a  member  of  the  House  of  Delegates; 
was  chosen  Captain  and  Major  of  the  militia;  was  a  member  of  the 
Committee  of  Safety.     His  wife  was  Elizabeth  Reeves  (of  Thomas). 

James  Thomas  was  educated  at  Charlotte  Hall,  in  1804,  and 
graduated  from  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  in  1807.  He 
practiced  with  success;  was  commissioned  Major  of  the  Fourth 
Maryland  Cavalry  in  1812  and  was  subsequently  brevetted  Major- 
General.  In  1820  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Maryland  Legis- 
lature and  was  re-elected  six  times.  Li  1833  he  became  Governor  of 
Maryland.  During  his  administration  much  excitement  arose  from 
the  "Nat  Turner"  negro  insurrection. 

The  boundary  line  between  Maryland  and  Virginia  was  still  unset- 
tled, and  this  dispute  caused  the  Governor  considerable  correspondence. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      269 

In  his  message  he  announced  the  completion  of  the  Baltimore 
and  Ohio  Railroad  as  far  west  as  Harper's  Ferry.  The  road  between 
Baltimore  and  Washington  was  then  under  construction.  He  urged 
the  enrollment  of  the  militia  and  asked  the  general  government  to 
apportion  Maryland's  share  of  vacant  lands. 

The  disastrous  fire  in  Cumberland,  in  1834,  and  the  "  Bank  Mob" 
in  Baltimore  called  for  executive  action.  Governor  Thomas  met 
these  with  prompt  and  decisive  action,  receiving  favorable  comment. 
The  cause  of  the  "Bank  Mob"  was  the  financial  disaster  following 
President  Jackson's  withdrawal  of  Government  funds,  from  the 
National  Bank.  This  caused  the  failure  of  the  Maryland  Bank, 
which  held  the  savings  of  many  poor  people,  leading  to  a  bitter 
feeling  against  the  bank  officers  and  finally  ending  in  a  riot,  which 
destroyed  their  houses.  The  Governor  calling  out  the  militia  and 
appealing  to  the  President  for  aid  soon  quelled  the  riot,  but  not  until 
$200,000  worth  of  property  had  been  destroyed.  This  the  State  was 
compelled  to  refund. 

The  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad  called  on  the  Legislature  for 
assistance,  and  a  loan  of  $2,000,000  was  made  during  the  Governor's 
term.  The  State  also  aided  the  Susquehanna  or  Northern  Central 
Railroad  to  the  amount  of  $1,000,000. 

Governor  Thomas  died  at  "  Deep  Falls,"  St.  Mary's,  December 
25,  1845.  Descendants  of  Governor  Thomas  were  Dr.  Thomas,  a 
member  of  the  State  Grange;  Professor  Thomas,  Principal  of  Char- 
lotte Hall,  and  Hon.  William  M.  Merrick  and  Richard  Merrick,  of 
Howard  County,  sons  of  United  States  Senator  Merrick,  whose  wife 
was  a  descendant  of  Governor  Thomas. 

"  Deep  Falls,"  the  Thomas  homestead,  is  situated  near  the 
village  of  Chaptico.  The  present  mansion  was  built  by  Major  William 
Thomas,  in  1745.  It  is  in  appearance  an  English  country  dwelling- 
house,  and  while  its  builder  aimed  at  massive  simplicity,  it  is  of 
graceful  and  pleasing  design  and  finish.  It  is  a  large,  double,  two- 
story  frame  building,  with  brick  foundations  and  brick  gables  to  the 
upper  line  of  the  first  story,  where  the  brick-work  branches  into  two 
large  outside  chimneys  at  each  gable  end  of  the  house.  It  is  sixty 
feet  long  and  forty  feet  deep,  with  wide  piazzas,  front  and  back,  run- 
ning the  whole  length  of  the  house  and  supported  by  handsome, 
massive  pillars.  The  hall  is  a  large,  well-finished  square  room  and 
is  flanked  on  one  side  by  a  parlor  and  on  the  other  by  a  dining-room, 
separated  by  folding  doors.  The  stairway  with  maple  newel  posts 
and  rosewood  top,  surmounted  with  an  ivory  knob,  rosewood  rail 
and  bird's  eye  maple  balustrade,  extends  around  the  corridors  above. 

The  surrounding  grounds,  once  highly  ornamented  with  shrub- 
bery and  flowers,  are  gently  sloping  and  terraced.  "Deep  Falls"  is 
still  held  by  its  original  family  and  the  old  grave-yard  there,  dedicated 
to  family  burial  more  than  a  century  and  a  half  ago,  contains  many 
successive  generations.     (Thomas.) 

De-la-Brooke,  containing  two  thousand  acres,  was  erected  into 
a  manor,  with  the  right  of  Court  Baron  and  Court  Leet,  and  Baker 


270      FouNDEES  OF  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

Brooke,  eldest  son  of  Robert,  was  made  lord  of  the  manor.  The 
house  at  De-la-Brooke  stood  about  a  mile  from  the  river,  on  the  brow 
of  a  hill.  It  was  a  commanding  situation  with  broad  plains  below. 
It  was  a  brick  building,  thirty  by  forty  feet,  one  and  a-half  stories, 
with  steep  roof  and  dormer  windows.  The  rooms  were  handsomely 
wainscotted  and  the  parlor  was  also  embellished  with  massive  wooden 
cornice  and  frieze,  on  which  were  carved  in  relief  roses  and  other 
floral  designs.  The  house  was  destroyed  many  years  ago,  but  a  mass 
of  moss-covered  bricks  and  an  excavation  still  mark  the  spot  where 
for  nearly  two  hundred  years  stood  the  first  manor  house  on  the 
Patuxent.    (Thomas.) 

Near  Battle  Town  is  the  handsome  Taney  homestead,  the  seat 
of  the  distinguished  family  for  many  generations  and  the  birthplace 
of  the  illustrious  Chief  Justice  Roger  Brooke  Taney,  while  separated 
from  it  by  Battle  Creek  is  Brooke  Place  Manor,  in  later  life  the  home 
of  Governor  Robert  Brooke. 

K^  GOVERNOR  THOMAS  WARD  VEAZEY. 

Thomas  Ward  Veazey,  twenty-seventh  Governor  of  Maryland 
(1835-38),  was  born  January  31,  1774,  at  "Veazey's  Neck,"  Cecil 
County,  Maryland.  He  was  the  son  of  Edward  and  Elizabeth 
(DeCoursey)  Veazey,  a  descendant  (of  John)  of  "Cherry  Grove,"  an 
old  Norman  family,  "  De  Veazie,"  of  the  eleventh  century.  John 
settled  in  Kent  County,  prior  to  1670,  and  received  a  grant  of  land 
on  Elk  and  Bohemia  Rivers,  known  as  "Veazey's  Neck,"  now  in 
Cecil.  His  will  of  February  28,  1697,  names  his  sons  William,  George, 
Robert  and  James.  The  latter  married  Mary  Mercer,  whose  son. 
Captain  Edward  Veazey,  of  Seventh  Regiment  of  the  Maryland  Line, 
was  killed  at  Long  Island,  1776.  Colonel  Thomas  Ward  Veazey 
(of  Edward)  was  Colonel  of  the  militia,  in  the  war  of  1812  and  made 
a  gallant  defence  of  Frederick  Town,  in  Cecil,  against  Admiral  Cock- 
burn.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Maryland  Legislature  during  several 
sessions;  was  a  presidential  elector  in  1807  and  in  1813,  when  he 
voted  for  President  Madison.  He  married,  first,  Sarah  Worrell,  of 
Kent,  and  had  one  daughter,  Sarah.  His  second  wife  was  Mary 
Veazey,  who  bore  him  five  children;  his  third  was  Mary,  daughter 
of  Dr.  Joseph  and  Elizabeth  (Black)  Wallace,  whom  he  married  in 
1812  and  she  bore  him  five  children. 

Colonel  Veazey  came  to  the  Governor's  chair  in  1835,  when  a 
strong  man  was  needed. 

The  most  popular  act  of  his  administration  was  the  grant  of 
eight  millions  of  dollars  for  internal  improvements;  $3,000,000  were 
given  to  the  Canal,  and  $3,000,000  to  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad. 

This  act  was  hailed  with  joy  in  Baltimore,  resulting  in  a  dinner 
to  the  Governor  and  Legislature  and  accompanied  by  bon-fires. 
Baltimore  City  subscribed  in  addition,  $3,000,000  loan  to  the  road. 

The  most  exciting  event  in  the  administration  of  Governor 
Veazey  was  the  attempt  to  reform  the  mode  of  electing  the  Senate  and 
Governor  of  the  State.    The  discussion  had  grown  stronger  with  each 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      271 

succeeding  administration  since  the  election  of  Governor  Ridgely,  in 
1818.  A  condensed  history  of  that  struggle,  from  the  researches  of 
Dr.  Bernard  Steiner,  the  Librarian  of  the  Pratt  Library,  is  of 
interest. 

"The  electoral  college  was  established  by  the  aristocratic  Whigs 
of  the  Revolution  and  lasted  through  sixty  years  until  it  went  down 
under  the  Democratic  ideas  of  Jackson.  Major  Sprigg  Harwood,  who 
died  in  1894,  was  the  last  survivor  of  the  electoral  college.  This 
college  was  composed  of  two  members  from  each  county  and  one  from 
Annapolis  and  one  from  Baltimore.  This  body  elected  fifteen 
Senators,  each  holding  property  valued  at  £1,000  current  money.  A 
quorum  of  the  college  was  fixed  at  twenty-four.  The  property 
qualification  for  membership  in  the  college  was  £500.  By  this 
system  of  election  it  was  said,  "The  Senate  of  Maryland  consisted 
of  men  of  influence  and  ability  and  as  such  were  a  real  and  beneficial 
check  on  the  hasty  proceedings  of  a  more  numerous  branch  of  popular 
representatives." 

By  a  special  election  for  electors  in  1776,  the  electors  chosen 
met  in  Annapolis,  December  9th,  and  chose  the  Senate.  On  February 
10,  1777,  this  body  met  with  the  House  of  Delegates,  elected  annually 
by  the  people,  and  thus  formed  the  first  Assembly  of  Maryland. 

In  1806  the  form  of  voting  for  electors  was  changed  from  viva 
voce  to  ballot.  After  1810  there  was  no  property  qualification 
needed  for  Senators. 

The  Senate  of  1781  were  the  most  distinguished  men  of  the  State. 
They  were  unanimously  Whigs.  The  Senate  of  1791  and  1796  were 
also  of  the  Federalist  party,  showing  the  same  complexion  in  the 
electorial  college.  In  1801,  the  Republicans  (Democrats)  carried 
the  Senate,  holding  the  power,  also,  in  1806  and  in  1811.  With  the 
election  of  1816  came  the  first  decided  opposition  to  the  prevailing 
system  of  election. 

Baltimore,  with  more  wealth  and  nearly  the  full  population  of 
eight  of  the  smaller  counties,  had  only  one-fortieth  part  of  the  power 
of  Legislation,  while  these  counties  had  two-fifths.  Several  of  the 
larger  counties  joined  Baltimore  to  get  a  better  division. 

The  Republicans,  in  1816,  elected  twelve  of  the  electoral  college. 
The  Federal  returns  were  twenty-eight,  but  twenty-two  of  these 
represented  only  93,265,  while  the  other  six  and  the  twelve  Repub- 
lican electors  represented  176,000  people.  Yet  a  solid  Federal 
Senate  was  chosen  for  five  years.  In  1821  an  entire  Republican 
Senate  was  chosen  by  an  electoral  college  of  twenty-eight  Republicans 
and  twelve  Federalists.  In  1826,  a  hke  Republican  majority  was 
returned,  but  six  of  the  twenty-two  voted  with  the  fourteen  Feder- 
alists and  elected  a  mixed  Senate  of  eleven  Republicans  and  four 
Federalists. 

In  1831  an  electoral  college  of  twenty-eight  National  Repub- 
licans and  twelve  Jackson  men  elected  a  Senate  entirely  composed 
of  National  Republicans.  This  was  the  last  peaceful  election  under 
that  system.  The  spirit  of  reform  was  in  the  air.  The  election  of 
Jackson  as  the  Democratic  President  swept  the  country. 


272      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

In  Maryland,  Jackson  and  VanBuren  found  their  supporters 
chiefly  in  Baltimore  and  the  large  counties.  In  1836  Van  Buren 
supporters  elected  nineteen  electors  and  the  Whigs  twenty-one.  In 
that  election,  Baltimore  with  a  vote  of  10,000  and  Annapolis  with  a 
vote  of  300  each  sent  one  elector,  while  Frederick  County  with  a  vote 
of  6,000  and  Charles  County  with  a  vote  of  567  each  sent  two. 
Baltimore,  Harford,  Washington,  Frederick  and  Baltimore  City 
sent  Van  Buren  electors.    Montgomery  sent  one  of  each  party. 

Congressman  Francis  Thomas,  of  Frederick  County,  finding  that 
the  majority  of  the  electoral  college  represented  but  85,179  white 
men,  while  the  minority  was  chosen  from  counties  and  towns  with  a 
population  of  205,922  white  men,  organized  a  revolt.  The  Whigs 
had  but  twenty-one  and  a  quorum  required  twenty-four.  The  nine- 
teen Van  Buren  men  determined  to  refuse  to  enter  the  college  until 
assured  by  the  Whig  members  that  they  would  not  vote  for  a  Senator 
who  would  oppose  calling  a  Convention  of  the  people  and  also  to 
elect  eight  Van  Buren  men  as  Senators,  so  as  to  give  a  majority  of 
that  body  known  to  be  favorable  to  a  radical  revision  of  the  Consti- 
tution, granting  equal  rights  and  privileges.  No  action  having  been 
taken  in  reply,  the  nineteen  Van  Buren  electors  met  at  City  Hotel 
and  offered  propositions.  Mr.  Thomas  was  in  Annapolis  directing 
the  negotiations.  As  no  compromise  was  in  sight  the  "nineteen" 
went  to  their  homes,  leaving  the  Whigs  in  Annapolis,  waiting  for 
help  to  organize. 

In  the  meantime  meetings  were  held.  At  one  in  Baltimore, 
John  V.  L.  McMahon,  the  historian,  spoke  eloquently  in  support  of 
the  Whig  position  and  opposed  "the  bold  proposition  to  overthrow 
the  whole  Government  at  one  blow." 

The  Whig  electors  issued  an  address  in  reply  to  that  of  the  Van 
Buren  nineteen,  claiming  that  if  they  had  gone  into  the  college  they 
would  have  found  advocates  of  their  reforms,  and  thus  discussions 
filled  all  channels  until  another  election  day  for  members  of  the  House 
came,  which  proved  to  be  a  defeat  for  the  Van  Buren  nineteen. 
Counties  which  had  sent  Democrats  now  returned  Whigs.  In  all 
there  were  sixty  Whigs  to  nineteen  Van  Buren  men.  Immediately 
upon  this  election  Mr.  John  S.  Sellman,  of  Anne  Arundel,  regarding 
the  election  as  an  instruction  from  his  constituents,  entered  the 
college.    Mr.  Wesley  Linthicum  from  Anne  Arundel  refused  to  enter. 

Dr.  Washington  Duval  from  Montgomery  refused,  not  consider- 
ing the  election  a  defeat  to  Van  Buren,  but  demanded  a  Convention. 

Criticisms  were  loud  upon  the  revolutionary  conduct  of  Gov- 
ernor Francis  Thomas.  Mr.  Sellman,  of  Anne  Arundel,  attempted  to 
bring  about  a  compromise,  saying  that  he  would  not  enter  the  college 
until  a  quorum  was  secured,  and  such  a  quorum  could  not  be  obtained 
without  a  compromise  of  conflicting  interests. 

The  Whigs  only  replied  by  calling  his  attention  to  their  address 
to  the  people.    Thus  his  efforts  proved  futile. 

The  National  election,  a  few  days  later,  proved  a  complete  over- 
throw of  the  Van  Buren  party  in  Maryland. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      273 

Governor  Veazey  now  came  to  the  front  and  issued  his  proclama- 
tion, declaring  the  Senate  elected  in  1831  shall  continue  to  be  the 
Senate  of  Maryland,  and  shall  so  continue  until  superseded  by  the 
election  of  successors,  as  constitutionally  and  lawfully  provided  for, 
and  with  the  house  elected  in  October  last,  now  constitute  the  general 
assembly  of  this  State.  He  assembled  it  to  meet  on  November 
21,  assigning  as  his  reason  the  failure  of  eighteen  electors  to 
do  their  duty.  He  further  declared,  that  he  would  use  all  the 
powers  in  his  office  to  break  up  such  lawless  proceedings.  He  con- 
cluded with  a  solemn  declaration,  "  that  the  Constitution  of  the  State 
must  be  preserved  until  altered,  in  the  manner  constitutionally 
provided  for."  Great  excitement  followed.  Major  John  Contee 
called  the  people  of  Prince  George  together  and  offered  "  our  services 
to  the  executive  in  case  of  necessity."  Mr.  Wesley  Linthicum,  of 
Anne  Arundel,  determined  to  yield.  Mr.  Sellman  again  addressed 
the  Whigs  to  know  if  they  were  in  favor  of  Constitutional  reform. 
They  answered,  yes,  not  in  a  restricted,  but  a  comprehensive  sense, 
and  would  elect  a  Senate  in  favor  of  amendment.  The  Van  Buren 
men  were  compelled  to  surrender  unconditionally. 

Fifteen  Whig  Senators  were  elected,  the  new  Legislature,  at  the 
suggestion  of  the  Governor,  provided  for  the  amendments  urged  by 
the  nineteen  and  provided  that  the  election  of  Governor  should  be 
by  the  people. 

The  electoral  college  was  abolished.  The  Senate  was  to  consist 
of  one  member  from  each  county  and  the  City  of  Baltimore,  elected 
by  popular  vote  for  six  years,  one-third  going  out  of  office  every  two 
years.  The  executive  council  was  abohshed  and  a  Secretary  of  State 
substituted. 

When  the  first  election  under  the  reformed  Constitution  occurred, 
October  2,  1838,  the  Van  Buren  candidate  for  Governor,  William 
Grason,  "The  Queen  Anne  Farmer,"  won  by  a  very  narrow  margin, 
while  the  Legislature  was  Whig  by  small  majorities  in  each  house. 
The  so-called  "glorious  nineteen"  claimed  much  of  the  credit  for 
these  changes. 

Governor  Veazey  was  the  last  Governor  elected  by  the  Senate. 
He  died  in  Cecil,  June  30,  1842. 

OGVERNOR  WILLIAM  GRASON. 

Governor  William  Grason,  twenty-eighth  Governor  (1838-1841), 
was  born  1786,  in  Queen  Anne  County.  He  was  a  Federalist  of  the 
old  school  and  in  after  years  a  Jackson  Democrat.  He  served  in  both 
branches  of  the  State  Legislature.  In  1836,  he  became  the  leader  of 
his  party  in  the  contest  for  a  new  Constitution  and  became  the  first 
Governor  under  it  by  a  very  small  majority  of  300.  The  excitement 
of  the  close  campaign  was  followed  by  a  riot  in  Baltimore  as  the 
returns  came  in.  Governor  Grason  was  known  as  the  "  Queen  Anne 
Farmer." 


274      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

During  his  administration,  President  Louis  McLane  announced 
the  completion  of  the  Washington  Branch  of  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio 
Railroad  and  the  advance  of  the  main  stem  to  Harper's  Ferry. 

The  Chesapeake  and  Ohio  Canal,  by  its  report  of  1839,  showed 
progress  as  far  as  Cumberland.  Three  millions  of  dollars  had  already 
been  expended,  for  which  the  company  had  receipted.  "The  State 
retained  $500,000  to  pay  premium.  The  work  had  proved  to  be  a 
stupendous  one  and  the  company  asked  for  a  modification  of  the  law 
of  1836,  in  order  to  render  certificates  more  available.  When  com- 
pleted the  Canal  ought  to  pay  six  per  cent,  dividends,  but  with  the 
present  appropriation,  the  company  can  not  keep  work  going  more 
than  six  months." 

Governor  Grason  sent  in  the  first  report  of  the  President  and 
Directors  of  the  Eastern  Shore  Railroad,  showing  receipts  $40,000 
above  expenses,  he  also  sent  in  a  report  on  abolishing  imprisonment 
for  debt,  and  the  report  of  the  Elk  Ridge  Railroad  and  its  progress. 

His  message  upon  the  pecuniary  embarrassment  of  the  State  and 
his  criticism  of  the  condition  of  the  State's  internal  improvements 
was  considered  the  most  important  measure  of  his  administration. 

The  public  debt  was  shown  to  be  $14,587,689.  The  annual 
revenues  were  barely  sufficient  to  pay  the  ordinary  expenses  of 
$250,000.  We  cannot  expect  the  companies  now  in  process  of  organi- 
zation to  pay  their  annual  interest  promptly. 

In  1836  the  State  had  authorized  a  loan  of  $8,000,000  from 
foreign  sources.  The  money  was  plentiful  and  securities  in  demand. 
This  has  changed  and  it  is  impossible  to  sell  our  bonds.  The  Northern 
Central  Railroad  owes  the  State  $200,000;  the  Eastern  Shore  road 
owes  $100,000  more.  These  debts  are  due  to  the  wild  spirit  of 
internal  improvements.  We  must  resort  to  rigid  economy  and 
increase  our  revenues  by  a  moderate  tax  on  real  and  personal  estate. 
Two  hundred  thousand  dollars  in  addition  to  our  present  revenue 
might  be  enough  for  present  emergencies. 

Governor  Grason  also  urged  a  change  in  the  Constitution  to 
limit  the  power  of  the  Legislature.  "Ours  is  a  Constitution  for  the 
judiciary  and  executive,  but  not  for  the  Legislature." 

His  communication  to  President  Van  Buren  urging  the  United 
States  Government  to  deliver  its  stock  in  the  Canal  Company  to  the 
State  upon  its  assumption  of  the  working  expenses,  was  an  able  pre- 
sentation of  the  State's  demand.  Governor  Grason's  message  led  to 
widespread  discussion.  It  was  answered  by  President  Louis 
McLane,  of  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad,  and  the  Governor 
issued  an  additional  message  maintaining  his  position,  that  the 
wholesale  hypothecation  of  the  State's  bonds  was  disastrous  to  the 
State  and  must  cause  trouble. 

In  1840,  Governor  Grason  showed  the  debt  had  increased  over 
one  million  more  whilst  the  deficits  for  the  year  were  over  a  half  a 
million.  His  message  pointed  out  the  hopeless  prospect  of  realizing 
from  the  Government  anything  like  enough  to  pay  the  State's 
indebtedness. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      275 

He  reported  the  Susquehanna  road,  Elk  Ridge  road  and  the 
Tidewater  Canal,  all  finished,  whilst  there  was  nothing  to  be  reported 
from  the  Chesapeake  and  Ohio  Canal. 

Francis  Thomas,  President  of  the  Canal,  later  made  an  exhaustive 
report  in  which  he  showed  it  had  already  expended  $7,000,000,  and 
when  completed  it  would  amount  to  $9,500,000.  The  Legislature 
thereupon  insituted  an  investigation,  on  the  ground  that  its  manage- 
ment was  in  the  interest  of  the  political  ambition  of  its  President. 

The  campaign  of  1840,  known  as  the  "  hard  cider  and  log  cabin 
campaign,"  resulted  in  the  election  of  William  Henry  Harrison. 
His  sudden  death  and  the  desertion  of  John  Tyler  ruined  the  Whig 
party,  and  in  1841  Francis  Thomas,  Democrat,  was  made  Governor. 

Governor  Grason  was  afterward  the  nominee  for  the  United 
States  Senate,  but  was  defeated  by  the  Senate  refusing  to  go  into  an 
election.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Constitutional  Convention  of 
1851. 

His  wife  was  a  daughter  of  Dr.  James  SulHvane,  of  Dorchester. 
Their  son  Richard,  born  1820,  was  educated  at  St.  John's  College 
and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1841.  He  removed  to  Elkton, 
where  he  was  appointed  deputy  attorney,  then  State's  attorney. 
Removing  to  Towson,  in  1864,  he  was  elected  Judge,  but  was  unseated 
by  the  Legislature.  Under  the  Constitution  of  1867  he  was  elected 
Chief  Judge  for  fifteen  years. 

In  1847,  he  married  the  eldest  daughter  of  General  Charles 
Sterrett  Ridgely,  of  Howard  County.  He  died  of  paralysis  at  Towson, 
in  1893.    His  father  died  in  1868. 

^'  GOVERNOR  FRANCIS  THOMAS. 

Governor  Francis  Thomas,  twenty-ninth  Governor  of  Maryland 
(1841-44),  was  born  in  Frederick  County,  February  3,  1799.  He 
was  the  son  of  Francis  and  Grace  (Metcalfe)  Thomas,  who  was  the 
son  of  William  Thomas,  son  of  Hugh  Thomas  and  Betty  Edwards, 
of  "Montevue."  This  progenitor  descended  from  the  family  of 
Bishop  William  Thomas,  of  Caermarthen,  who  came  from  Wales  to 
Pennsylvania. 

Francis  Thomas,  seventh  child  of  his  father,  entered  St.  John's 
College,  Annapohs,  as  early  as  1811,  but  as  there  were  no  classes 
from  that  date  until  1822  was  not  graduated.  He  was  admitted  to 
the  bar  in  1820  and  settled  in  Frankville,  Maryland,  to  practice. 

In  1822,  1827  and  1829  he  represented  his  county  in  the  Legisla- 
ture, rising  to  Speaker  the  last  year. 

In  1831  he  was  sent  to  Congress.  He  became  President  of  the 
Chesapeake  and  Ohio  Canal  in  1839-40.  When  a  candidate  for  Gov- 
ernor he  fought  a  duel  with  William  Price.  He  was  the  second 
Governor  under  the  provision  making  elections  triennial. 

Governor  Thomas  in  his  message  of  1842,  made  this  stirring 
review:  "The  public  debt,  destroying  public  credit,  has  been  our 
burden.  Met  by  your  predecessors  in  a  public  spirit,  the  means  are 
yet  inadequate,  a  decided  course  is  needed. 


276      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

"Baltimore  City  had  borrowed  by  legislative  act  nearly 
$5,000,000,  to  pay  the  interest  on  which  reqiiires  $270,000.  The 
pubhc  debt  of  the  State  is  $15,000,000.  The  assessment  of  $196,000,- 
000  requires  a  tax  of  seventy-one  cents  in  Baltimore  and  thirty-one 
cents  in  the  State. 

"The  general  stagnation  of  business,  depression  in  prices  and 
diminution  of  currency  all  tend  to  urge  the  necessity  for  an  exten- 
sion of  time  for  paying  taxes.  The  expediency  of  using  the  bank 
stock  of  the  State  by  transferring  it  to  creditors  is  entitled  to 
consideration. 

"  In  1830  the  State  had  means  for  all  its  uses,  but  within  seven 
years  our  State  debt  has  been  increased  $12,000,000  for  internal 
improvements,  and  now  our  State  of  10,000  square  miles  and  a  popula- 
tion of  318,194  is  staggering  with  an  undertaking  that  would  test 
the  resources  of  Great  Britain.  Now  we  must  either  repudiate  or 
submit  to  the  tax-gather. 

"The  'glorious  19'  of  Van  Buren's  forces  accomplished  good 
results,  modifying  the  difficulties  of  a  minority  ruling  the  majority, 
but  even  now  the  majority  of  the  Senate  can  repudiate  any  means 
for  expressing  the  will  of  the  two-third  majority  of  the  State.  The 
House  and  Senate  cannot  concur  in  the  appointment  of  officers 
controlling  the  works  of  improvement.  The  Governor  cannot 
appoint. 

"The  power  of  these  companies  is  great  in  its  effect  upon  the 
destiny  of  the  State.  Their  influence  has  created  this  debt.  If  the 
minority  are  to  direct  and  the  majority  to  pay  there  will  always 
be  difficulty. 

"The  distributive  share  of  the  proceeds  of  the  public  lands  is 
hereby  made  known.  Maryland  gets  $15,000,  but  the  Government 
claims  against  the  State  amount  to  $20,000.  So  the  United  States 
retains  the  whole  amount  and  lays  claim  to  the  balance.  This  cry 
that  the  United  States  would  pay  our  State  demands  has  been  our 
delusion.  High  tariff  and  land  sales  were  the  delusions  that  we 
thought  would  enrich  us.  These  have  made  oiu-debt,  and  the  result 
is  a  fund  not  sufficient  to  pay  the  interest  on  bonds  held  in  trust  for 
the  Indians. 

"  The  land  bill  is  as  fruitless  as  ashes.  Our  public  debt,  if  paid, 
must  be  taken  out  of  our  own  resources.  Whoever  thinks  otherwise 
follows  a  phantom.  Reject  any  idea  that  the  National  Government 
can  be  made  to  pay  State  debts. 

"  The  Chesapeake  and  Ohio  Canal  reports  are  not  encouraging. 
It  ought  to  be  completed.  The  people  are  willing  to  be  taxed  if  any 
results  of  returns  for  outlays  are  visible.  To  do  so  we  must  amend 
the  Charter  and  grant  preferred  stock  to  an  amount  sufficient  to 
complete  the  work  and  to  pay  the  debts." 

Governor  Thomas  also  opposed  the  payment  of  unnecessary 
salaries  to  Judges.  He  charged  that  $500,000  had  been  wasted.  In 
his  message  of  1843  he  announced  "  that  our  debt  had  been  increased 
to  over  $16,000,000.     Our  ordinary  revenues  are  only  sufficient  to 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      277 

pay  ordinary  expenses.  The  assessment  has  been  reduced  from 
$196,000,000  to  $178,000,000.  With  interest  upon  the  debt  nearly 
$2,000,000  in  arrears,  the  tax  system,  now  imperfect,  must  be 
improved.  Even  the  executive  office  has  been  curtailed  and  no 
power  is  given  to  it  to  help  the  State.  Pohtical  ascendency  has  done 
it.  The  executive  can  only  suggest.  There  is  a  feeling  of  discontent 
by  taxpayers.  It  is  unjust  to  make  a  portion  pay  the  burden.  The 
Legislature  must  see  that  the  law  is  vigorously  carried  out.  The 
sale  of  stock  for  internal  improvements  would  not  pay  our  debt. 
The  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad  has  not  been  a  burden.  It  has  paid 
its  interest.  The  general  Government  needs  all  the  land  sales.  We 
must  remodel  our  tax  laws;  exchange  the  State's  stocks  in  public 
works  and  use  its  bank  stock  for  debts.    This  will  give  relief." 

His  third  message,  in  1844,  still  pointed  out  a  failure  to  meet 
the  State's  obligations.  The  Baltimore  and  Susquehanna  Railroad 
was  not  able  to  pay  its  interest. 

The  repudiation  talk  induced  by  Governor  Thomas'  message 
became  a  campaign  cry  in  the  next  election  and  resulted  in  a  Whig 
victory.    Governor  Thomas  G.  Pratt  succeeded. 

When  an  attempt  was  made  in  1867  to  take  the  Naval  Academy 
from  Annapolis  because  of  the  atmosphere  of  disloyalty,  Governor 
Thomas,  then  in  Congress,  joined  Congressman  Philips  in  an  eloquent 
defence,  which  resulted  in  retaining  the  Academy,  but  when  the 
people  were  trying  to  adopt  the  Constitution  of  1867  he  asked 
Congress  to  give  Maryland  a  Republican  form  of  Government, 
declaring,  "  I  deny  utterly  here,  and  have  denied  it  for  thirty  years, 
that  there  is  a  Repubhcan  form  of  government  in  Maryland." 

Congress  failed  to  follow  the  Governor's  advice,  though  many 
petitions  were  sent  in  from  the  Federal  men  of  Maryland.  The 
Constitution  of  1867  was  secured,  notwithstanding  all  opposition. 
Governor  Thomas  was  fearless,  active  and  eloquent  and  his  influence 
in  every  sphere  was  remarkable.  For  a  long  time  he  lived  the  recluse 
life  of  his  mountain  home. 

In  1850,  as  a  Delegate  to  the  State  Convention,  he  exerted  his 
influence  to  reduce  the  power  of  the  slave-holding  counties  of  the 
State. 

On  the  outbreak  of  the  Civil  War  Governor  Thomas  raised  a 
volunteer  regiment  of  3,000  men  for  the  Union  Army,  but  refused 
to  command  it.  In  1866  he  was  a  Delegate  to  the  Loyalist  Conven- 
tion at  Philadelphia  and  became  a  strong  opposer  of  the  policy  of 
President  Johnson.  In  April,  1870,  Governor  Thomas  was  appointed 
Collector  of  Internal  Revenue  for  the  Cumberland  District  and 
served  until  March  25,  1872,  when  he  was  appointed  Minister  to 
Peru. 

He  resigned  this  position  in  1875,  and  returned  to  his  farm, 
"Montevue,"  near  Frankville.  While  walking  on  a  railroad  track 
he  was  killed  by  a  locomotive,  January  22,  1876. 

Governor  Thomas  was  married  to  Sallie  Campbell  Preston, 
daughter  of  Governor  James  McDowell,  of  Virginia. 


278      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

GOVERNOR  THOMAS  GEORGE  PRATT. 

Governor  Thomas  George  Pratt,  thirtieth  Governor  of  Maryland 
(1844-47),  was  born  in  Georgetown,  D.  C,  February  18,  1804.  He 
was  a  descendant  of  Thomas  Pratt,  of  Prince  George,  by  his  wife, 
Eleanor  Magriider.  Educated  in  his  native  town,  he  studied  law, 
was  admitted  to  the  bar  and  began  his  career  in  Upper  Marlborough, 
in  1823.  In  1832-35  he  was  sent  to  the  House  of  Delegates;  in  1836 
was  a  member  of  the  electoral  college  and  President  of  the  last 
Executive  Council  of  Maryland.     In  1838  he  was  State  Senator. 

After  a  fierce  contest  on  the  Whig  ticket,  opposed  to  repudiation, 
he  was  elected  Governor.  During  his  administration  he  succeeded 
in  restoring  the  public  credit. 

Governor  Pratt  began  his  administration  by  calling  on  the 
Legislature  for  power  to  enforce  the  laws  already  existing  for  the 
collection  of  taxes.  "From  the  abundant  harvest  now  at  hand,  now 
is  the  time  to  pay  our  debts;"  proposed  the  renewment  of  revenue 
laws;  called  for  a  new  assessment  and  the  collection  of  all  bank 
direct  taxes  amounting  to  $1,000,000;  proposed  an  improvement  of 
the  indirect  tax  law,  especially  in  executor's  and  administrator's 
accounts;  advised  to  return  to  the  stamp  tax;  urged  the  extension 
of  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad  to  Ohio.  In  his  message  of  1847 
his  resumption  law  had  brightened  prospects  and  reduced  the  debt; 
referred  to  the  good  office  of  Mr.  George  Peabody  in  enabling  the 
State  to  borrow  and  sell  in  foreign  markets;  condemned  the  course 
of  the  Governor  of  Pennsylvania  in  his  action  against  the  fugitive 
slave  law. 

The  Legislature  of  1845  passed  the  biennial  Assembly  of  the 
Legislature,  thereby  saving  $30,000  yearly;  referred  the  question 
of  a  new  Constitution  back  to  the  people;  reduced  the  salaries  of 
Governor  and  Legislature  and  his  Secretary  of  State;  abolished  the 
Chancery  Court.  In  the  election  of  1846  the  Government  and 
Legislature  were  sustained  by  large  Whig  gains. 

During  1846,  Governor  Pratt  in  his  Proclamation,  calling  for 
two  regiments  of  infantry  for  the  Mexican  War,  said:  "The  sons  of 
Maryland  have  always  obeyed  the  call  of  patriotism  and  duty,  and 
will  now  sustain  the  honor  of  the  State." 

Volunteers  came  from  every  section,  but  only  one  battalion  of 
Maryland  and  District  of  Columbia  Volunteers  was  at  first  selected, 
but  companies  of  volunteers  in  nearly  every  county  awaited  the  call 
and  many  went  as  independent  companies.  During  the  war  Maryland 
supplied  2,500  men.  He  afterward  resumed  the  practice  of  law  in 
Annapolis. 

In  1849  he  was  elected  United  States  Senator  to  fill  the  unex- 
pired term  of  Reverdy  Johnson,  resigned,  and  was  elected  for  a  full 
term  in  1850.  Upon  the  expiration  of  his  Senatorial  term  he  settled 
in  Baltimore,  becoming  an  ardent  advocate  for  secession.  For  a 
few  weeks  he  has  confined  in  Fortress  Monroe.     In  1864   he  was  a 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      279 

Delegate  to  the  Chicago  National  Democratic  Convention  and  to  the 
Philadelphia  Union  Convention  in  1866.  In  1837  he  was  a  presi- 
dential elector  on  the  Van  Biiren  ticket. 

Governor  Pratt  married  Adelaide,  daughter  of  Governor  Joseph 
Kent.  He  bought  the  Governor  Ogle  residence  in  AnnapoHs,  corner 
of  King  George  and  College  Avenues.  He  was  a  man  of  distinguished 
presence  and  an  able  speaker.  He  died  in  Baltimore,  November  9, 
1869,  when  the  following  resolutions  were  passed  by  the  bar  of 
Baltimore: 

"Resolved,  That  we  remember  with  gratitude  and  with  pride 
the  noble  disregard  of  personal  popularity  to  the  discharge  of  his 
duty  which  marked  the  official  course  of  our  lamented  brother,  when, 
as  executive  of  Maryland,  he  linked  his  name  forever  with  the  re-estab- 
lishment of  good  faith  of  the  State."  He  was  with  Clay,  Webster  and 
Calhoun  in  the  Senate  and  his  arguments  in  the  Maryland  reports 
showed  his  ability.  His  funeral  services  were  held  from  St.  Anne's 
Church,  Annapolis,  November  11,  1869.  Governor  Oden  Bowie  and 
Staff  were  in  attendance.  George  Peabody,  whose  aid  was  combined 
with  Governor  Pratt  in  redeeming  the  State,  died  on  November  4th 
of  that  year.     Governor  Pratt  left  a  widow  and  several  children. 

S/^  GOVERNOR  PHILIP  FRANCIS  THOMAS. 

Philip  Francis  Thomas,  thirty-first  Governor  of  Maryland 
(1848-51),  was  born  at  Easton,  September  24,  1810.  He  was  the 
oldest  son  of  Dr.  Tristram  and  Maria  (Francis)  Thomas  and  grandson 
of  Tristram  and  Elizabeth  (Martin),  and  great-grandson  of  Tristram 
Ann  (Coursey)  Thomas,  daughter  of  Christopher.  His  mother  was 
the  daughter  of  Philip  and  Henrietta  Maria  (Goldsborough)  Francis, 
granddaughter  of  Tench  Francis,  Attorney-General  of  Pennsylvania, 
in  1744,  a  descendant  of  Philip  Francis,  Mayor  of  Plymouth,  in  1644, 
and  father  of  Sir  Philip  Francis,  the  reputed  author  of  "  Letters  of 
Junius." 

Philip  Francis  Thomas  was  educated  at  Easton  Academy  and 
Dickinson  College;  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1831;  was  a  member 
of  the  Legislature  in  1838  and  subsequently  was  in  Congress  in  1839- 
41;   was  elected  Governor  in  1848. 

On  January  3,  1848,  he  laid  before  the  Legislature  a  message  of 
great  force  on  constitutional  reforms  and  retrenchments;  he  was  in 
favor  of  the  resumption  of  the  payment  of  State  debts;  urged  the 
effective  collections  of  taxes;  favored  a  call  for  a  Constitutional 
Convention;  started  a  "Reform  Party,"  which  re-elected  him.  His 
next  message  showed  marked  financial  improvements;  removed  the 
doubts  and  restored  confidence  by  meeting  all  obligations;  and 
predicted  by  strict  adherence  to  his  suggestions  the  entire  debt  would 
be  extinguished  in  thirteen  years.  His  closing  words  were,  in  urging 
a  new  Constitution,  "unless  the  Legislature  yields  to  the  wishes  of 
the  people,  the  sanction  of  the  Legislature  will  no  longer  be  invoked." 
This  warning  resulted  in  a  "reform  bill,"  which  passed  both  Houses. 
It  called  a  Convention;    adopted  a  Constitution  which  went  into 


V 


280      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

effect  in  1851.  By  that  Constitution  Baltimore  City  gained  five 
members  and  the  counties  lost  seventeen  members  in  the  Assembly. 
Governor  Thomas  was  elected  Comptroller  of  the  Treasury  in  1851; 
resigned  it  in  1853,  and  was  made  Collector  of  the  Port  in  Baltimore 
under  President  Pierce;  was  offered,  but  declined,  the  Governorship 
of  Eutah;  was  appointed  by  President  Buchanan  Secretary  of  the 
Treasury,  which  he  resigned  in  1861;  was  again  elected  a  member  of 
the  Legislature,  during  which  session  he  was  elected  United  States 
Senator,  but  was  refused  admission  because  of  alleged  disloyalty. 
In  1868  he  was  elected  to  Congress,  where  he  became  an  able  repre- 
sentative. He  was  afterward  returned  to  the  Maryland  Legislature 
and  became  Chairman  of  Ways  and  Means. 

Governor  Thomas  married,  first,  Sarah  Maria  Kerr;  second, 
Mrs.  Clintonia  (Wright)  May.  His  daughters  are  Mrs.  Sophia  Kerr 
Trippe,  Mrs.  Maria  Thomas  Markoe  and  Mrs.  Nannie  Bell  Hems- 
ley.  Governor  Thomas  died  in  1890.  Mrs.  Clintonia  Thomas 
has  outlived  all  of  her  sisters  and  brothers. 

GOVERNOR  ENOCH  LOUIS  LOWE. 

Governor  Enoch  Louis  Lowe,  thirty-second  Governor  (1850-8), 
was  born  1820.  He  was  the  son  of  Lieutenant  Bradley  S.  A.  Lowe, 
a  graduate  of  West  Point  who  served  through  the  War  of  1812.  His 
mother  was  Adelaide  Bellumeau  de  la  Vincendine.  Their  residence 
was  the  "Hermitage,"  a  fine  estate  of  1,000  acres,  about  three  miles 
from  Frederick,  on  the  Monocacy  River.  There  Enoch  Louis  Lowe 
was  born.  Lieutenant  Lowe  was  the  the  son  of  Lloyd  M.  and  Rebecca 
(Maccubbin)  Lowe  and  grandson  of  Michael  and  Ann  (Magruder) 
Lowe,  all  of  Western  Maryland. 

Enoch  Louis  Lowe  was  educated  at  Frederick  and  from  there 
went  to  a  college  near  Dublin  and  then  to  the  Roman  Catholic  College 
of  Stonyhurst,  Lancashire,  England,  where  he  remained  until  1839. 
He  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1842.  In  1845  he  was  elected  to  the 
House  of  Delegates,  becoming  an  able  and  eloquent  champion  of 
democracy  in  Western  Maryland.  In  1850,  whilst  quite  young,  he  was 
elected  Governor.  A  new  Constitution  was  about  to  be  adopted. 
Governor  Lowe  suggested  the  following  amendment:  First,  a  revision 
of  the  election  laws;  second,  a  revision  of  the  criminal  code  in  regard 
to  the  inequality  of  punishment,  pardons  and  remissions  of  fines; 
Third,  a  modification  of  the  tax  on  civil  commissions;  ascertainment 
of  the  number  and  salaries  of  deputy  clerks,  and  an  entirely  new 
system  of  issuing  licenses. 

In  his  message  Governor  Lowe  recorded:  "  It  gives  me  profound 
pleasure  to  announce  the  completion  of  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio 
Railroad  to  the  Ohio  River.  This  opens  up  wealth  for  our  own  State. 
The  Washington  branch  has  paid  a  capitation  tax  of  $59,826.29  and 
the  road  is  highly  satisfactory,  but  misfortune  seems  to  attend  the 
Chesapeake  and  Ohio  Canal.  A  year  ago  I  announced  its  completion, 
but  the  Spring  tide  has  crippled  it,  causing  a  loss  of  $100,000,  but  its 
revenue,  $250,000,  will  enable  it  to  pay  interest  in  1854.     The  Sus- 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      281 

quehanna  Railroad  is  advancing  and  with  the  exception  of  the  canal, 
the  internal  works  are  helping  the  State,  and  the  finances  are  now  on 
the  advance.  From  direct  and  indirect  revenue  laws  and  internal 
improvements  the  State  will  realize  $1,500,000.  The  new  assessment 
will  probably  reach  $50,000,000."  Upon  that  basis  he  urged  a 
reduction  in  taxation.  "The  sinking  fund  has  been  pronounced  a 
fallacy,  but  taxpayers  pay  no  more  to  the  sinking  fund  upon  bonds 
of  the  State  purchased  for  and  held  by  the  State  for  its  use,  than  they 
would  if  held  by  pubhc  creditors.  The  debt  is  still  over  $15,000,000, 
less  the  sinking  fund.  Said  my  predecessor,  *  It  has  been  my  duty, 
owing  to  pressing  debt,  to  seize  upon  every  expedient  by  which  money 
could  be  placed  in  the  treasury.  It  will,  I  trust,  be  my  successor's 
pleasure  to  recommend  the  repeal  of  those  taxes  which  have  proved 
most  oppressive  to  the  people  of  the  State.'  Following  that  wish,  I 
recommended  last  year  a  reduction  of  twenty  per  cent,  on  direct 
tax.     I  recommend  now  a  reduction  of  forty  per  cent." 

His  message  of  1854  urged  that  the  execution  of  criminals  should 
be  private.  The  canal  was  then  in  good  condition.  The  Baltimore 
and  Ohio  Railroad  was  leading  to  success.  The  Washington  branch 
had  increased  its  revenues  and  the  sinking  fund  had  reached 
$3,000,000.  He  had  underestimated  the  increase  of  the  new  assess- 
ment when  placed  at  $50,000,000.  The  gross  amount  of  taxable 
bases  had  reached  $261,243,660,  an  increase  of  $68,421,081.  The 
reduction  in  taxation  has  given  tangible  relief. 

In  1857  the  position  of  minister  extraordinary  and  plenipoten- 
tiary to  China  was  offered  him,  which  he  declined. 

He  was  a  Democratic  elector  in  1860  and  voted  for  John  Cabel 
Breckinridge  for  President.  He  was  present  when  Governor  T. 
Holliday  Hicks  gave  his  assent  to  the  burning  of  the  bridges  leading 
to  Baltimore,  in  order  that  Northern  soldiers  might  not  be  able  to 
pass  through  the  city.  In  1861  Governor  Lowe  went  south  and 
remained  during  the  war.  In  1866  he  removed  to  Brooklyn,  New 
York,  and  practiced  law,  bearing  with  him  letters  from  distin- 
guished Southern  leaders. 

He  married  May  29,  1844,  Esther  Winder  Polk,  daughter  of 
Colonel  James  and  Anna  Maria  (Stuart)  Polk,  of  Princess  Anne,  son 
of  Judge  Wilham  Polk,  of  the  Court  of  Appeals,  a  cousin  of  President 
Polk.  Mrs.  Anna  Maria  Stuart  Polk  was  the  daughter  of  Dr. 
Alexander  Stuart,  of  Delaware. 

Governor  Lowe  had  eleven  children:  Mrs.  Austin  Jenkins  and 
her  sister,  Mrs.  Jenkins,  are  daughters;  his  sons  are  in  New  York, 
Chicago  and  San  Francisco. 

Governor  Lowe  died  August  27,  1892. 

^  GOVERNOR  THOMAS  WATKINS  LIGON. 

Governor  Thomas  Watkins  Ligon,  thirty-third  Governor  (1853-7), 
was  born  in  Prince  Edward  County,  Virginia,  1812.  He  was  the  son 
of  Thomas  D.  Ligon,  whose  wife  was  a  daughter  of  Colonel  Thomas 
Watkins,  an  officer  under  General  Washington,  in  command  of  a 


282      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

troop  of  horse  raised  by  his  own  exertions  in  Prince  Edward  County, 
and  took  an  active  part  in  the  battle  of  Guilford,  North  Carolina. 
His  ancestors  on  both  sides  were  in  the  Revolution.  His  father  died 
young,  leaving  Thomas  Watkins  and  James  in  the  care  of  their 
mother. 

At  an  early  age  Thomas  Watkins  Ligon  was  sent  to  Hampden 
Sidney  College,  where  he  was  graduated,  and  completed  his  education 
at  the  University  of  Virginia,  after  which  he  entered  Yale  Law  School. 
Returning  to  Virginia,  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar  and  removed  to 
Baltimore. 

In  1840  he  married  and  removed  to  Howard  County,  near  Ellicott 
City. 

In  1843  he  was  elected  to  the  Legislature,  after  which  he  was 
sent  to  the  Thirtieth  Congress. 

In  1853  he  was  elected  Governor  to  succeed  Governor  Lowe 
under  the  Constitution  of  1851  for  four  years.  He  was  a  Democrat 
and  was  confronted  by  a  Whig  Legislature  in  the  height  of  the  Know- 
Nothing  excitement.  He  sent  a  message  to  the  Assembly  in  which 
he  took  a  strong  stand  against  secret  poHtical  parties,  declaring,  "  All 
history  warns  us  that  a  war  of  races  or  sects  is  the  deadliest  curse  that 
can  afflict  a  nation."  In  that  message  he  asked  for  a  committee  to 
investigate  the  prevailing  reports  then  circulating  concerning  the 
secret  movements  of  that  party.  The  Legislature  assented  to  his 
request  and  a  committee  was  ordered.  The  majority  of  that  com- 
mittee refused  to  enter  into  an  investigation,  but  contented  them- 
selves in  attacking  the  Democratic  party,  on  which  the  Governor 
stood.  The  minority  report  sustained  the  Governor's  charge.  The 
State  was  soon  convinced  of  the  correctness  of  the  Governor's  charges 
in  the  succeeding  election  for  the  Mayor  of  Baltimore. 

Failing  to  get  the  co-operation  of  Mayor  Swann  in  correcting 
the  abuses  then  prevalent.  Governor  Ligon  issued  a  special  message 
to  the  Legislature  in  which  he  deplored  the  partisan  discord  in  the 
election  in  Baltimore. 

At  the  next  election  the  Democratic  candidates  withdrew  and 
the  judges  of  the  elections  resigned.  Voters  appealed  to  Governor 
Ligon  for  protection.  He  went  to  Baltimore  and  commenced  a 
correspondence  with  Mayor  Swann,  and  failing  to  get  the  Mayor's 
consent  to  co-operate,  issued  orders  to  call  out  the  militia  to  protect 
voters ;  at  the  instigation  of  the  citizens  of  Baltimore,  a  compromise 
was  effected;  he  revoked  the  call,  but  the  result  of  the  election  was 
so  unsatisfactory  and  abuses  were  so  palpable,  that  Governor  Ligon 
in  his  next  message  made  a  vigorous  attack  upon  the  returned 
members.  The  House  refused  to  receive  his  message,  but  the 
Governor's  forcible  arguments  and  earnest  efforts  started  a  reform 
movement  in  Baltimore  which  ended  in  a  conservative  victory. 

Retiring  from  office  he  resumed  farming;  took  interest  in 
advancing  institutions  of  learning  and  religion.  He  was  president 
of  the  Patapsco  Female  Institute  and  member  of  several  charitable 
institutions. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Hpwabd  Counties.      283 

He  died  at  his  home,  near  Ellicott  City,  January  12,  1881,  in 
the  seventieth  year  of  his  age. 

Governor  Ligon  married,  first,  Salhe  Dorsey  (of  Charles  Worth- 
ington  Dorsey).  Issue,  Mrs.  Dorsey  Thompson.  His  second  wife 
was  Mary  Tolley  Dorsey,  sister  of  his  first  wife.  Two  daughters  and 
one  son,  Charles  W.  Dorsey  Ligon,  survive. 

'/  GOVERNOR  THOMAS  HOLLIDAY  HICKS. 

Thomas  Holliday  Hicks,  thirty-fourth  Governor  and  United 
States  Senator  of  Maryland  (1857-61),  was  born  September  2,  1798, 
about  four  miles  from  East  New  Market,  Dorchester  County,  Mary- 
land. He  was  the  son  of  Henry  and  Mary  (Sewell)  Hicks,  who  was 
a  relative  of  General  Sewell,  of  the  American  army.  They  were 
members  of  the  Methodist  Church  and  had  eleven  children. 

Thomas  Holliday  Hicks  attended  school  near  home.  In  1824 
he  w^as  elected  Sheriff.  Purchasing  a  farm  on  the  Choptank,  from 
there  he  was  sent  to  the  Legislature. 

In  1833  he  removed  to  Vienna  and  became  a  merchant,  running 
a  line  of  boats  to  Baltimore. 

In  1836  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the  State  Electoral  College 
which  then  had  the  election  of  the  State  Senate,  Governor  and  his 
Council.  The  election  was  a  deadlock,  lasting  two  months,  and 
resulted  in  considerable  disorder.  Whilst  at  Annapolis  Mr.  Hicks 
was  elected  a  member  of  the  Legislature  which  made  the  Senate 
and  Council  elective. 

In  1837  he  was  a  member  of  the  Governor's  Council,  and  in  1838 
Governor  Veazey  appointed  him  Register  of  Wills  in  Dorchester 
County,  which  he  held  by  reappointment  until  1851,  when  that  office 
was  made  elective. 

In  1857  Mr.  Hicks  was  nominated  and  elected  Governor  by  the 
American  Party,  from  January,  1858,  for  four  years.  His  adminis- 
tration covered  a  momentous  period.  His  efforts  to  stop  the  move- 
ment of  government  troops  through  Maryland  were  not  effectual. 
Both  President  Lincoln  and  Secretary  Seward  endorsed  General 
Butler  in  his  plan  of  route. 

Governor  Hicks  visited  President  Lincoln  to  sue  for  sick  Con- 
federate soldiers  and  was  in  correspondence  with  Southern  Governors 
with  a  hope  of  averting  conflict,  but  when  the  war  had  begun  he  gave 
the  Union  cause  his  untiring  support  in  encouraging  enlistment  and 
supporting  the  soldiers  of  the  army.  The  city  of  AnnapoHs  being 
full  of  soldiers.  Governor  Hicks  called  the  Legislature  to  assemble  at 
Frederick  "  to  take  such  measures  as  in  their  wisdom  they  may  deem 
fit  to  maintain  peace."  That  Legislature  tried  to  discharge  the 
duties  devolved  upon  it;  by  a  vote  of  fifty-three  to  twelve  the  House 
declared  against  secession,  yet,  later,  every  member  was  arrested  by 
military  orders  and  thrown  into  prison. 

At  the  close  of  his  term,  in  1863,  he  was  appointed  United  States 
Senator  by  Governor  Bradford,  to  fill  the  imexpired  term  of  James 
Alfred  Pierce,  and  his  selection  was  ratified  at  the  next  annual  elec- 


284      Founders  of  A>ine  <;\.rundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

tion.  He  had  now  become  a  thorough  RepubUcan  and  a  member 
of  the  Union  League.  Although  a  slave-holder,  he  voted  for  the 
Constitution  of  1864. 

Having,  in  1863,  sprained  a  leg,  erysipelas  set  in,  which  neces- 
sitated amputation.  In  the  height  of  his  notoriety  he  died  from 
apoplexy,  February,  1865. 

Governor  Hicks  was  married  three  times.  His  first  wife  was 
Ann  Thompson,  of  Dorchester;  second,  Leah  Raleigh,  of  Dorchester; 
third,  Mrs.  Mary  Wilcox,  widow  of  his  cousin,  Henry  Wilcox. 

B.  Chaplain  Hicks,  of  Baltimore,  is  the  only  living  son,  A  full 
length  portrait  of  Governor  Hicks  hangs  in  the  State  House. 

V  GOVERNOR  AUGUSTUS  WILLIAMSON  BRADFORD. 

Governor  Augustus  Williamson  Bradford,  thirty-fifth  in  line 
(1861-5),  was  born  in  Belair  in  1806.  His  parents  were  Samuel  and 
Jane  (Bond)  Bradford,  both  of  English  parentage.  He  was  well 
educated  and  became  a  surveyor.  He  studied  law  with  Otho  Scott 
and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1827.  Removing  to  Baltimore,  he 
became  a  prominent  member  of  the  Whig  party.  He  was  an  elector 
for  Clay  in  1844,  but  took  no  part  in  poHtics  until  1860. 

In  1835  he  married  EUzabeth  Kell,  daughter  of  Judge  Kell,  of 
Baltimore. 

Governor  Pratt  appointed  Mr.  Bradford  Clerk  of  Baltimore 
Coimty,  and  Governor  Hicks  made  him  a  Peace  Commissioner  in 
1861.  That  same  year,  upon  the  first  ballot,  Mr.  Bradford  was 
nominated  as  the  Union  candidate  for  Governor.  He  was  elected 
by  31,000  majority  and  was  inaugurated  January,  1862. 

A  full  history  of  his  administration  covers  the  history  of  the  war. 
He  was  willing  to  aid  the  government,  but  he  resented  any  military 
interference  in  State  elections,  yet  he  presided  at  a  large  meeting  in 
which  the  President  was  authorized  to  require  the  oath  of  allegiance, 
and  at  that  meeting  a  resolution  was  passed  which  General  Wood 
declared  "would  send  20,000  men  to  swell  the  army  of  Jefferson 
Davis." 

The  invasion  of  General  Lee's  army  in  1862  urged  Governor 
Bradford  to  issue  a  call  for  the  citizens  to  enroll  themselves  in  military 
companies. 

In  1863,  on  a  second  invasion,  the  Governor  called  for  10,000 
volunteers,  and  armed  all  who  volunteered;  many  aged  men  offered 
themselves  for  home  defence.    Three  regiments  were  formed  in  1863. 

After  the  battle  of  Gettysburg,  Governor  Bradford  appointed  a 
day  of  thanksgiving. 

f  On  hearing  a  rumor  that  troops  were  to  be  sent  to  the  polls  in 
1863,  Governor  Bradford  wrote  to  the  President,  protesting  against 
it.  The  President's  reply  was  not  satisfactory  and  the  Governor 
issued  a  proclamation  in  opposition  to  the  orders  of  General  Schenck. 
The  latter  issued  orders  to  the  papers  not  to  publish  the  Governor's 
proclamation.  In  his  message  to  the  Legislature  upon  Schenck's 
action  the  Governor  declared,   "  A  part  of  the  army  was,  on  election 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      285 

day,  engaged  in  stifling  the  freedom  of  election  in  a  faithful  State, 
intimidating  its  sworn  officers  and  obstructing  the  usual  channels 
between  them  and  their  executive." 

At  the  January  session  of  the  Legislature  the  Governor  reviewed 
the  question  of  negro  emancipation  and  called  a  convention  to  meet 
in  Annapolis  in  1864.  This  convention  abolished  slavery  and  issued 
the  Constitution  of  1864,  which  disfranchised  all  who  sympathized 
with  the  rebellion.  That  Constitution  granted  the  right  of  soldiers 
in  the  field  to  vote,  and  agents  were  sent  to  the  army  to  receive  the 
vote.  Knowing  that  this  innovation  would  be  fought  out  in  the 
courts,  the  Governor  was  particularly  explicit  in  his  instructions. 
Sixty  points  of  exceptions  were  taken  to  the  courts  and  the  arguments 
consuiped  two  days.  The  Governor's  opinion  was  an  able  presenta- 
tion of  the  case.  The  new  Constitution  went  into  effect  in  November, 
1864,  and  slavery  went  down  by  the  people's  vote,  some  time  before 
it  had  disappeared  elsewhere  by  military  orders. 

In  1864,  upon  a  Confederate  raid,  the  Governor's  house  was 
burned,  in  retahation,  it  was  claimed,  for  the  burning  of  Governor 
Letcher's  mansion  in  Virginia.     He  never  received  any  pay  for  its  loss. 

Governor  Bradford's  attachment  to  the  Union  was  expressed  in 
these  words:  "The  loyal  men  of  Maryland  have  no  parties  to  sustain, 
no  parties  to  create,  no  parties  to  revive;  but  the  Union  and  its 
preservation  is  their  only  object."  He  attended  the  convention  of 
loyal  Governors  in  1862. 

On  the  inauguration  of  his  successor,  Thomas  Swann,  Governor 
Bradford  spoke  thus:  "This  Maryland,  this  loyal.  Union-loving, 
freedom-loving  Maryland,  this  upward-bound,  expanding,  regener- 
ated Maryland — this  is,  indeed,  our  Maryland."  Applause  and 
thanks  were  tendered  him  for  his  able  administration. 

In  1867  Governor  Bradford  was  appointed  by  President  Johnson 
Surveyor  of  the  Port  of  Baltimore.  He  held  it  until  1869,  when 
President  Grant  removed  him,  but  offered  in  its  stead  the  position  of 
Appraiser  in  Baltimore.  This  was  declined  on  the  ground  that  it 
required  mercantile  training,  which  he  did  not  possess. 

Governor  Bradford  was  a  member  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
Church.  Two  of  his  sons,  Messrs.  Augustus  W.  Bradford  and  Thomas 
Kell  Bradford,  are  in  business  in  Baltimore. 

GOVERNOR  THOMAS  SWANN. 

Thomas  Swann,  thirty-sixth  Governor  of  Maryland  (1865-67)) 
was  born  about  the  close  of  the  first  decade  of  the  nineteenth  century 
in  Alexandria.  His  father,  Thomas  Swann,  was  a  prominent  lawyer 
of  Washington,  and,  under  President  Monroe,  was  United  States 
Attorney  for  the  District  of  Columbia.  His  mother  was  Jane  Byrd, 
daughter  of  William  Byrd,  Receiver-General  of  the  Colonies. 

Thomas  Swann  was  educated  at  the  LTniversity  of  Virginia  and 
became  a  law  student  under  his  father.  He  was  afterward  sent  by 
President  Jackson  as  secretary  of  the  United  States  Commission  to 
Naples. 


286      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

In  1834  Mr.  Swann  married  Miss  Sherlock,  daughter  of  an 
English  gentleman  and  granddaughter  of  Robert  Gilmor.  His 
daughter  Louisa,  married  Ferdinand  Latrobe,  seven  times  Mayor  of 
Baltimore. 

Mr.  Swann,  upon  removing  to  Baltimore,  became  a  director  in 
the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad  in  1845,  and  two  years  afterward 
became  president,  succeeding  Louis  McLane.  He  remained  in  that 
office  until  the  completion  of  the  road  to  Ohio  in  1853,  and  received 
the  thanks  of  the  directors  for  the  ability  of  his  administration.  Mr. 
Swann  next  was  president  of  the  Northwestern  Railroad  from 
Baltimore  to  Cincinnati. 

In  1856  he  was  elected  Mayor  of  Baltimore  and  was  re-elected 
in  1858.  During  his  term  he  introduced  the  fire  department,  the 
police  and  fire-alarm  telegraph,  the  water-works  system,  the  street 
car  system  and  Druid  Hill  Park. 

In  1861  he  took  strong  ground  against  the  war.  In  1863  he  was 
elected  president  of  the  First  National  Bank.  In  1864  was  elected 
by  the  Union  party  Governor  of  Maryland,  and  in  January,  1865, 
succeeded  Governor  Bradford.  He  supported  President  Lincoln  and 
was  with  President  Johnson  in  his  measures  of  reconstruction.  As 
war  measures  were  no  longer  needed.  Governor  Swann  began  to 
remove  the  disfranchisements  of  1864. 

When  the  Police  Commission  of  Baltimore  refused  to  allow  a 
single  Democratic  judge,  Governor  Swann  removed  the  Board  and 
appointed  others.  Judge  Bond,  under  a  bench  warrant,  caused  the 
arrest  of  these;  Judge  Bartol,  under  the  "  habeas  corpus, "  decided 
their  appointment  was  legal.  This  decision  brought  on  a  riot  in 
Baltimore.  Governor  Swann  called  on  President  for  aid.  General 
Grant  was  sent  over  to  investigate;  he  reported  against  Federal 
interference.  At  the  next  election,  without  a  single  Democratic 
judge  of  election,  the  Democrats  triumphed,  and  at  the  next  session 
of  the  Legislature  Governor  Swann  was  elected  United  States  Senator. 
Under  the  Constitution  of  1864,  Lieutenant-Governor  C.  C.  Cox 
would  have  succeeded  to  the  Governor's  chair;  he  still  held  to  the 
faith  of  the  party  which  elected  him.  Governor  Swann  determined 
to  dechne  the  senatorship  and  hold  his  chair  in  order  to  aid  the 
Democrats  in  securing  a  new  Constitution.  For  this  act  he  was 
applauded  by  the  people,  but  denounced  by  his  party.  Governor 
Swann  urged  a  convention  for  the  revision  of  the  Constitution. 

Hon.  Phihp  Francis  Thomas  introduced  in  the  Legislature  a  bill 
to  restore  full  citizenship  in  the  State  of  Maryland.  This  secured 
the  revised  Constitution  of  1867. 

In  his  final  message  of  1868,  Governor  Swann  reported  "the 
finances  of  the  State  prosperous;  the  Baltimore  &  Ohio  Railroad 
was  making  large  returns;  schools  were  doing  good  work;  he  opposed 
negro  equality  or  manhood  suffrage;  he  was  not  in  favor  of  political 
rights  for  the  negroes;  Congress  has  no  right  to  make  a  Constitution 
for  Maryland;  he  objected  to  the  suspension  of  the  'habeas  corpus'; 
all  of  these  have  led  to  anarchy."  He  called  attention  to  the  comple- 
tion of  the  new  Government  house  for  the  residence  of  the  executive. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties,      287 

At  the  expiration  of  his  term,  Governor  Oden  Bowie,  Chairman 
of  the  Democratic  Committee,  in  the  campaign  which  secured  the 
enfranchised  Constitution  of  1867,  was  elected  Governor. 

In  1868  Governor  Swann  was  honored  by  the  Democratic 
Party  as  their  representative  in  Congress.  He  was  repeatedly 
re-elected  until  1876.  He  became  Chairman  of  the  Committee  upon 
Foreign  Relations  and  exerted  a  marked  influence  in  Congress. 

Governor  Swann  married,  as  his  second  wife,  Josephine  Ward, 
the  belle  of  New  York,  daughter  of  General  Aaron  Ward,  of  Sing 
Sing.  Her  first  husband  was  Hon.  John  R.  Thompson,  United 
States  Senator  of  New  Jersey.  She  was  a  popular  leader  of  society 
and  entertained  largely  in  her  Newport  cottage.  Governor  Swann 
died  near  Leesburg,  Virginia,  July  24,  1893. 

GOVERNOR  ODEN  BOWIE. 

Oden  Bowie,  thirty-seventh  Governor  of  Maryland  (1867-72), 
was  born  at  "  Fairview,"  Prince  George  County,  Maryland,  November 
10,  1826.  He  was  the  son  of  Hon.  William  Ducket  and  Eliza  (Oden) 
Bowie,  the  former  of  Scotch  and  the  latter  of  English  descent,  both 
early  settlers.  Colonel  Bowie  represented  Prince  George  Coimty  in 
the  House  of  Delegates  and  for  six  years  was  in  the  Senate  of  Mary- 
land. Governor  Bowie  lost  his  mother  when  nine  years  of  age  and 
was  sent  to  St.  John's  College  and  St.  Mary's  College  and  graduated 
there  in  1845. 

The  next  year  he  enlisted  in  the  Mexican  War  in  Colonel  William 
H.  Watson's  Battalion  of  Maryland  and  District  of  Columbia  Volun- 
teers. Colonel  Watson  was  killed  at  Monterey,  dying  in  the  arms 
of  Lieutenant  Bowie,  who  was  the  only  officer  left  with  Colonel 
Watson.  He  was  afterward  appointed  Senior  Captain  of  the  Voltigeur 
regiment,  one  of  the  ten  regular  regiments  of  the  army.  This  office 
he  resigned  because  of  illness,  brought  on  by  the  climate.  In  1847, 
at  the  age  of  twenty-one  years,  he  was  elected  to  the  House  of 
Delegates,  returning  several  times.  In  1860  he  was  elected  President 
of  the  Baltimore  and  Potomac  Railroad,  in  which  he  won  national 
reputation  for  his  ability.  In  1864  he  was  a  candidate  for  Lieutenant- 
Governor,  but  defeated  by  C.  C.  Cox.  In  1867,  he  represented  Prince 
George  County  in  the  Senate  of  Maryland  and  in  November,  1867, 
was  elected  Governor,  but  in  consequence  of  the  provision  of  the  new 
Constitution,  which  permitted  Governor  Swann  to  serve  his  four 
years'  term,  Governor  Bowie  did  not  take  his  seat  until  January,  1869. 

Governor  Bowie's  message  of  1870  reads:  "Two  years  of  health, 
peace,  contentment  and  average  prosperity  have  been  granted  us. 
Our  debt  is  now  $12,000,000;  our  bonds  and  stocks  amount  to 
$7,000,000;  our  balance  due  is  $5,000,000,  offset  by  bonds  of  internal 
improvement  amounting  to  $19,000,000." 

He  urged  that  our  school  system  be  placed  under  a  board  of 
commissioners;  he  favored  immigration  and  urged  bureaus  of  agri- 
culture and  mechanic  arts  be  established;  he  urged  that  support  be 
given  to  the  Western  Maryland  Railroad ;  that  a  general  road  system 


288      Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties. 

be  organized — and  asked  that  our  war  claims  against  the  Government 
be  collected.  The  Legislature  was  entirely  of  one  political  party. 
His  message  of  1872  again  urged  immigration  as  a  necessity  under 
our  present  system  of  labor. 

During  his  term  the  difficulty  with  Virginia  upon  the  limit  of 
oyster  beds  was  settled.  He  collected  the  arrearages  of  the  Baltimore 
and  Ohio  Railroad  and  secured  the  payment  of  the  large  loans  Maryland 
had  made  to  the  Government.  He  also  secured  a  large  quantity  of 
arms  from  the  Federal  Government.  Governor  Bowie  reported  a 
wonderful  improvement  in  the  Chesapeake  and  Ohio  Canal. 

At  a  dinner  given  at  Saratoga  Governor  Bowie  established  the 
celebrated  "  Dinner  Stakes  and  Breakfast  Stakes,"  which  made  the 
Maryland  Jockey  Club  a  noted  organization.  He  bought  the  Pimlico 
race  course.  Introduced  from  his  own  estate  the  Southdown  and 
Cotswold  sheep  into  Druid  Hill  Park. 

In  October,  1873,  Governor  Bowie  was  elected  President  of  the 
Baltimore  City  Passenger  Railway,  in  which  he  paid  off  the  park  tax 
of  $100,000  and  advanced  the  value  of  the  stock  from  fifteen  per  cent, 
to  thirty-five  per  cent.  As  President  of  the  Maryland  Jockey  Club, 
he  brought  it  to  its  highest  success. 

Governor  Bowie  married  Miss  Alice  Carter,  daughter  of  Charles 
H.  Carter,  a  descendant  of  "King  Carter,"  of  Virginia,  sister  of  the 
distinguished  attorney,  Bernard  Carter.  Her  mother  was  Rosalie 
Eugenie  Calvert,  of  Riversdale.  Governor  Bowie  died  at  "  Fairview" 
and  his  remains  were  interred  there.  He  left  seven  living  children. 
Mrs,  Bowie  died  recently  and  lies  beside  her  distinguished  husband. 

GOVERNOR  WILLIAM  PINKNEY  WHYTE. 

Governor  William  Pinkney  Whyte,  who  has  just  celebrated*;his 
eighty-second  birthday  and  who  has  been  singularly  honored  by  all 
who  know  him,  is  the  son  of  Joseph  Whyte  and  the  grandson  of  Dr. 
John  Campbell  Whyte,  an  Irish  patriot,  member  of  the  United 
Irishmen  of  1798,  who  refused  to  be  reconciled  to  the  union  of  his 
country  with  England  and  resolved  to  make  his  future  home  in 
Baltimore. 

Governor  Whyte's  mother  was  Isabella  Pinkney,  the  handsome 
and  intelligent  daughter  of  Hon.  William  Pinkney,  the  nation's  orator 
and  statesman.  Starting  life  in  the  banking  house  of  George  Peabody, 
later  a  law  student  of  Harvard,  as  early  as  1847  he  was  sent  to  the 
Legislature  of  Maryland  and  in  1851  was  a  candidate  for  Congress. 
This  young  Democrat  could  not  overcome  the  Whig  majority  of  his 
district,  but  he  became  Comptroller  of  the  Treasury  in  1853.  In 
1857  he  was  once  more  defeated  for  Congress.  In  1868  he  became  a 
delegate  to  the  National  Democratic  Convention. 

Upon  the  appointment  of  Senator  Reverdy  Johnson  as  Minister 
to  Great  Britain,  Mr.  Whyte  succeeded  to  the  vacancy  in  the  United 
States  Senate.  In  1871  he  was  elected  Governor,  but  resigned  when 
elected  to  the  Senate. 


Founders  of  Anne  Arundel  and  Howard  Counties.      289 

At  the  expiration  of  his  Senatorial  career  he  returned  to  Balti- 
more and  became  Mayor  of  the  city  in  1882,  and  was  called,  in  1888, 
to  the  office  of  Attorney-General  of  the  State.  He  was  upon  the 
committee  to  select  a  site  for  the  Naval  Observatory  and  one  of  its 
delegates  to  the  Conference  of  American  Republics,  in  1889. 

Still  later,  called  from  his  large  legal  practice,  he  once  more 
yielded  to  the  demand  to  serve  his  city  as  City  Solicitor,  under  IMaj^or 
Hayes.  One  of  the  busiest  of  men,  this  octogenarian  still  stands  erect, 
dignified,  handsome,  the  idolized  statesman  and  genial  friend  of  all. 

In  1847  Mr.  Whyte  married  Louisa  D.,  daughter  of  Mr.  Levi 
Hollinsworth.  His  second  wife  was  Mrs.  Raleigh  Thomas,  daughter 
of  William  McDonald. 

Two  of  Governor  Whytes's  speeches  in  the  United  States 
Senate  crown  him  a  statesman  of  the  highest  order.  The  first  was 
his  almost  solitary  stand  against  the  fierce  pohtical  clamor  against 
President  Johnson,  in  which  he  defeated  the  combined  opposition, 
and  his  still  more  celebrated  objection  to  the  desertion  of  Samuel 
Tilden,  by  the  Democrats  yielding  to  the  adoption  of  the  Electoral 
Commission.  In  that  speech  he  pointed  out  prophetically  the  very 
result  which  happened,  viz:  that  eight  Repubhcans  would  outvote 
seven  Democrats. 

His  warning  was  unheeded  and  the  elected  Democrat  had  to 
make  place  for  the  defeated  Republican.  Governor  Whyte's  devotion 
to  his  religion,  to  his  friends  and  to  the  needy  make  him  our  idol. 

A  biography  of  Mr  Whyte  would  be  a  history  of  Maryland  for 
that  period,  so  closely  has  his  life  been  bound  up  with  State  affairs. 

The  long  and  brilliant  political  career  of  Mr.  Whyte  began  in 
1847,  when  he  was  elected  to  the  House  of  Delegates  of  the  General 
Assembly  of  Maryland.  He  has  always  been  a  Democrat  and  has 
made  many  public  speeches  in  behalf  of  the  political  principles  in 
which  he  believes.  He  was  the  representative  of  the  Democratic 
party  in  his  first  political  office  and  also  in  the  positions  of  Comp- 
troller of  the  Treasury,  Governor  of  the  State,  United  States  Senator, 
Mayor  of  Baltimore  and  Attorney-General. 

In  1899,  Mr.  Whyte  was  chairman  of  the  commission  which 
drafted  the  present  City  Charter,  and  in  1900  he  became  City 
Solicitor.  In  March,  1903,  he  resigned  as  City  SoHcitor,  and  since 
then  he  has  devoted  himself  to  his  private  business,  which  requires 
all  his  time. 

While  City  SoHcitor  Mr.  Whyte  demonstrated  his  capacity  for 
work.  The  enormous  legal  business  of  the  city  passed  through  his 
hands  at  that  time,  but  he  gave  every  detail  close  attention  and  care. 

While  in  Congress  he  drafted  the  laws  under  which  the  District 
of  Columbia  is  governed. 

•^  GOVERNOR   JAMES  BLACK  GROOME. 

Governor  James  Black  Groom